Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills - English — Grade 2


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110.13.b.1

Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how English is written and printed. Students are expected to distinguish features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of first word, ending punctuation, commas, quotation marks).

110.13.b.10

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to distinguish between fiction and nonfiction.

110.13.b.11

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to recognize that some words and phrases have literal and non-literal meanings (e.g., take steps).

110.13.b.12

Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning.

110.13.b.13

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and explain the author's purpose in writing the text.

110.13.b.14

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about and understand expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.14.A

identify the main idea in a text and distinguish it from the topic;

110.13.b.14.B

locate the facts that are clearly stated in a text;

110.13.b.14.C

describe the order of events or ideas in a text; and

110.13.b.14.D

use text features (e.g., table of contents, index, headings) to locate specific information in text.

110.13.b.15

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Text. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.15.A

follow written multi-step directions; and

110.13.b.15.B

use common graphic features to assist in the interpretation of text (e.g., captions, illustrations).

110.13.b.16

Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.16.A

recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment);

110.13.b.16.B

describe techniques used to create media messages (e.g., sound, graphics); and

110.13.b.16.C

identify various written conventions for using digital media (e.g., e-mail, website, video game).

110.13.b.17

Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.17.A

plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key ideas);

110.13.b.17.B

develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;

110.13.b.17.C

revise drafts by adding or deleting words, phrases, or sentences;

110.13.b.17.D

edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

110.13.b.17.E

publish and share writing with others.

110.13.b.18

Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.18.A

write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; and

110.13.b.18.B

write short poems that convey sensory details.

110.13.b.19

Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.19.A

write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student;

110.13.b.19.B

write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

110.13.b.19.C

write brief comments on literary or informational texts.

110.13.b.2

Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.2.A

decode multisyllabic words in context and independent of context by applying common letter-sound correspondences including:

110.13.b.2.A.1

single letters (consonants and vowels);

110.13.b.2.A.2

consonant blends (e.g., thr, spl);

110.13.b.2.A.3

consonant digraphs (e.g., ng, ck, ph); and

110.13.b.2.A.4

vowel digraphs (e.g., ie, ue, ew) and diphthongs (e.g., oi, ou);

110.13.b.2.B

use common syllabication patterns to decode words including:

110.13.b.2.B.1

closed syllable (CVC) (e.g., pic-nic, mon-ster);

110.13.b.2.B.2

open syllable (CV) (e.g., ti-ger);

110.13.b.2.B.3

final stable syllable (e.g., sta-tion, tum-ble);

110.13.b.2.B.4

vowel-consonant-silent "e" words (VCe) (e.g., in-vite, cape);

110.13.b.2.B.5

r-controlled vowels (e.g., per-fect, cor-ner); and

110.13.b.2.B.6

vowel digraphs and diphthongs (e.g., boy-hood, oat-meal);

110.13.b.2.C

decode words by applying knowledge of common spelling patterns (e.g., -ight, -ant);

110.13.b.2.D

read words with common prefixes (e.g., un-, dis-) and suffixes (e.g., -ly, -less, -ful);

110.13.b.2.E

identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Mr., Ave.);

110.13.b.2.F

identify and read contractions (e.g., haven't, it's);

110.13.b.2.G

identify and read at least 300 high-frequency words from a commonly used list; and

110.13.b.2.H

monitor accuracy of decoding.

110.13.b.20

Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive statements about issues that are important to the student for the appropriate audience in the school, home, or local community.

110.13.b.21

Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.21.A

understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

110.13.b.21.A.1

verbs (past, present, and future);

110.13.b.21.A.2

nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

110.13.b.21.A.3

adjectives (e.g., descriptive: old, wonderful; articles: a, an, the);

110.13.b.21.A.4

adverbs (e.g., time: before, next; manner: carefully, beautifully);

110.13.b.21.A.5

prepositions and prepositional phrases;

110.13.b.21.A.6

pronouns (e.g., he, him); and

110.13.b.21.A.7

time-order transition words;

110.13.b.21.B

use complete sentences with correct subject-verb agreement; and

110.13.b.21.C

distinguish among declarative and interrogative sentences.

110.13.b.22

Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.22.A

write legibly leaving appropriate margins for readability;

110.13.b.22.B.2

months and days of the week; and

110.13.b.22.B.3

the salutation and closing of a letter; and

110.13.b.22.C

recognize and use punctuation marks, including:

110.13.b.22.C.1

ending punctuation in sentences;

110.13.b.22.C.2

apostrophes and contractions; and

110.13.b.22.C.3

apostrophes and possessives.

110.13.b.23

Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.23.A

use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters to construct unknown words;

110.13.b.23.B

spell words with common orthographic patterns and rules:

110.13.b.23.B.1

complex consonants (e.g., hard and soft c and g, ck);

110.13.b.23.B.3

long vowels (e.g., VCe-hope); and

110.13.b.23.B.4

vowel digraphs (e.g., oo-book, fool, ee-feet), diphthongs (e.g., ou-out, ow-cow, oi-coil, oy-toy);

110.13.b.23.C

spell high-frequency words from a commonly used list;

110.13.b.23.D

spell base words with inflectional endings (e.g., -ing and -ed);

110.13.b.23.E

spell simple contractions (e.g., isn't, aren't, can't); and

110.13.b.23.F

use resources to find correct spellings.

110.13.b.24

Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.24.A

generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about one or two of the topics; and

110.13.b.24.B

decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.

110.13.b.25

Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.25.A

gather evidence from available sources (natural and personal) as well as from interviews with local experts;

110.13.b.25.B

use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index, headings) in age-appropriate reference works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and

110.13.b.25.C

record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs, diagrams).

