South Carolina Learning Standards for Science — Grade 9


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H.B.1

The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.

H.B.1A

Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers.

H.B.1A.1

Ask questions to (1) generate hypotheses for scientific investigations, (2) refine models, explanations, or designs, or (3) extend the results of investigations or challenge scientific arguments or claims.

H.B.1A.2

Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.

H.B.1A.3

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.

H.B.1A.4

Analyze and interpret data from informational texts and data collected from investigations using a range of methods (such as tabulation, graphing, or statistical analysis) to (1) reveal patterns and construct meaning, (2) support or refute hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs, or (3) evaluate the strength of conclusions.

H.B.1A.5

Use mathematical and computational thinking to (1) use and manipulate appropriate metric units, (2) express relationships between variables for models and investigations, and (3) use grade-level appropriate statistics to analyze data.

H.B.1A.6

Construct explanations of phenomena using (1) primary or secondary scientific evidence and models, (2) conclusions from scientific investigations, (3) predictions based on observations and measurements, or (4) data communicated in graphs, tables, or diagrams

H.B.1A.7

Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims, explanations, or designs using evidence and valid reasoning from observations, data, or informational texts

H.B.1A.8

Obtain and evaluate scientific information to (1) answer questions, (2) explain or describe phenomena, (3) develop models, (4) evaluate hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs or (5) identify and/or fill gaps in knowledge. Communicate using the conventions and expectations of scientific writing or oral presentations by (1) evaluating grade-appropriate primary or secondary scientific literature, or (2) reporting the results of student experimental investigations.

H.B.1B

Technology is any modification to the natural world created to fulfill the wants and needs of humans. The engineering design process involves a series of iterative steps used to solve a problem and often leads to the development of a new or improved technology.

H.B.1B.1

Construct devices or design solutions using scientific knowledge to solve specific problems or needs: (1) ask questions to identify problems or needs, (2) ask questions about the criteria and constraints of the device or solutions, (3) generate and communicate ideas for possible devices or solutions, (4) build and test devices or solutions, (5) determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed, and (6) communicate the results.

H.B.2

The student will demonstrate the understanding that the essential functions of life take place within cells or systems of cells.

H.B.2A

Conceptual Understanding: The essential functions of a cell involve chemical reactions that take place between many different types of molecules (including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids) and are catalyzed by enzymes.

H.B.2A.1

Construct explanations of how the structures of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (including DNA and RNA) are related to their functions in organisms.

H.B.2A.2

Plan and conduct investigations to determine how various environmental factors (including temperature and pH) affect enzyme activity and the rate of biochemical reactions.

H.B.2B

Conceptual Understanding: Organisms and their parts are made of cells. Cells are the structural units of life and have specialized substructures that carry out the essential functions of life. Viruses lack cellular organization and therefore cannot independently carry out all of the essential functions of life.

H.B.2B.1

Develop and use models to explain how specialized structures within cells (including the nucleus, chromosomes, cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and Golgi complex) interact to produce, modify, and transport proteins. Models should compare and contrast how prokaryotic cells meet the same life needs as eukaryotic cells without similar structures.

H.B.2B.2

Collect and interpret descriptive data on cell structure to compare and contrast different types of cells (including prokaryotic versus eukaryotic, and animal versus plant versus fungal).

H.B.2B.3

Obtain information to contrast the structure of viruses with that of cells and to explain, in general, why viruses must use living cells to reproduce.

H.B.2C

Conceptual Understanding: Transport processes which move materials into and out of the cell serve to maintain the homeostasis of the cell.

H.B.2C.1

Develop and use models to exemplify how the cell membrane serves to maintain homeostasis of the cell through both active and passive transport processes.

H.B.2C.2

Ask scientific questions to define the problems that organisms face in maintaining homeostasis within different environments (including water of varying solute concentrations).

H.B.2C.3

Analyze and interpret data to explain the movement of molecules (including water) across a membrane.

H.B.2D

Conceptual Understanding: The cells of multicellular organisms repeatedly divide to make more cells for growth and repair. During embryonic development, a single cell gives rise to a complex, multicellular organism through the processes of both cell division and differentiation.

H.B.2D.1

Construct models to explain how the processes of cell division and cell differentiation produce and maintain complex multicellular organisms.

H.B.2D.2

Develop and use models to exemplify the changes that occur in a cell during the cell cycle (including changes in cell size, chromosomes, cell membrane/cell wall, and the number of cells produced) and predict, based on the models, what might happen to a cell that does not progress through the cycle correctly.

H.B.2D.3

Construct explanations for how the cell cycle is monitored by check point systems and communicate possible consequences of the continued cycling of abnormal cells.

H.B.2D.4

Construct scientific arguments to support the pros and cons of biotechnological applications of stem cells using examples from both plants and animals.

H.B.3

The student will demonstrate the understanding that all essential processes within organisms require energy which in most ecosystems is ultimately derived from the Sun and transferred into chemical energy by the photosynthetic organisms of that ecosystem.

H.B.3A

Conceptual Understanding: Cells transform energy that organisms need to perform essential life functions through a complex sequence of reactions in which chemical energy is transferred from one system of interacting molecules to another.

H.B.3A.1

Develop and use models to explain how chemical reactions among ATP, ADP, and inorganic phosphate act to transfer chemical energy within cells.

H.B.3A.2

Develop and revise models to describe how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.

H.B.3A.3

Construct scientific arguments to support claims that chemical elements in the sugar molecules produced by photosynthesis may interact with other elements to form amino acids, lipids, nucleic acids or other large organic molecules.

