Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills - English — Grade K


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110.11.b.1

Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how English is written and printed. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.1.A

recognize that spoken words can be represented by print for communication;

110.11.b.1.B

identify upper- and lower-case letters;

110.11.b.1.C

demonstrate the one-to-one correspondence between a spoken word and a printed word in text;

110.11.b.1.D

recognize the difference between a letter and a printed word;

110.11.b.1.E

recognize that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and demonstrate the awareness of word boundaries (e.g., through kinesthetic or tactile actions such as clapping and jumping);

110.11.b.1.F

hold a book right side up, turn its pages correctly, and know that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right; and

110.11.b.1.G

identify different parts of a book (e.g., front and back covers, title page).

110.11.b.10

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text, and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.10.A

identify the topic and details in expository text heard or read, referring to the words and/or illustrations;

110.11.b.10.B

retell important facts in a text, heard or read;

110.11.b.10.C

discuss the ways authors group information in text; and

110.11.b.10.D

use titles and illustrations to make predictions about text.

110.11.b.11

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.11.A

follow pictorial directions (e.g., recipes, science experiments); and

110.11.b.11.B

identify the meaning of specific signs (e.g., traffic signs, warning signs).

110.11.b.12

Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

110.11.b.12.A

identify different forms of media (e.g., advertisements, newspapers, radio programs); and

110.11.b.12.B

identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement).

110.11.b.13

Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

110.11.b.13.A

plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing through class discussion;

110.11.b.13.B

develop drafts by sequencing the action or details in the story;

110.11.b.13.C

revise drafts by adding details or sentences;

110.11.b.13.D

edit drafts by leaving spaces between letters and words; and

110.11.b.13.E

share writing with others.

110.11.b.14

Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.14.A

dictate or write sentences to tell a story and put the sentences in chronological sequence; and

110.11.b.15

Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to dictate or write information for lists, captions, or invitations.

110.11.b.16

Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.16.A

understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking (with adult assistance):

110.11.b.16.A.1

past and future tenses when speaking;

110.11.b.16.A.4

prepositions and simple prepositional phrases appropriately when speaking or writing (e.g., in, on, under, over); and

110.11.b.16.B

speak in complete sentences to communicate; and

110.11.b.16.C

use complete simple sentences.

110.11.b.17

Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.17.A

form upper- and lower-case letters legibly using the basic conventions of print (left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression);

110.11.b.17.B

capitalize the first letter in a sentence; and

110.11.b.17.C

use punctuation at the end of a sentence.

110.11.b.18

Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.18.A

use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters;

110.11.b.18.B

use letter-sound correspondences to spell consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words (e.g., "cut"); and

110.11.b.19

Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

110.11.b.19.A

ask questions about topics of class-wide interest; and

110.11.b.19.B

decide what sources or people in the classroom, school, library, or home can answer these questions.

110.11.b.2

Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.2.A

identify a sentence made up of a group of words;

110.11.b.2.B

identify syllables in spoken words;

110.11.b.2.C

orally generate rhymes in response to spoken words (e.g., "What rhymes with hat?");

110.11.b.2.D

distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs;

110.11.b.2.E

recognize spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound (e.g., "baby boy bounces the ball");

110.11.b.2.F

blend spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words (e.g., onset/c/ and rime/at/ make cat);

110.11.b.2.G

blend spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words (e.g.,/m/ /a/ /n/ says man);

110.11.b.2.H

isolate the initial sound in one-syllable spoken words; and

110.11.b.2.I

segment spoken one-syllable words into two to three phonemes (e.g., dog:/d/ /o/ /g/).

110.11.b.20

Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

110.11.b.20.A

gather evidence from provided text sources; and

110.11.b.20.B

use pictures in conjunction with writing when documenting research.

110.11.b.21

Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.21.A

listen attentively by facing speakers and asking questions to clarify information; and

110.11.b.21.B

follow oral directions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

110.11.b.22

Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language.

110.11.b.23

Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns and speaking one at a time.

110.11.b.3

Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.3.A

identify the common sounds that letters represent;

110.11.b.3.B

use knowledge of letter-sound relationships to decode regular words in text and independent of content (e.g., VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words);

110.11.b.3.C

recognize that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted; and

110.11.b.3.D

(D) identify and read at least 25 high-frequency words from a commonly used list.

110.11.b.4

Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.4.A

predict what might happen next in text based on the cover, title, and illustrations; and

110.11.b.4.B

ask and respond to questions about texts read aloud.