110.13.b.26

Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to revise the topic as a result of answers to initial research questions.

110.13.b.27

Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to create a visual display or dramatization to convey the results of the research.

110.13.b.28

Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.28.A

listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and

110.13.b.28.B

follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

110.13.b.29

Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.

110.13.b.3

Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.3.A

use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing) to make and confirm predictions;

110.13.b.3.B

ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and

110.13.b.3.C

establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

110.13.b.30

Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions.

110.13.b.4

Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.

110.13.b.5

Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.5.A

use prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of words (e.g., allow/disallow);

110.13.b.5.B

use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

110.13.b.5.C

identify and use common words that are opposite (antonyms) or similar (synonyms) in meaning; and

110.13.b.5.D

alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or a glossary to find words.

110.13.b.6

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.6.A

identify moral lessons as themes in well-known fables, legends, myths, or stories; and

110.13.b.6.B

compare different versions of the same story in traditional and contemporary folktales with respect to their characters, settings, and plot.

110.13.b.7

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe how rhyme, rhythm, and repetition interact to create images in poetry.

110.13.b.8

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the elements of dialogue and use them in informal plays.

110.13.b.9

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.13.b.9.A

describe similarities and differences in the plots and settings of several works by the same author; and

110.13.b.9.B

describe main characters in works of fiction, including their traits, motivations, and feelings.

2.1.A

Listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses.

2.1.B

Follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions.

2.1.C

Share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language.

2.1.D

Work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others.

2.1.E

Develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

2.10.A

Discuss the author's purpose for writing text.

2.10.B

Discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose.

2.10.C

Discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes.

2.10.D

Discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language.

2.10.E

Identify the use of first or third person in a text.

2.10.F

Identify and explain the use of repetition.

2.11.A

Plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming.

2.11.B

Develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:

2.11.B.i

Organizing with structure.

2.11.B.ii

Developing an idea with specific and relevant details.

2.11.C

Revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences.

2.11.D

Edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

2.11.D.i

Complete sentences with subject-verb agreement.

2.11.D.ii

Past, present, and future verb tense.

2.11.D.iii

Singular, plural, common, and proper nouns.

2.11.D.iv

Adjectives, including articles.

2.11.D.ix

Capitalization of months, days of the week, and the salutation and conclusion of a letter.

2.11.D.v

Adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey place.

2.11.D.vi

Prepositions and prepositional phrases.

2.11.D.vii

Pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases.

2.11.D.viii

Coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects and predicates.

2.11.D.x

End punctuation, apostrophes in contractions, and commas with items in a series and in dates.

2.11.D.xi

Correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words.

2.11.E

Publish and share writing.

2.12.A

Compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry.

2.12.B

Compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports.

2.12.C

Compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

2.13.A

Generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance.

2.13.B

Develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance.

2.13.C

Identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions.

2.13.D

Identify primary and secondary sources.

2.13.E

Demonstrate understanding of information gathered.

2.13.F

Cite sources appropriately.

2.13.G

Use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

2.2.A

Demonstrate phonological awareness by:

2.2.A.i

Producing a series of rhyming words.

2.2.A.ii

Distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable and multi-syllable words.

2.2.A.iii

Recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed.

2.2.A.iv

Manipulating phonemes within base words.

2.2.B

Demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

2.2.B.i

Decoding words with short, long, or variant vowels, trigraphs, and blends.

2.2.B.ii

Decoding words with silent letters such as knife and gnat.

2.2.B.iii

Decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables.

2.2.B.iv

Decoding compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations.

2.2.B.v

Decoding words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV.

2.2.B.vi

Decoding words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and est.

2.2.B.vii

Identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list.

2.2.C

Demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

2.2.C.i

Spelling one-syllable and multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables.

2.2.C.ii

Spelling words with silent letters such as knife and gnat.

2.2.C.iii

Spelling compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations.

2.2.C.iv

Spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns.

2.2.C.v

Spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns, including words with double consonants in the middle of the word.

2.2.C.vi

Spelling words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and est.

2.2.D

Alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words.

2.2.E

Develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

2.3.A

Use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words.

2.3.B

Use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.

2.3.C

Identify the meaning of and use words with affixes un-, re-, -ly, -er, and -est (comparative and superlative), and -ion/tion/sion.

2.3.D

Identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context.

2.6.A

Establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts.

2.6.B

Generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information.

2.6.C

Make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures.

2.6.D

Create mental images to deepen understanding.

2.6.E

Make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society.

2.6.F

Make inferences and use evidence to support understanding.

2.6.G

Evaluate details read to determine key ideas.

2.6.H

Synthesize information to create new understanding.

2.6.I

Monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

2.7.A

Describe personal connections to a variety of sources.

2.7.B

Write brief comments on literary or informational texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text.

2.7.C

Use text evidence to support an appropriate response.

2.7.D

Retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order.

2.7.E

Interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing.

2.7.F

Respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

2.8.A

Discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance.

2.8.B

Describe the main character's (characters') internal and external traits.

2.8.C

Describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the conflict, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently.

2.8.D

Describe the importance of the setting.

2.9.A

Demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales.

2.9.B

Explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems.

2.9.C

Discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, and setting.

2.9.D

Recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

2.9.D.i

The central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance.

2.9.D.ii

Features and graphics to locate and gain information.

2.9.D.iii

Organizational patterns such as chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly.

2.9.E

Recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including:

2.9.E.i

Stating what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

2.9.E.ii

Distinguishing facts from opinion.

2.9.F

Recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.