H.B.3A.4

Develop models of the major inputs and outputs of cellular respiration (aerobic and anaerobic) to exemplify the chemical process in which the bonds of molecules are broken, the bonds of new compounds are formed and a net transfer of energy results.

H.B.3A.5

Plan and conduct scientific investigations or computer simulations to determine the relationship between variables that affect the processes of fermentation and/or cellular respiration in living organisms and interpret the data in terms of real-world phenomena.

H.B.4

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the specific mechanisms by which characteristics or traits are transferred from one generation to the next via genes.

H.B.4A

Conceptual Understanding: Each chromosome consists of a single DNA molecule. Each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of DNA. The chemical structure of DNA provides a mechanism that ensures that information is preserved and transferred to subsequent generations.

H.B.4A.1

Develop and use models at different scales to explain the relationship between DNA, genes, and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits transferred from parent to offspring.

H.B.4A.2

Develop and use models to explain how genetic information (DNA) is copied for transmission to subsequent generations of cells (mitosis).

H.B.4B

Conceptual Understanding: In order for information stored in DNA to direct cellular processes, a gene needs to be transcribed from DNA to RNA and then must be translated by the cellular machinery into a protein or an RNA molecule. The protein and RNA products from these processes determine cellular activities and the unique characteristics of an individual. Modern techniques in biotechnology can manipulate DNA to solve human problems.

H.B.4B.1

Develop and use models to describe how the structure of DNA determines the structure of resulting proteins or RNA molecules that carry out the essential functions of life.

H.B.4B.2

Obtain, evaluate and communicate information on how biotechnology (including gel electrophoresis, plasmid-based transformation and DNA fingerprinting) may be used in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and forensic science.

H.B.4C

Construct explanations for how meiosis followed by fertilization ensures genetic variation among offspring within the same family and genetic diversity within populations of sexually reproducing organisms.

H.B.4C.1

Develop and use models of sex cell formation (meiosis) to explain why the DNA of the daughter cells is different from the DNA of the parent cell.

H.B.4C.2

Analyze data on the variation of traits among individual organisms within a population to explain patterns in the data in the context of transmission of genetic information.

H.B.4C.3

Construct explanations for how meiosis followed by fertilization ensures genetic variation among offspring within the same family and genetic diversity within populations of sexually reproducing organisms.

H.B.4D

Conceptual Understanding: Imperfect transmission of genetic information may have positive, negative, or no consequences to the organism. DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, but errors do occur and result in mutations which (rarely) are a source of genetic variation.

H.B.4D.1

Develop and use models to explain how mutations in DNA that occur during replication (1) can affect the proteins that are produced or the traits that result and (2) may or may not be inherited.

H.B.6

The student will demonstrate an understanding that ecosystems are complex, interactive systems that include both biological communities and physical components of the environment.

H.B.6A

Conceptual Understanding: Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and populations they can support. Limiting factors include the availability of biotic and abiotic resources and challenges such as predation, competition, and disease.Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes.

H.B.6A.1

Analyze and interpret data that depict changes in the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem over time or space (such as percent change, average change, correlation and proportionality) and propose hypotheses about possible relationships between the changes in the abiotic components and the biotic components of the environment.

H.B.6A.2

Use mathematical and computational thinking to support claims that limiting factors affect the number of individuals that an ecosystem can support.

H.B.6B

Conceptual Understanding: Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes.

H.B.6B.1

Develop and use models of the carbon cycle, which include the interactions between photosynthesis, cellular respiration and other processes that release carbon dioxide, to evaluate the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide on natural and agricultural ecosystems.

H.B.6B.2

Analyze and interpret quantitative data to construct an explanation for the effects of greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane) on the carbon cycle and global climate

H.B.6C

Conceptual Understanding: A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of organisms relatively stable over long periods of time. Fluctuations in conditions can challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resource and habitat availability.

H.B.6C.1

Construct scientific arguments to support claims that the changes in the biotic and abiotic components of various ecosystems over time affect the ability of an ecosystem to maintain homeostasis.

H.B.6D

Conceptual Understanding: Sustaining biodiversity maintains ecosystem functioning and productivity which are essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity. Human activity can impact biodiversity.

H.B.6D.1

Design solutions to reduce the impact of human activity on the biodiversity of an ecosystem.

H.C.1

The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.

H.C.1A

Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers.

H.C.1A.1

Ask questions to (1) generate hypotheses for scientific investigations, (2) refine models, explanations, or designs, or (3) extend the results of investigations or challenge scientific arguments or claims.

H.C.1A.2

Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.

H.C.1A.3

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.

H.C.1A.4

Analyze and interpret data from informational texts and data collected from investigations using a range of methods (such as tabulation, graphing, or statistical analysis) to (1) reveal patterns and construct meaning, (2) support or refute hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs, or (3) evaluate the strength of conclusions.

H.C.1A.5

Use mathematical and computational thinking to (1) use and manipulate appropriate metric units, (2) express relationships between variables for models and investigations, and (3) use grade-level appropriate statistics to analyze data.

H.C.1A.6

Construct explanations of phenomena using (1) primary or secondary scientific evidence and models, (2) conclusions from scientific investigations, (3) predictions based on observations and measurements, or (4) data communicated in graphs, tables, or diagrams.

H.C.1A.7

Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims, explanations, or designs using evidence and valid reasoning from observations, data, or informational texts.