110.11.b.5

Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it correctly when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.5.A

identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

110.11.b.5.B

recognize that compound words are made up of shorter words;

110.11.b.5.C

identify and sort pictures of objects into conceptual categories (e.g., colors, shapes, textures); and

110.11.b.5.D

use a picture dictionary to find words.

110.11.b.6

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.6.A

identify elements of a story including setting, character, and key events;

110.11.b.6.B

discuss the big idea (theme) of a well-known folktale or fable and connect it to personal experience;

110.11.b.6.C

recognize sensory details; and

110.11.b.6.D

recognize recurring phrases and characters in traditional fairy tales, lullabies, and folktales from various cultures.

110.11.b.7

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to respond to rhythm and rhyme in poetry through identifying a regular beat and similarities in word sounds.

110.11.b.8

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.11.b.8.A

retell a main event from a story read aloud; and

110.11.b.8.B

describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions.

110.11.b.9

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic of an informational text heard.

K.1.A

Listen actively and ask questions to understand information and answer questions using multi-word responses;

K.1.B

Restate and follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

K.1.C

Share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

K.1.D

Work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

K.1.E

Develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.

K.10.A

Plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings.

K.10.B

Develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas.

K.10.C

Revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words.

K.10.D

Edit drafts with adult assistance using standard English conventions, including:

K.10.D.iii

Singular and plural nouns.

K.10.D.iv

Adjectives, including articles.

K.10.D.ix

Correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words.

K.10.D.vi

Pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases.

K.10.D.vii

Capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and name.

K.10.D.viii

Punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences.

K.11.A

Dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives.

K.11.B

Dictate or compose informational texts.

K.12.A

Generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance.

K.12.B

Develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance.

K.12.C

Gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance.

K.12.D

Demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance.

K.12.E

Use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

K.2.A

Demonstrate phonological awareness by:

K.2.A.i

Identifying and producing rhyming words.

K.2.A.ii

Recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound.

K.2.A.iii

Identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence.

K.2.A.iv

Identifying syllables in spoken words.

K.2.A.ix

Manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word.

K.2.A.v

Blending syllables to form multisyllabic words.

K.2.A.vi

Segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables.

K.2.A.vii

Blending spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words.

K.2.A.viii

Blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words.

K.2.A.x

Segmenting spoken one-syllable words into individual phonemes.

K.2.B

Demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

K.2.B.i

Identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent.

K.2.B.ii

Using letter-sound relationships to decode, including VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words.

K.2.B.iii

Recognizing that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted such as it - pit - tip tap.

K.2.B.iv

Identifying and reading at least 25 high-frequency words from a research-based list.

K.2.C

Demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

K.2.C.i

Spelling words with VC, CVC, and CCVC.

K.2.C.ii

Spelling words using sound-spelling patterns.

K.2.C.iii

Spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list.

K.2.D

Demonstrate print awareness by:

K.2.D.i

Identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.

K.2.D.ii

Holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep.

K.2.D.iii

Recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries.

K.2.D.iv

Recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word.

K.2.D.v

Identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters.

K.2.E

Develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

K.3.A

Use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words.

K.3.B

Use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings.

K.3.C

Identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

K.5.A

Establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance.

K.5.B

Generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance.

K.5.C

Make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance.

K.5.D

Create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance.

K.5.E

Make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance.

K.5.F

Make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance.

K.5.G

Evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance.

K.5.H

Synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance.

K.5.I

Monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

K.6.A

Describe personal connections to a variety of sources.

K.6.B

Provide an oral, pictorial, or written response to a text.

K.6.C

Use text evidence to support an appropriate response.

K.6.D

Retell texts in ways that maintain meaning.

K.6.E

Interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing.

K.6.F

Respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

K.7.A

Discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance.

K.7.B

Identify and describe the main character(s).

K.7.C

Describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution for texts read aloud with adult assistance.

K.7.D

Describe the setting.

K.8.A

Demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes.

K.8.B

Discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems.

K.8.C

Discuss main characters in drama.

K.8.D

Recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

K.8.D.i

The central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance.

K.8.D.ii

Titles and simple graphics to gain information.

K.8.D.iii

The steps in a sequence with adult assistance.

K.8.E

Recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

K.8.F

Recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

K.9.A

Discuss with adult assistance the author's purpose for writing text.

K.9.B

Discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose.

K.9.C

Discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes.

K.9.D

Discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize.

K.9.E

Listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.