South Carolina Learning Standards for Science — Grade 8


Click on any standard to search for aligned resources. This data may be subject to copyright. You may download a CSV of the South Carolina Learning Standards for Science if your intention constitutes fair use.


Plan, assess, and analyze learning aligned to these standards using Kiddom.

Learn more: How Kiddom Empowers Teachers.

8.E.4

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the universe and the predictable patterns caused by Earths movement in the solar system.

8.E.4A

Conceptual Understanding: Earths solar system is part of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is one of many galaxies in the universe. The planet Earth is a tiny part of a vast universe that has developed over a span of time beginning with a period of extreme and rapid expansion.

8.E.4A.1

Obtain and communicate information to model the position of the Sun in the universe, the shapes and composition of galaxies, and the measurement unit needed to identify star and galaxy locations.

8.E.4A.2

Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims that the universe began with a period of extreme and rapid expansion using evidence from the composition of stars and gases and the motion of galaxies in the universe.

8.E.4B

Conceptual Understanding: Earths solar system is part of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is one of many galaxies in the universe. The planet Earth is a tiny part of a vast universe that has developed over a span of time beginning with a period of extreme and rapid expansion.

8.E.4B.1

Obtain and communicate information to model and compare the characteristics and movements of objects in the solar system (including planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and meteors).

8.E.4B.2

Construct explanations for how gravity affects the motion of objects in the solar system and tides on Earth.

8.E.4B.3

Develop and use models to explain how seasons, caused by the tilt of Earths axis as it orbits the Sun, affects the length of the day and the amount of heating on Earths surface.

8.E.4B.4

Develop and use models to explain how motions within the Sun-Earth-Moon system cause Earth phenomena (including day and year, moon phases, solar and lunar eclipses, and tides).

8.E.4B.5

Obtain and communicate information to describe how data from technologies (including telescopes, spectroscopes, satellites, space probes) provide information about objects in the solar system and the universe.

8.E.4B.6

Analyze and interpret data from the surface features of the Sun (including photosphere, corona, sunspots, prominences, and solar flares) to predict how these features may affect Earth.

8.E.5

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the processes that alter the structure of Earth and provide resources for life on the planet.

8.E.5A

Conceptual Understanding: All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among Earths systems. Because Earths processes are dynamic and interactive in nature, the surface of Earth is constantly changing. Earths hot interior is a main source of energy that drives the cycling and moving of materials. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current crustal movements at the Earths surface. This theory provides a framework for understanding geological history.

8.E.5A.1

Develop and use models to explain how the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition change surface features in the environment.

8.E.5A.2

Use the rock cycle model to describe the relationship between the processes and forces that create igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

8.E.5A.3

Obtain and communicate information about the relative position, density, and composition of Earths layers to describe the crust, mantle, and core.

8.E.5A.4

Construct explanations for how the theory of plate tectonics accounts for (1) the motion of lithospheric plates, (2) the geologic activities at plate boundaries, and (3) the changes in landform areas over geologic time.

8.E.5A.5

Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims that plate tectonics accounts for (1) the distribution of fossils on different continents, (2) the occurrence of earthquakes, and (3) continental and ocean floor features (including mountains, volcanoes, faults and trenches).

8.E.5B

Conceptual Understanding: Natural processes can cause sudden or gradual changes to Earths systems. Some may adversely affect humans such as volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. Mapping the history of natural hazards in a region, combined with an understanding of related geological forces can help forecast the locations and likelihoods of future events.

8.E.5B.1

Analyze and interpret data to describe patterns in the location of volcanoes and earthquakes related to tectonic plate boundaries, interactions, and hot spots.

8.E.5B.2

Construct explanations of how forces inside Earth result in earthquakes and volcanoes.

8.E.5B.3

Define problems that may be caused by a catastrophic event resulting from plate movements and design possible devices or solutions to minimize the effects of that event on Earths surface and/or human structures

8.E.5C

Conceptual Understanding: Humans depend upon many Earth resources some renewable over human lifetimes and some nonrenewable or irreplaceable. Resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past geological processes.

8.E.5C.1

Obtain and communicate information regarding the physical and chemical properties of minerals, ores, and fossil fuels to describe their importance as Earth resources.

8.E.6

The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earths geologic history and its diversity of life over time.

8.E.6A

Conceptual Understanding: The geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize major historical events in Earths history. Analysis of rock strata and the fossil record, which documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout history, provide only relative dates, not an absolute scale. Changes in life forms are shaped by Earths varying geological conditions.

8.E.6A.1

Develop and use models to organize Earths history (including era, period, and epoch) according to the geologic time scale using evidence from rock layers.

8.E.6A.2

Analyze and interpret data from index fossil records and the ordering of rock layers to infer the relative age of rocks and fossils.

8.E.6A.3

Construct explanations from evidence for how catastrophic events (including volcanic activities, earthquakes, climatic changes, and the impact of an asteroid/comet) may have affected the conditions on Earth and the diversity of its life forms.

8.E.6A.4

Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims that different types of fossils provide evidence of (1) the diversity of life that has been present on Earth, (2) relationships between past and existing life forms, and (3) environmental changes that have occurred during Earths history.

8.E.6A.5

Construct explanations for why most individual organisms, as well as some entire taxonomic groups of organisms, that lived in the past were never fossilized.