H.C.1A.8

Obtain and evaluate scientific information to (1) answer questions, (2) explain or describe phenomena, (3) develop models, (4) evaluate hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs or (5) identify and/or fill gaps in knowledge. Communicate using the conventions and expectations of scientific writing or oral presentations by (1) evaluating grade-appropriate primary or secondary scientific literature, or (2) reporting the results of student experimental investigations.

H.C.1B

Conceptual Understanding: Technology is any modification to the natural world created to fulfill the wants and needs of humans. The engineering design process involves a series of iterative steps used to solve a problem and often leads to the development of a new or improved technology.

H.C.1B.1

Construct devices or design solutions using scientific knowledge to solve specific problems or needs: (1) ask questions to identify problems or needs, (2) ask questions about the criteria and constraints of the device or solutions, (3) generate and communicate ideas for possible devices or solutions, (4) build and test devices or solutions, (5) determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed, and (6) communicate the results.

H.C.2

The student will demonstrate an understanding of atomic structure and nuclear processes.

H.C.2A

Conceptual Understanding: The existence of atoms can be used to explain the structure and behavior of matter. Each atom consists of a charged nucleus, consisting of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. The interactions of these electrons between and within atoms are the primary factors that determine the chemical properties of matter. In a neutral atom the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons.

H.C.2A.1

Obtain and communicate information to describe and compare subatomic particles with regard to mass, location, charge, electrical attractions and repulsions, and impact on the properties of an atom.

H.C.2A.2

Use the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of atomic structure to exemplify how electrons are distributed in atoms.

H.C.2A.3

Analyze and interpret absorption and emission spectra to support explanations that electrons have discrete energy levels.

H.C.2B

Conceptual Understanding: In nuclear fusion, lighter nuclei combine to form more stable heavier nuclei and in nuclear fission heavier nuclei are split to form lighter nuclei. The energies in fission and fusion reactions exceed the energies in usual chemical reactions.

H.C.2B.1

Obtain and communicate information to compare alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass, charge, penetrating power, and their practical applications (including medical benefits and associated risks).

H.C.2B.2

Develop models to exemplify radioactive decay and use the models to explain the concept of half-life and its use in determining the age of materials (such as radiocarbon dating or the use of radioisotopes to date rocks).

H.C.2B.3

Obtain and communicate information to compare and contrast nuclear fission and nuclear fusion and to explain why the ability to produce low energy nuclear reactions would be a scientific breakthrough.

H.C.2B.4

Use mathematical and computational thinking to explain the relationship between mass and energy in nuclear reactions (E=mc2 ).

H.C.3

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and classification of chemical compounds.

H.C.3A

Conceptual Understanding: Elements are made up of only one kind of atom. With increasing atomic number, a predictable pattern for the addition of electrons exists. This pattern is the basis for the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. The chemical properties of an element are determined by an elements electron configuration. Elements can react to form chemical compounds/molecules that have unique properties determined by the kinds of atoms combined to make up the compound/molecule. Essentially, the ways in which electrons are involved in bonds determines whether ionic or covalent bonds are formed. Compounds have characteristic shapes that are determined by the type and number of bonds formed.

H.C.3A.1

Construct explanations for the formation of molecular compounds via sharing of electrons and for the formation of ionic compounds via transfer of electrons.

H.C.3A.2

Use the periodic table to write and interpret the formulas and names of chemical compounds (including binary ionic compounds, binary covalent compounds, and straight-chain alkanes up to six carbons).

H.C.3A.3

Analyze and interpret data to predict the type of bonding (ionic or covalent) and the shape of simple compounds by using the Lewis dot structures and oxidation numbers.

H.C.3A.4

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to generate data on the properties of substances and analyze the data to infer the types of bonds (including ionic, polar covalent, and nonpolar covalent) in simple compounds.

H.C.3A.5

Develop and use models (such as Lewis dot structures, structural formulas, or ball-andstick models) of simple hydrocarbons to exemplify structural isomerism.

H.C.3A.6

Construct explanations of how the basic structure of common natural and synthetic polymers is related to their bulk properties.

H.C.3A.7

Analyze and interpret data to determine the empirical formula of a compound and the percent composition of a compound.

H.C.4

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and behavior of the different states of matter.

H.C.4A

Conceptual Understanding: Matter can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas, and in very highenergy states, as plasma. In general terms, for a given chemical, the particles making up the solid are at a lower energy state than the liquid phase, which is at a lower energy state than the gaseous phase. The changes from one state of matter into another are energy dependent. The behaviors of gases are dependent on the factors of pressure, volume, and temperature.

H.C.4A.1

Develop and use models to explain the arrangement and movement of the particles in solids, liquids, gases, and plasma as well as the relative strengths of their intermolecular forces.

H.C.4A.2

Analyze and interpret heating curve graphs to explain that changes from one state of matter to another are energy dependent.

H.C.4A.3

Conduct controlled scientific investigations and use models to explain the behaviors of gases (including the proportional relationships among pressure, volume, and temperature)

H.C.5

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature and properties of various types of chemical solutions.

H.C.5A

Conceptual Understanding: Solutions can exist in any of three physical states: gas, liquid, or solid. Solution concentrations can be expressed by specifying the relative amounts of solute and solvent. The nature of the solute, the solvent, the temperature, and the pressure can affect solubility. Solutes can affect such solvent properties as freezing point, boiling point, and vapor pressure. Acids, bases, and salts have characteristic properties. Several definitions of acids and bases are used in chemistry.

H.C.5A.1

Obtain and communicate information to describe how a substance can dissolve in water by dissociation, dispersion, or ionization and how intermolecular forces affect solvation.

