Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills - English — Grade 6


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110.18.b.1

Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

110.18.b.10

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.10.A

summarize the main ideas and supporting details in text, demonstrating an understanding that a summary does not include opinions;

110.18.b.10.B

explain whether facts included in an argument are used for or against an issue;

110.18.b.10.C

explain how different organizational patterns (e.g., proposition-and-support, problem-and-solution) develop the main idea and the author's viewpoint; and

110.18.b.10.D

synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.

110.18.b.11

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.11.A

compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence; and

110.18.b.11.B

identify simply faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts.

110.18.b.12

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.12.A

follow multi-tasked instructions to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

110.18.b.12.B

interpret factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

110.18.b.13

Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.13.A

explain messages conveyed in various forms of media;

110.18.b.13.B

recognize how various techniques influence viewers' emotions;

110.18.b.13.C

critique persuasive techniques (e.g., testimonials, bandwagon appeal) used in media messages; and

110.18.b.13.D

analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.

110.18.b.14

Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.14.A

plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

110.18.b.14.B

develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

110.18.b.14.C

revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

110.18.b.14.D

edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

110.18.b.14.E

revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

110.18.b.15

Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.15.A

write imaginative stories that include:

110.18.b.15.A.1

a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;

110.18.b.15.A.2

a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and

110.18.b.15.A.3

dialogue that develops the story; and

110.18.b.15.B.1

poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);

110.18.b.15.B.2

figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and

110.18.b.15.B.3

graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).

110.18.b.16

Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.

110.18.b.17

Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.17.A

create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about a topic that:

110.18.b.17.A.1

present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

110.18.b.17.A.2

guide and inform the reader's understanding of key ideas and evidence;

110.18.b.17.A.3

include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and

110.18.b.17.A.4

use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;

110.18.b.17.B

write informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing);

110.18.b.17.C

write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding; and

110.18.b.17.D

produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.

110.18.b.18

Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.

110.18.b.19

Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.19.A

use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

110.18.b.19.A.1

verbs (irregular verbs and active and passive voice);

110.18.b.19.A.2

non-count nouns (e.g., rice, paper);

110.18.b.19.A.3

predicate adjectives (She is intelligent.) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., many, more, most);

110.18.b.19.A.4

conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed);

110.18.b.19.A.5

prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

110.18.b.19.A.6

indefinite pronouns (e.g., all, both, nothing, anything);

110.18.b.19.A.7

subordinating conjunctions (e.g., while, because, although, if); and

110.18.b.19.A.8

transitional words and phrases that demonstrate an understanding of the function of the transition related to the organization of the writing (e.g., on the contrary, in addition to);

110.18.b.19.B

differentiate between the active and passive voice and know how to use them both; and

110.18.b.19.C

use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

110.18.b.2

Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.2.A

determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

110.18.b.2.B

use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;

110.18.b.2.C

complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part (e.g., ink:pen as page: ____ or pen:ink as book: _____);

110.18.b.2.D

explain the meaning of foreign words and phrases commonly used in written English (e.g., RSVP, que sera sera); and

110.18.b.2.E

use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

110.18.b.20

Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.20.A.2

initials and acronyms; and

110.18.b.20.B

recognize and use punctuation marks including:

110.18.b.20.B.1

commas in compound sentences;

110.18.b.20.B.2

proper punctuation and spacing for quotations; and

110.18.b.20.B.3

parentheses, brackets, and ellipses (to indicate omissions and interruptions or incomplete statements); and

110.18.b.20.C

use proper mechanics including italics and underlining for titles of books.

110.18.b.21

Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.21.A

differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., its, it's; affect, effect);

110.18.b.21.B

use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and

110.18.b.21.C

know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.

110.18.b.22

Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.22.A

brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and

110.18.b.22.B

generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.

110.18.b.23

Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.23.A

follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;

110.18.b.23.B

differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

110.18.b.23.C

record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;

110.18.b.23.D

identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and

110.18.b.23.E

differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

110.18.b.24

Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.24.A

refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and

110.18.b.24.B

evaluate the relevance and reliability of sources for the research.

110.18.b.25

Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

110.18.b.25.A

compiles important information from multiple sources;

110.18.b.25.B

develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;

110.18.b.25.C

presents the findings in a consistent format; and

110.18.b.25.D

uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).

110.18.b.26

Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.26.A

listen to and interpret a speaker's messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker's purpose and perspective;

110.18.b.26.B

follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and

110.18.b.26.C

paraphrase the major ideas and supporting evidence in formal and informal presentations.