8.E.6B

Conceptual Understanding: Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change in response to changes in environmental conditions. The resources of biological communities can be used within sustainable limits, but if the ecosystem becomes unbalanced in ways that prevent the sustainable use of resources, then ecosystem degradation and species extinction can occur.

8.E.6B.1

Construct explanations for how biological adaptations and genetic variations of traits in a population enhance the probability of survival in a particular environment.

8.E.6B.2

Obtain and communicate information to support claims that natural and human-made factors can contribute to the extinction of species.

8.P.2

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the effects of forces on the motion and stability of an object.

8.P.2A

Conceptual Understanding: Motion occurs when there is a change in position of an object with respect to a reference point. The final position of an object is determined by measuring the change in position and direction of the segments along a trip. While the speed of the object may vary during the total time it is moving, the average speed is the result of the total distance divided by the total time taken. Forces acting on an object can be balanced or unbalanced. Varying the amount of force or mass will affect the motion of an object. Inertia is the tendency of objects to resist any change in motion.

8.P.2A.1

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to test how varying the amount of force or mass of an object affects the motion (speed and direction), shape, or orientation of an object.

8.P.2A.2

Develop and use models to compare and predict the resulting effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on an objects motion in terms of magnitude and direction.

8.P.2A.3

Construct explanations for the relationship between the mass of an object and the concept of inertia (Newtons First Law of Motion).

8.P.2A.4

Analyze and interpret data to support claims that for every force exerted on an object there is an equal force exerted in the opposite direction (Newtons Third Law of Motion).

8.P.2A.5

Analyze and interpret data to describe and predict the effects

8.P.2A.6

Use mathematical and computational thinking to generate graphs that represent the motion of an objects position and speed as a function of time.

8.P.2A.7

Use mathematical and computational thinking to describe the relationship between the speed and velocity (including positive and negative expression of direction) of an object in determining average speed (v=d/t).

8.P.3

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties and behaviors of waves.

8.P.3A

Conceptual Understanding: Waves (including sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves) have energy and transfer energy when they interact with matter. Waves are a repeating pattern of motion that transfers energy from place to place without overall displacement of matter. All types of waves have some features in common. When waves interact, they superimpose upon or interfere with each other resulting in changes to the amplitude. Major modern technologies are based on waves and their interactions with matter.

8.P.3A.1

Construct explanations of the relationship between matter and energy based on the characteristics of mechanical and light waves.

8.P.3A.2

Develop and use models to exemplify the basic properties of waves (including frequency, amplitude, wavelength, and speed).

8.P.3A.3

Analyze and interpret data to describe the behavior of waves (including refraction, reflection, transmission, and absorption) as they interact with various materials.

8.P.3A.4

Analyze and interpret data to describe the behavior of mechanical waves as they intersect.

8.P.3A.5

Construct explanations for how humans see color as a result of the transmission, absorption, and reflection of light waves by various materials.

8.P.3A.6

Obtain and communicate information about how various instruments are used to extend human senses by transmitting and detecting waves (such as radio, television, cell phones, and wireless computer networks) to exemplify how technological advancements and designs meet human needs.

8.S.1

The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.

8.S.1A

Conceptual Understanding: Organisms in all ecosystems interact with and depend upon each other. Organisms with similar needs compete for limited resources. Food webs and energy pyramids are models that demonstrate how energy is transferred within an ecosystem.

8.S.1A.1

Ask questions to (1) generate hypotheses for scientific investigations, (2) refine models, explanations, or designs, or (3) extend the results of investigations or challenge claims.

8.S.1A.2

Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.

8.S.1A.3

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) select and use appropriate tools or instruments to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.

8.S.1A.4

Analyze and interpret data from informational texts, observations, measurements, or investigations using a range of methods (such as tabulation, graphing, or statistical analysis) to (1) reveal patterns and construct meaning or (2) support hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs.

8.S.1A.5

Use mathematical and computational thinking to (1) use and manipulate appropriate metric units, (2) collect and analyze data, (3) express relationships between variables for models and investigations, or (4) use grade-level appropriate statistics to analyze data.

8.S.1A.6

Construct explanations of phenomena using (1) primary or secondary scientific evidence and models, (2) conclusions from scientific investigations, (3) predictions based on observations and measurements, or (4) data communicated in graphs, tables, or diagrams.

8.S.1A.7

Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims, explanations, or designs using evidence from observations, data, or informational texts.

8.S.1A.8

Obtain and evaluate scientific information to (1) answer questions, (2) explain or describe phenomena, (3) develop models, (4) evaluate hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs or (5) identify and/or fill gaps in knowledge. Communicate using the conventions and expectations of scientific writing or oral presentations by (1) evaluating grade-appropriate primary or secondary scientific literature, or (2) reporting the results of student experimental investigations.

8.S.1B

Conceptual Understanding: Technology is any modification to the natural world created to fulfill the wants and needs of humans. The engineering design process involves a series of iterative steps used to solve a problem and often leads to the development of a new or improved technology.

8.S.1B.1

Construct devices or design solutions using scientific knowledge to solve specific problems or needs

8.S.1B.1.1

Ask questions to identify problems or needs

8.S.1B.1.2

Ask questions about the criteria and constraints of the device or solutions

8.S.1B.1.3

Generate and communicate ideas for possible devices or solutions

8.S.1B.1.4

Build and test devices or solutions

8.S.1B.1.5

Determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed

8.S.1B.1.6

Communicate the results