H.C.5A.2

Analyze and interpret data to explain the effects of temperature and pressure on the solubility of solutes in a given amount of solvent.

H.C.5A.3

Use mathematical representations to analyze the concentrations of unknown solutions in terms of molarity and percent by mass.

H.C.5A.4

Analyze and interpret data to describe the properties of acids, bases, and salts.

H.C.6

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the types, the causes, and the effects of chemical reactions.

H.C.6A

Conceptual Understanding: A chemical reaction occurs when elements and/or compounds interact, resulting in a rearrangement of the atoms of these elements and/or compounds to produce substances with unique properties. Mass is conserved in chemical reactions. Reactions tend to proceed in a direction that favors lower energies. Chemical reactions can be categorized using knowledge about the reactants to predict products. Chemical reactions are quantifiable. When stress is applied to a chemical system that is in equilibrium, the system will shift in a direction that reduces that stress.

H.C.6A.1

Develop and use models to predict the products of chemical reactions (1) based upon movements of ions; (2) based upon movements of protons; and (3) based upon movements of electrons.

H.C.6A.2

Use Le Chteliers principle to predict shifts in chemical equilibria resulting from changes in concentration, pressure, and temperature.

H.C.6A.3

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to produce mathematical evidence that mass is conserved in chemical reactions.

H.C.6A.4

Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the amounts of reactants required and products produced in specific chemical reactions.

H.C.7

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conservation of energy and energy transfer.

H.C.7A

Conceptual Understanding: The first law of thermodynamics states that the amount of energy in the universe is constant. An energy diagram is used to represent changes in the energy of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Enthalpy refers to the heat content that is present in an atom, ion, or compound. While some chemical reactions occur spontaneously, other reactions may require that activation energy be lowered in order for the reaction to occur.

H.C.7A.1

Analyze and interpret data from energy diagrams and investigations to support claims that the amount of energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction depends on changes in total bond energy.

H.C.7A.2

Use mathematical and computational thinking to write thermochemical equations and draw energy diagrams for the combustion of common hydrocarbon fuels and carbohydrates, given molar enthalpies of combustion.

H.C.7A.3

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the effects of temperature, surface area, stirring, concentration of reactants, and the presence of various catalysts on the rate of chemical reactions.

H.C.7A.4

Develop and use models to explain the relationships between collision frequency, the energy of collisions, the orientation of molecules, activation energy, and the rates of chemical reactions.

H.E.1

The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.

H.E.1A

Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers.

H.E.1A.1

Ask questions to (1) generate hypotheses for scientific investigations, (2) refine models, explanations, or designs, or (3) extend the results of investigations or challenge scientific arguments or claims.

H.E.1A.2

Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.

H.E.1A.3

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.

H.E.1A.4

Analyze and interpret data from informational texts and data collected from investigations using a range of methods (such as tabulation, graphing, or statistical analysis) to (1) reveal patterns and construct meaning, (2) support or refute hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs, or (3) evaluate the strength of conclusions.

H.E.1A.5

Use mathematical and computational thinking to (1) use and manipulate appropriate metric units, (2) express relationships between variables for models and investigations, or (3) use grade-level appropriate statistics to analyze data.

H.E.1A.6

Construct explanations of phenomena using (1) primary or secondary scientific evidence and models, (2) conclusions from scientific investigations, (3) predictions based on observations and measurements, or (4) data communicated in graphs, tables, or diagrams.

H.E.1A.7

Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims, explanations, or designs using evidence and valid reasoning from observations, data, or informational texts.

H.E.1A.8

Obtain and evaluate scientific information to (1) answer questions, (2) explain or describe phenomena, (3) develop models, (4) evaluate hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs or (5) identify and/or fill gaps in knowledge. Communicate using the conventions and expectations of scientific writing or oral presentations by (1) evaluating grade-appropriate primary or secondary scientific literature, or (2) reporting the results of student experimental investigations.

H.E.1B

Conceptual Understanding: Technology is any modification to the natural world created to fulfill the wants and needs of humans. The engineering design process involves a series of iterative steps used to solve a problem and often leads to the development of a new or improved technology.

H.E.1B.1

Construct devices or design solutions using scientific knowledge to solve specific problems or needs: (1) ask questions to identify problems or needs, (2) ask questions about the criteria and constraints of the device or solutions, (3) generate and communicate ideas for possible devices or solutions, (4) build and test devices or solutions, (5) determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed, and (6) communicate the results.

H.E.2

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and history of the observable universe.

H.E.2A

Conceptual Understanding: Earth is a tiny part of a vast universe that has developed over a huge expanse of time. At the center of Earths solar system is one local star, the Sun. It is just one of a vast number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, which is just one of a vast number of galaxies in the observable universe. The study of the light spectra and brightness of stars is used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth. Nearly all observable matter in the universe formed and continues to form within the cores of stars. The universe began with a period of extreme and rapid expansion and has been expanding ever since.

H.E.2A.1

Construct explanations for how gravity and motion affect the formation and shapes of galaxies (including the Milky Way Galaxy).

H.E.2A.2

Use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to classify stars and explain the life cycles of stars (including the Sun).

H.E.2A.3

Construct explanations for how elements are formed using evidence from nuclear fusion occurring within stars and/or supernova explosions.

H.E.2A.4

Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims about the origin of the universe (including the red shift of light from distant galaxies, the measured composition of stars and nonstellar gases, and the cosmic background radiation).

H.E.2A.5

Obtain and evaluate information to describe how the use of x-ray, gamma-ray, radio, and visual (reflecting, refracting, and catadioptric) telescopes and computer modeling have increased the understanding of the universe.