110.18.b.27

Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give an organized presentation with a specific point of view, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

110.18.b.28

Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

110.18.b.3

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.3.A

infer the implicit theme of a work of fiction, distinguishing theme from the topic;

110.18.b.3.B

analyze the function of stylistic elements (e.g., magic helper, rule of three) in traditional and classical literature from various cultures; and

110.18.b.3.C

compare and contrast the historical and cultural settings of two literary works.

110.18.b.4

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how figurative language (e.g., personification, metaphors, similes, hyperbole) contributes to the meaning of a poem.

110.18.b.5

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the similarities and differences in the setting, characters, and plot of a play and those in a film based upon the same story line.

110.18.b.6

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.18.b.6.A

summarize the elements of plot development (e.g., rising action, turning point, climax, falling action, denouement) in various works of fiction;

110.18.b.6.B

recognize dialect and conversational voice and explain how authors use dialect to convey character; and

110.18.b.6.C

describe different forms of point-of-view, including first- and third-person.

110.18.b.7

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography.

110.18.b.8

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how authors create meaning through stylistic elements and figurative language emphasizing the use of personification, hyperbole, and refrains.

110.18.b.9

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to compare and contrast the stated or implied purposes of different authors writing on the same topic

110.25.b.1

The student uses a variety of word recognition strategies. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.1.A

apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, language structure, and context to recognize words; and

110.25.b.1.B

use dictionaries, glossaries, and other sources to confirm pronunciations and meanings of unfamiliar words.

110.25.b.2

The student acquires vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.2.A

expand vocabulary by reading, viewing, listening, and discussing;

110.25.b.2.B

determine word meaning by using context;

110.25.b.2.C

use spelling, prefixes and suffixes, roots, and word origins to understand meanings;

110.25.b.2.D

use reference aids such as a glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine meanings and pronunciations; and

110.25.b.2.E

identify analogies, homonyms, synonyms/antonyms, and connotation/denotation.

110.25.b.3

The student reads with fluency and understanding in increasingly demanding texts. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.3.A

read silently for a variety of purposes with comprehension for sustained periods of time;

110.25.b.3.B

adjust reading rate based on purposes for reading; and

110.25.b.3.C

read orally at a rate that enables comprehension.

110.25.b.4

The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.4.A

use prior knowledge and experience to comprehend;

110.25.b.4.B

determine purpose for reading;

110.25.b.4.C

self-monitor reading and adjust when confusion occurs by rereading, using resources, and questioning;

110.25.b.4.D

summarize texts by identifying main ideas and relevant details;

110.25.b.4.E

make inferences such as drawing conclusions and making generalizations or predictions, supporting them with prior experiences and textual evidence;

110.25.b.4.F

analyze and use both narrative and expository text structures: sequence, description, problem/solution, compare/contrast, and cause/effect;

110.25.b.4.G

make connections and find patterns, similarities, and differences across texts;

110.25.b.4.H

construct visual images based on text descriptions;

110.25.b.4.I

determine important ideas from texts and oral presentations;

110.25.b.4.J

manage text by using practices such as previewing, highlighting, making marginal notes, notetaking, outlining, and journaling; and

110.25.b.4.K

use questioning to enhance comprehension before, during, and after reading.

110.25.b.5

The student reads texts to find information on self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.5.A

generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions;

110.25.b.5.B

locate appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources;

110.25.b.5.C

organize and record new information in systematic ways to develop notes, charts, and graphic organizers;

110.25.b.5.D

communicate information gained from reading;

110.25.b.5.E

use compiled information and knowledge to raise additional unanswered questions; and

110.25.b.5.F

use text organizers such as overviews, headings, and graphic features to locate and categorize information.

110.25.b.6

The student reads for different purposes in varied sources, both narrative and expository. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.6.A

read to enjoy, to complete a task, to gather information, to be informed, to solve problems, to answer questions, to analyze, to interpret, and to evaluate;

110.25.b.6.B

read sources such as literature, diaries, journals, textbooks, maps, newspapers, letters, speeches, memoranda, electronic texts, and technical documents; and

110.25.b.6.C

understand and interpret visual representations.

110.25.b.7

The student formulates and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.7.A

respond actively to texts in both aesthetic and critical ways;

110.25.b.7.B

respond to text through discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual representation; and

110.25.b.7.C

support responses by using prior knowledge and experience and/or citing textual evidence which may consist of a direct quotation, paraphrase, or specific synopsis.

110.25.b.8

The student reads critically to evaluate texts in order to determine the credibility of sources. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.8.A

evaluate the credibility of informational sources and their relevance for assigned and self-selected topics;

110.25.b.8.B

evaluate how a writer's motivation, stance, or position may affect text credibility, structure, or tone;

110.25.b.8.C

analyze aspects of text, such as patterns of organization and choice of language, for persuasive effect;

110.25.b.8.D

recognize modes of reasoning, such as induction and deduction; and

110.25.b.8.E

recognize logical and illogical arguments in text.

