South Carolina Learning Standards for Social Studies — Grade 4

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The student will demonstrate an understanding of political, economic, and geographic reasons for the exploration of the New World.


Summarize the spread of Native American populations using the Landbridge Theory.


Compare the everyday life, physical environment, and culture of the major Native American cultural groupings, including the Eastern Woodlands, the Plains, the Southwest, the Great Basin, and the Pacific Northwest.


Explain the political, economic, and technological factors that led to the exploration of the new world by Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands, and England, including the competition between nations, the expansion of international trade, and the technological advances in shipbuilding and navigation.


Summarize the accomplishments of the Vikings and the Portuguese, Spanish, English, and French explorers, including Leif Eriksson, Columbus, Hernando de Soto, Magellan, Henry Hudson, John Cabot, and La Salle.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the settlement of North America was influenced by the interactions of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans.


Summarize the cause-and-effect relationships of the Columbian Exchange.


Compare the various European settlements in North America in terms of economic activities, religious emphasis, government, and lifestyles.


Explain the impact of the triangular trade, indentured servitude, and the enslaved and free Africans on the developing culture and economy of North America.


Summarize the relationships among the Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans, including the French and Indian Wars, the slave revolts, and the conduct of trade.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflict between the American colonies and England.


Explain the major political and economic factors leading to the American Revolution, including the French and Indian War, the Stamp Act, the Tea Act, and the Intolerable Acts as well as American resistance to these acts through boycotts, petitions, and congresses.


Explain the significance of major ideas and philosophies of government reflected in the Declaration of Independence.


Summarize the importance of the key battles of the Revolutionary War and the reasons for American victories including Lexington and Concord, Bunker (Breeds) Hill, Charleston, Saratoga, Cowpens, and Yorktown.


Explain how the American Revolution affected attitudes toward and the future of slavery, women, and Native Americans.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the beginnings of America as a nation and the establishment of the new government.


Compare the ideas in the Articles of Confederation with those in the United States Constitution, including how powers are now shared between state and national government and how individuals and states are represented in Congress.


Explain the structure and function of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal government.


Explain how the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights placed importance on the active involvement of citizens in government and protected the rights of white male property owners but not those of the slaves, women, and Native Americans.


Compare the roles and accomplishments of early leaders in the development of the new nation, including George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, John Marshall, and James Madison.


Compare the social and economic policies of the two political parties that were formed in America in the 1790s.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of westward expansion of the United States and its impact on the institution of slavery.


Summarize the major expeditions that played a role in westward expansion including those of Daniel Boone, Lewis and Clark, and Zebulon Pike.


Explain the motivations and methods of migrants and immigrants, who moved West, including economic opportunities, the availability of rich land, and the countrys belief in Manifest Destiny.


Explain the purpose, location, and impact of key United States acquisitions in the first half of the nineteenth century, including the Louisiana Purchase, the Florida Purchase, the Oregon Treaty, the annexation of Texas, and the Mexican Cession.


Summarize how territorial expansion, related land policies, and specific legislation affected Native Americans, including the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Indian Removal Act of 1830.


Explain how the Missouri Compromise, the fugitive slave laws, the annexation of Texas, the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision affected the institution of slavery in the United States and its territories.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes, the course, and the effects of the American Civil War.


Explain the significant economic and geographic differences between the North and South.


Explain the contributions of abolitionists to the mounting tensions between the North and South over slavery, including William Lloyd Garrison, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and John Brown.


Explain the specific events and issues that led to the Civil War, including sectionalism, slavery in the territories, states rights, the presidential election of 1860, and secession.


Summarize significant battles, strategies, and turning points of the Civil War, including the battles of Fort Sumter and Gettysburg, the Emancipation Proclamation, the role of African Americans in the war, the surrender at Appomattox, and the assassination of President Lincoln.


Explain the social, economic, and political effects of the Civil War on the United States.