H.E.2B

Conceptual Understanding: The solar system consists of the Sun and a collection of objects of varying sizes and conditions including planets and their moons that have predictable patterns of movement. These patterns can be explained by gravitational forces and conservation laws, and in turn explains many large-scale phenomena observed on Earth. Keplers laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the Sun. The solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity.

H.E.2B.1

Analyze and interpret data to compare the properties of Earth and other planets (including composition, density, surface expression of tectonics, climate, and conditions necessary for life).

H.E.2B.2

Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the properties and features of the moon to support claims that it is unique among other moons in the solar system in its effects on the planet it orbits.

H.E.2B.3

Use mathematical and computational thinking to explain the motion of an orbiting object in the solar system.

H.E.2B.4

Construct explanations for how the solar system was formed.

H.E.3

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of Earths geosphere.

H.E.3A

Conceptual Understanding: Evidence indicates Earths interior is divided into a solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid (but flowing) mantle and solid crust. Although the crust is solid, it is in constant motion and is recycled through time. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earths surface and provides a coherent account of its geological history. Weathering (physical and chemical) and soil formation are a result of the interactions of Earths geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. All forms of resource extraction and land use have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs, risks, and benefits. Natural hazards and other geological events have shaped the course of human history.

H.E.3A.1

Analyze and interpret data to explain the differentiation of Earths internal structure using (1) the production of internal heat from the radioactive decay of unstable isotopes, (2) gravitational energy, (3) data from seismic waves, and (4) Earths magnetic field.

H.E.3A.2

Analyze and interpret data from ocean topography, correlation of rock assemblages, the fossil record, the role of convection current, and the action at plate boundaries to explain the theory of plate tectonics.

H.E.3A.3

Construct explanations of how forces cause crustal changes as evidenced in sea floor spreading, earthquake activity, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building using evidence of tectonic environments (such as mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones).

H.E.3A.4

Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze seismic graphs to (1) triangulate the location of an earthquakes epicenter and magnitude, and (2) describe the correlation between frequency and magnitude of an earthquake.

H.E.3A.5

Analyze and interpret data to describe the physical and chemical properties of minerals and rocks and classify each based on the properties and environment in which they were formed.

H.E.3A.6

Develop and use models to explain how various rock formations on the surface of Earth result from geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation).

H.E.3A.7

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the factors that affect the rate of weathering.

H.E.3A.8

Analyze and interpret data of soil from different locations to compare the major physical components of soil (such as the amounts of sand, silt, clay, and humus) as evidence of Earth processes in that region producing each type of soil.

H.E.3B

Conceptual Understanding: The sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources. Human transformation of the natural environment can contribute to the frequency and intensity of some natural hazards.

H.E.3B.1

Obtain and communicate information to explain how the formation, availability, and use of ores and fossil fuels impact the environment.

H.E.3B.2

Construct scientific arguments to support claims that responsible management of natural resources is necessary for the sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them.

H.E.3B.3

Analyze and interpret data to explain how natural hazards and other geologic events have shaped the course of human history.

H.E.3B.4

Obtain and evaluate available data on a current controversy regarding human activities which may affect the frequency, intensity, or consequences of natural hazards.

H.E.3B.5

Define problems caused by the impacts of locally significant natural hazards and design possible devices or solutions to reduce the impacts of such natural hazards on human activities.

H.E.4

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamic relationship between Earths conditions over geologic time and the diversity of organisms.

H.E.4A

Conceptual Understanding: Living things have changed the makeup of Earths geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere over geological time. Organisms ranging from bacteria to human beings may contribute to the global carbon cycle. They may influence the global climate by modifying the chemical makeup of the atmosphere. As Earth changes, life on Earth adapts and evolves to those changes. Just as life influences components of the Earth System, changes in the Earth System influences life.

H.E.4A.1

Construct scientific arguments to support claims that the physical conditions of Earth enable the planet to support carbon-based life.

H.E.4A.2

Construct explanations for how various life forms have altered the geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere over geological time

H.E.4A.3

Construct explanations of how changes to Earths surface are related to changes in the complexity and diversity of life using evidence from the geologic time scale.

H.E.4A.4

Obtain and evaluate evidence from rock and fossil records and ice core samples to support claims that Earths environmental conditions have changed over time.

H.E.4A.5

Develop and use models of various dating methods (including index fossils, ordering of rock layers, and radiometric dating) to estimate geologic time.

H.E.4A.6

Use mathematical and computational thinking to calculate the age of Earth materials using isotope ratios (actual or simulated).

H.E.4A.7

Develop and use models to predict the effects of an environmental change (such as the changing life forms, tectonic change, or human activity) on global carbon cycling.

H.E.5

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamics of Earths atmosphere.

H.E.5A

Conceptual Understanding: Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location at a particular time. Weather is primarily determined by the angle and amount (time) of sunlight. Climate is the general weather conditions over a long period of time and is influenced by many factors.

H.E.5A.1

Develop and use models to describe the thermal structures (including the changes in air temperature due to changing altitude in the lower troposphere), the gaseous composition, and the location of the layers of Earths atmosphere.

H.E.5A.2

Develop and use models to predict and explain how the angle of solar incidence and Earths axial tilt impact (1) the length of daylight, (2) the atmospheric filtration, (3) the distribution of sunlight in any location, and (4) seasonal changes.

H.E.5A.3

Analyze and interpret data to predict local and national weather conditions on the basis of the relationship among the movement of air masses, pressure systems, and frontal boundaries.