110.25.b.9

The student reads to increase knowledge of own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.9.A

compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences; and

110.25.b.9.B

recognize and discuss literary themes and connections that cross cultures.

110.26.b.1

Understanding the communication process. The student demonstrates a knowledge of communication. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.1.A

recognize and explain the importance of communication in social, academic, civic, and professional roles;

110.26.b.1.B

identify the related components of the communication process;

110.26.b.1.C

identify standards of making communication choices considering appropriateness for self, listener, occasion, and task;

110.26.b.1.D

identify characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using oral language appropriately;

110.26.b.1.E

identify the importance of using appropriate nonverbal communication;

110.26.b.1.F

identify and explain the components of listening process;

110.26.b.1.G

identify the kinds of listening and analyze skills related to each type;

110.26.b.1.H

analyze how perception of self and others affects communication;

110.26.b.1.I

analyze and develop techniques and strategies for building self-confidence and reducing communication apprehension;

110.26.b.1.J

identify and explain factors that influence communication decisions such as knowledge, attitudes, and culture; and

110.26.b.1.K

explain the importance of assuming responsibility for communication decisions.

110.26.b.2

Expressing and responding. The student develops skills for expressing and responding appropriately in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.2.A

use appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication skills in interpersonal situations;

110.26.b.2.B

use reflective empathic listening skills to respond appropriately in interpersonal situations;

110.26.b.2.C

explain the importance of using tact, courtesy, and assertiveness appropriately in interpersonal situations;

110.26.b.2.D

identify kinds of groups and analyze basic principles of group dynamics;

110.26.b.2.E

use appropriate communication skills in groups to make plans or accomplish goals;

110.26.b.2.F

use appropriate strategies for agreeing or disagreeing in interpersonal and group situations; and

110.26.b.2.G

prepare and present an oral statement on a topic of interest or concern.

110.26.b.3

Participating in social traditions. The student develops an understanding of social traditions. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.3.A

identify the importance of social traditions and ceremonies in various contexts and cultures;

110.26.b.3.B

communicate appropriately in a variety of interpersonal social traditions, including making and acknowledging introductions and giving and accepting praise and criticism;

110.26.b.3.C

employ parliamentary procedure in a group meeting;

110.26.b.3.D

use effective techniques to prepare, organize, and present a speech for a special occasion; and

110.26.b.3.E

use appreciative and critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media.

110.26.b.4

Informing. The student expresses and responds appropriately to informative messages. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.4.A

research ideas and topics to acquire accurate information from a variety of primary, secondary, and technological sources;

110.26.b.4.B

use appropriate communication skills to request, provide, and respond to information in interpersonal conversations;

110.26.b.4.C

use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills in interviews;

110.26.b.4.D

use appropriate information and effective critical-thinking skills in group decision-making and problem-solving processes;

110.26.b.4.E

plan and present an informative group discussion for an audience;

110.26.b.4.F

plan, research, organize, prepare, and present an informative speech;

110.26.b.4.G

rehearse speeches to gain command of ideas and information, reduce communication apprehension, develop confidence, and practice presentation skills;

110.26.b.4.H

use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, and visual and auditory aids appropriately in speeches;

110.26.b.4.I

use effective verbal and nonverbal communication in presenting informative speeches;

110.26.b.4.J

apply critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to informative group discussions and speeches; and

110.26.b.4.K

develop and use communication skills needed for academic achievement such as participating appropriately in class discussions, using active and critical-listening skills, and taking accurate notes.

110.26.b.5

Persuading. The student expresses and responds appropriately to persuasive messages. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.5.A

recognize and develop skills for analyzing persuasive strategies such as propaganda devices and emotional appeals;

110.26.b.5.B

respond appropriately to persuasive messages in situations such as accepting or rejecting peer pressure and making or responding to requests;

110.26.b.5.C

plan, research, organize, prepare, and present a persuasive speech;

110.26.b.5.D

demonstrate persuasive skills in informal or formal argumentation, discussions, or debates; and

110.26.b.5.E

develop and use critical listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media presentations.

110.26.b.6

Creating and imagining. The student uses imagination and creativity to prepare and perform various types of literature. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.6.A

use imagination to plan, organize, and tell stories;

110.26.b.6.B

use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills to share stories;

110.26.b.6.C

select, analyze, adapt, interpret, and rehearse a variety of literary selections;

110.26.b.6.D

use effective group decision-making skills in group performances;

110.26.b.6.E

use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills in individual or group interpretations of literature; and

110.26.b.6.F

use appreciative and critical-listening skills to respond appropriately to class, public, or media performances.