H.E.5A.4

Analyze and interpret data of pressure differences, the direction of winds, and areas of uneven heating to explain how convection determines local wind patterns (including land/sea breezes, mountain/valley breezes, Chinook winds, and monsoons).

H.E.5A.5

Construct explanations for the formation of severe weather conditions (including tornadoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and blizzards) using evidence from temperature, pressure and moisture conditions.

H.E.5A.6

Develop and use models to exemplify how climate is driven by global circulation patterns.

H.E.5A.7

Construct scientific arguments to support claims of past changes in climate caused by various factors (such as changes in the atmosphere, variations in solar output, Earths orbit, changes in the orientation of Earths axis of rotation, or changes in the biosphere)

H.E.5A.8

Analyze scientific arguments regarding the nature of the relationship between human activities and climate change.

H.E.6

The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earths freshwater and ocean systems.

H.E.6A

Conceptual Understanding: Water is an essential resource on Earth. Organisms (including humans) on Earth depend on water for life. Its unique physical and chemical properties are important to the dynamics of Earth systems. Multiple factors affect the quality, availability, and distribution of Earths water.

H.E.6A.1

Analyze and interpret data to describe and compare the physical and chemical properties of saltwater and freshwater.

H.E.6A.2

Obtain and communicate information to explain how location, movement, and energy transfers are involved in making water available for use on Earths surface (including lakes, surface-water drainage basins, freshwater wetlands, and groundwater zones).

H.E.6A.3

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine how a change in stream flow might affect areas of erosion and deposition of a meandering alluvial stream.

H.E.6A.4

Analyze and interpret data of a local drainage basin to predict how changes caused by human activity and other factors influence the hydrology of the basin and amount of water available for use in the ecosystem.

H.E.6A.5

Analyze and interpret data to describe how the quality of the water in drainage basins is influenced by natural and human factors (such as land use, domestic and industrial waste, weather/climate conditions, topography of the river channel, pollution, or flooding).

H.E.6A.6

Develop and use models to explain how groundwater processes affect limestone formations leading to the formation of caves and karst topography.

H.E.6A.7

Obtain and communicate information to explain how the convection of ocean water due to temperature and density influence the circulation of oceans.

H.E.6A.8

Develop and use models to describe how waves and currents interact with the ocean shore.

H.E.6A.9

Ask questions about the designs of devices used to control and prevent coastal erosion and flooding and evaluate the designs in terms of the advantages and disadvantages required for solving the problems.

H.P.1

The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.

H.P.1A

Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers.

H.P.1A.1

Ask questions to (1) generate hypotheses for scientific investigations, (2) refine models, explanations, or designs, or (3) extend the results of investigations or challenge scientific arguments or claims.

H.P.1A.2

Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.

H.P.1A.3

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.

H.P.1A.4

Analyze and interpret data from informational texts and data collected from investigations using a range of methods (such as tabulation, graphing, or statistical analysis) to (1) reveal patterns and construct meaning, (2) support or refute hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs, or (3) evaluate the strength of conclusions.

H.P.1A.5

Use mathematical and computational thinking to (1) use and manipulate appropriate English and metric units, (2) express relationships between variables for models and investigations, or (3) use grade-level appropriate statistics to analyze data.

H.P.1A.6

Construct explanations of phenomena using (1) primary or secondary scientific evidence and models, (2) conclusions from scientific investigations, (3) predictions based on observations and measurements, or (4) data communicated in graphs, tables, or diagrams.

H.P.1A.7

Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims, explanations, or designs using evidence and valid reasoning from observations, data, or informational texts.

H.P.1A.8

Obtain and evaluate scientific information to (1) answer questions, (2) explain or describe phenomena, (3) develop models, (4) evaluate hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs or (5) identify and/or fill gaps in knowledge. Communicate using the conventions and expectations of scientific writing or oral presentations by (1) evaluating grade-appropriate primary or secondary scientific literature, or (2) reporting the results of student experimental investigations.

H.P.1B

Conceptual Understanding: Technology is any modification to the natural world created to fulfill the wants and needs of humans. The engineering design process involves a series of iterative steps used to solve a problem and often leads to the development of a new or improved technology.

H.P.1B.1

Construct devices or design solutions using scientific knowledge to solve specific problems or needs: (1) ask questions to identify problems or needs, (2) ask questions about the criteria and constraints of the device or solutions, (3) generate and communicate ideas for possible devices or solutions, (4) build and test devices or solutions, (5) determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed, and (6) communicate the results.

H.P.2

The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted using the concept of forces.

H.P.2A

Conceptual Understanding: The linear motion of an object can be described by its displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

H.P.2A.1

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations on the straight-line motion of an object to include an interpretation of the objects displacement, time of motion, constant velocity, average velocity, and constant acceleration.

H.P.2A.2

Construct explanations for an objects change in motion using one-dimensional vector addition.

H.P.2A.3

Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply formulas related to an objects displacement, constant velocity, average velocity and constant acceleration. Interpret the meaning of the sign of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

H.P.2A.4

Develop and use models to represent an objects displacement, velocity, and acceleration (including vector diagrams, data tables, motion graphs, dot motion diagrams, and mathematical formulas).

H.P.2A.5

Construct explanations for what is meant by constant velocity and constant acceleration (including writing descriptions of the objects motion and calculating the sign and magnitude of the slope of the line on a position-time and velocity-time graph).

H.P.2A.6

Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences between distance and displacement; speed and velocity; constant velocity and instantaneous velocity; constant velocity and average velocity; and velocity and acceleration.

H.P.2B

Conceptual Understanding: The interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the forces acting on the objects and applying Newtons laws of motion.

H.P.2B.1

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations involving the motion of an object to determine the relationships among the net force on the object, its mass, and its acceleration (Newtons second law of motion, Fnet = ma) and analyze collected data to construct an explanation of the objects motion using Newtons second law of motion.

H.P.2B.10

Obtain information to communicate physical situations in which Newtons Second Law of Motion does not apply.

H.P.2B.2

Use a free-body diagram to represent the forces on an object.

H.P.2B.3

Use Newtons Third Law of Motion to construct explanations of everyday phenomena (such as a hammer hitting a nail, the thrust of a rocket engine, the lift of an airplane wing, or a book at rest on a table) and identify the force pairs in each given situation involving two objects and compare the size and direction of each force.

H.P.2B.4

Use mathematical and computational thinking to derive the relationship between impulse and Newtons Second Law of Motion.

H.P.2B.5

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to support the Law of Conservation of Momentum in the context of two objects moving linearly (p=mv).

H.P.2B.6

Construct scientific arguments to defend the use of the conservation of linear momentum in the investigation of traffic accidents in which the initial motions of the objects are used to determine the final motions of the objects.

H.P.2B.7

Apply physics principles to design a device that minimizes the force on an object during a collision and construct an explanation for the design.

H.P.2B.8

Develop and use models (such as a computer simulation, drawing, or demonstration) and Newtons Second Law of Motion to construct explanations for why an object moving at a constant speed in a circle is accelerating.

H.P.2B.9

Construct explanations for the practical applications of torque (such as a see-saw, bolt, wrench, and hinged door).

H.P.2C

Conceptual Understanding: The contact interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the normal, tension, applied, and frictional forces acting on the objects and by applying Newtons Laws of Motion.

H.P.2C.1

Use a free-body diagram to represent the normal, tension (or elastic), applied, and frictional forces on an object.

H.P.2C.2

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the variables that could affect the kinetic frictional force on an object.

H.P.2C.3

Obtain and evaluate information to compare kinetic and static friction.

H.P.2C.4

Analyze and interpret data on force and displacement to determine the spring (or elastic) constant of an elastic material (Hookes Law, F=-kx), including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield the spring constant, k.

H.P.2C.5

Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply Fnet = ma to analyze problems involving contact interactions and gravity.

H.P.2D

Conceptual Understanding: The non-contact (at a distance) interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces acting on the objects and applying Newtons laws of motion. These noncontact forces can be represented as fields.

H.P.2D.1

Develop and use models (such as computer simulations, demonstrations, diagrams, and drawings) to explain how neutral objects can become charged and how objects mutually repel or attract each other and include the concept of conservation of charge in the explanation.

H.P.2D.10

Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply Fnet = ma to analyze problems involving non-contact interactions, including objects in free fall.

H.P.2D.2

Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the relationships among the masses of two objects, the attractive gravitational force between them, and the distance between them (Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation, F=Gm1m2/r2 ).

H.P.2D.3

Obtain information to communicate how long-term gravitational interactions govern the evolution and maintenance of large-scale structures in the universe (such as the solar system and galaxies) and the patterns of motion within them.

H.P.2D.4

Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the relationships among the charges of two particles, the attractive or repulsive electrical force between them, and the distance between them (Coulombs Law. F=kq1q2/r2 ).

H.P.2D.5

Construct explanations for how the non-contact forces of gravity, electricity, and magnetism can be modeled as fields by sketching field diagrams for two given charges, two massive objects, or a bar magnet and use these diagrams to qualitatively interpret the direction and magnitude of the force at a particular location in the field.

H.P.2D.6

Use a free-body diagram to represent the gravitational force on an object.

H.P.2D.7

Use a free-body diagram to represent the electrical force on a charge.

H.P.2D.8

Develop and use models (such as computer simulations, drawings, or demonstrations) to explain the relationship between moving charged particles (current) and magnetic forces and fields.

H.P.2D.9

Use Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation and Newtons second law of motion to explain why all objects near Earths surface have the same acceleration.

H.P.3

The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of the conservation of energy.

H.P.3A

Conceptual Understanding: Work and energy are equivalent to each other. Work is defined as the product of displacement and the force causing that displacement; this results in the transfer of mechanical energy. Therefore, in the case of mechanical energy, energy is seen as the ability to do work. This is called the work-energy principle. The rate at which work is done (or energy is transformed) is called power. For machines that do useful work for humans, the ratio of useful power output is the efficiency of the machine. For all energies and in all instances, energy in a closed system remains constant.

H.P.3A.1

Use mathematical and computational thinking to determine the work done by a constant force (W=Fd).

H.P.3A.2

Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with the work done on or by an object and its change in energy.

H.P.3A.3

Obtain information to communicate how energy is conserved in elastic and inelastic collisions.

H.P.3A.4

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the power output of the human body.

H.P.3A.5

Obtain and communicate information to describe the efficiency of everyday machines (such as automobiles, hair dryers, refrigerators, and washing machines).

H.P.3B

Conceptual Understanding: Mechanical energy refers to a combination of motion (kinetic energy) and stored energy (potential energy). When only conservative forces act on an object and when no mass is converted to energy, mechanical energy is conserved. Gravitational and electrical potential energy can be modeled as energy stored in the fields created by massive objects or charged particles.

H.P.3B.1

Develop and use models (such as computer simulations, drawings, bar graphs, and diagrams) to exemplify the transformation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act.

H.P.3B.2

Use mathematical and computational thinking to argue the validity of the conservation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act (KE = mv2 , PEg = mgh, PEe = kx2 ).

H.P.3B.3

Use drawings or diagrams to identify positions of relative high and low potential energy in a gravitational and electrical field (with the source of the field being positive as well as negative and the charge experiencing the field being positive as well as negative).

H.P.3C

Conceptual Understanding: When there is a temperature difference between two objects, an interaction occurs in the form of a transfer of thermal energy (heat) from the hotter object to the cooler object. Thermal energy is the total internal kinetic energy of the molecules and/or atoms of a system and is related to temperature, which is the average kinetic energy of the particles of a system. Energy always flows from hot to cold through the processes of conduction, convection, or radiation.

H.P.3C.1

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the variables that affect the rate of heat transfer between two objects.

H.P.3C.2

Analyze and interpret data to describe the thermal conductivity of different materials.

H.P.3C.3

Develop and use models (such as a drawing or a small-scale greenhouse) to exemplify the energy balance of the Earth (including conduction, convection, and radiation).

H.P.3D

Conceptual Understanding: Sound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave that is the result of vibrations (kinetic energy) that transfer energy through a medium.

H.P.3D.1

Develop and use models (such as drawings) to exemplify the interaction of mechanical waves with different boundaries (sound wave interference) including the formation of standing waves and two-source interference patterns.

H.P.3D.2

Use the principle of superposition to explain everyday examples of resonance (including musical instruments and the human voice).

H.P.3D.3

Develop and use models to explain what happens to the observed frequency of a sound wave when the relative positions of an observer and wave source changes (Doppler effect).

H.P.3D.4

Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems that relate the frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, velocity, and energy of sound waves.

H.P.3E

Conceptual Understanding: During electric circuit interactions, electrical energy (energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by a current) is transformed into other forms of energy and transferred to circuit devices and the surroundings. Charged particles and magnets create fields that store energy. Magnetic fields exert forces on moving charged particles. Changing magnetic fields cause electrons in wires to move, creating current.

H.P.3E.1

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the relationship between the current and potential drop (voltage) across an Ohmic resistor. Analyze and interpret data to verify Ohms law, including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield R, the resistance of the resistor.

H.P.3E.2

Develop and use models (such as circuit drawings and mathematical representations) to explain how an electric circuit works by tracing the path of the electrons and including concepts of energy transformation, transfer, and the conservation of energy and electric charge.

H.P.3E.3

Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with current, electric potential, resistance, and electric charge.

H.P.3E.4

Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with the power output of electric devices.

H.P.3E.5

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine how connecting resistors in series and in parallel affects the power (brightness) of light bulbs.

H.P.3E.6

Obtain and communicate information about the relationship between magnetism and electric currents to explain the role of magnets and coils of wire in microphones, speakers, generators, and motors.

H.P.3E.7

Design a simple motor and construct an explanation of how this motor transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy and work.

H.P.3F

Conceptual Undestanding: During radiant energy interactions, energy can be transferred over long distances without a medium. Radiation can be modeled as an electromagnetic wave or as a stream of discrete packets of energy (photons); all radiation travels at the same speed in a vacuum (speed of light). This electromagnetic radiation is a major source of energy for life on Earth.

H.P.3F.1

Construct scientific arguments that support the wave model of light and the particle model of light.

H.P.3F.2

Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the interaction between the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and various objects (including mirrors, lenses, barriers with two slits, and diffraction gratings) and to construct explanations of the behavior of light (reflection, refraction, transmission, interference) in these instances using models (including ray diagrams).

H.P.3F.3

Use drawings to exemplify the behavior of light passing from one transparent medium to another and construct explanations for this behavior.

H.P.3F.4

Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems that relate the frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, velocity, and energy of light.

H.P.3F.5

Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences among the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum (including radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, and gamma rays) and give examples of devices or phenomena from each band.

H.P.3F.6

Obtain information to construct explanations on how waves are used to produce, transmit, and capture signals and store and interpret information (including ultrasound imaging, telescopes, cell phones, and bar code scanners).

H.P.3G

Conceptual Understanding: Nuclear energy is energy stored in an atoms nucleus; this energy holds the atom together and is called binding energy. Binding energy is a reflection of the equivalence of mass and energy; the mass of any nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the individual constituent nucleons that comprise it. Binding energy is also a measure of the strong nuclear force that exists in the nucleus and is responsible for overcoming the repulsive forces among protons. The strong and weak nuclear forces, gravity, and the electromagnetic force are the fundamental forces in nature. Strong and weak nuclear forces determine nuclear sizes, stability, and rates of radioactive decay. At the subatomic scale, the conservation of energy becomes the conservation of mass-energy.

H.P.3G.1

Develop and use models to represent the basic structure of an atom (including protons, neutrons, electrons, and the nucleus).

H.P.3G.2

Develop and use models (such as drawings, diagrams, computer simulations, and demonstrations) to communicate the similarities and differences between fusion and fission. Give examples of fusion and fission reactions and include the concept of conservation of mass-energy.

H.P.3G.3

Construct scientific arguments to support claims for or against the viability of fusion and fission as sources of usable energy.

H.P.3G.4

Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the products of radioactive decay (including alpha, beta, and gamma decay).

H.P.3G.5

Obtain information to communicate how radioactive decay processes have practical applications (such as food preservation, cancer treatments, fossil and rock dating, and as radioisotopic medical tracers).