South Carolina Learning Standards for Social Studies — Grade 9

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The student will demonstrate an understanding of how scarcity and choice impact the decisions of families, businesses, communities, and nations.


Explain that the practice of economic decision making is an evaluation process that measures additional benefits versus additional costs.


Explain why the productive resources of land, labor, and capital are limited.


Apply the concept that people respond to positive and negative incentives to past and current economic decisions.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of how markets facilitate exchange and how market regulation costs both consumers and producers.


Illustrate how markets are created when voluntary exchanges occur between buyers and sellers.


Explain how efficient markets allocate goods, services, and the factors of production in a market-based economy.


Illustrate how competition among sellers lowers costs and prices.


Illustrate how an economically efficient market allocates goods and services to the buyers who are willing to pay for them.


Explain how business cycles, market conditions, government policies, and inequalities affect the living standards of individuals and other economic entities.


Explain how market power enables some market structures to affect their situations to varying degrees and to use this market power to increase prices and reduce output.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of how government policies, business cycles, inflation, deflation, savings rates, and employment affect all economic entities.


Explain that institutions in a market economy help individuals and groups accomplish their goals.


Illustrate how money and the consequent banking system facilitate trade, historically and currently.


Explain how real interest rates adjust savings with borrowing, thus affecting the allocation of scarce resources between present and future users.


Use a circular flow diagram to explain how changes in economic activity affect households and businesses.


Explain how the federal government regulates the American economy in order to provide economic security, full employment, and economic equity.


Explain how economic indicators are used to evaluate changes in economic activity.


Illustrate the relationships among business cycles and unemployment, growth, price levels, wage rates, and investment.


Explain how the Federal Reserve regulates the amount of cash that banks can acquire and retain and therefore helps to provide a foundation for economic stability.


Exemplify how government, in a market economy, provides for services that private markets fail to provide and thus the costs of government policies often exceed benefits.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of how trade among nations affects markets, employment, economic growth, and other activity in the domestic economy


Summarize how differing factor endowmentssuch as geography, the development of technology, and the abundance of laboraffect the goods and services in which a nation specializes.


Explain how the United States specializes in the production of those goods and services in which it has a comparative advantage.


Explain how the rise of a global marketplace contributes to the well-being of all societies but the benefits derived from globalization are unequal.


Explain how a global marketplace influences domestic labor markets, wage rates, unemployment levels, and disparities in earning potentials.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of how personal financial decisions affect an individuals present and future economic status


Explain how individuals make personal economic decisions and how current spending and acquisition of debt can impact future income.


Explain that income for most people is determined by the market value of the productive resources they sell.


Explain how wage rates for most workers depend upon the market value of what the workers produce for the marketplace.

MWH -2

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the benefits and costs of the growth of kingdoms into empires from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries.

MWH -2.1.

Evaluate the consequences of the changing boundaries of kingdoms in Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa.

MWH -2.2

Describe the principle routes of exploration and trade between Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas from the late fifteenth century through the sixteenth century.

MWH -2.3

Explain the competition between European kingdoms for space and resources, including the Hundred Years War between France and England, the rise of the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe, and the response to Islam on the Iberian Peninsula

MWH -2.4

Analyze the influence of the Mughal empire on the development of India, including the influence of Persian culture and the Muslim religion on the Hindu culture.

MWH -2.5

Evaluate the impact of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Eastern Europe

MWH -2.6

Describe the impact of the competition among European countries on the various kingdoms of the Americas and Africa, including the Columbian Exchange and the slave trade.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the major factors that facilitated exchanges among groups of people and how exchanges influenced those people in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.


Describe the diffusion of people and goods between Europe, Asia, and Africa during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries to show the networks of economic interdependence and cultural interactions.


Explain the impact of the Crusades and the Renaissance on European exploration, including the significance of humanism, the revival of learning, and the transfer of knowledge about sailing and ancient philosophy from the Arabs to the Europeans.


Analyze the reasons for European interest in Africa, including the significance of the struggle between Muslim and Christian leaders in the Mediterranean and European interest in finding new trade routes to Asia.


Evaluate the impact of the collapse of European feudal institutions and the spread of towns on the transmission of goods, people, and ideas in Europe.


Explain how the development of banks in Europe influenced the transfer of goods throughout Europe.


Evaluate the role the Ming emperors played in extending Chinese influence over East Asia.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the impact of religious movements throughout the world in the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries.


Describe the proliferation of religious ideas, including the expansion of Islam, the competition between Protestants and Catholics throughout Europe, and the spread of Buddhism through East and Southeast Asia


Evaluate the impact of religious dissent on the development of European kingdoms during the sixteenth century, including the warfare between peasants and feudal lords in German principalities, the conflict between the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire and the Hapsburg emperors, the creation of the Church of England, and the dynastic and religious competition in France.


Explain the role of Islam on the cultures of the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia, including its methods of expansion, its impact on religious diversity, and reactions to its expansion.


Explain the role of Buddhism and its impact on the cultures throughout East and Southeast Asia, including Buddhisms basic tenets, the impact of the local rulers on religious conversion, and the religions enduring traditions.


Compare the spread of religion and the development of trade routes and diplomatic connections, including Christian missionary work, Buddhist and Islamic pilgrimages, and the competition between Muslims and Christians for territory.


Analyze various indigenous religions practiced in Africa and the Americas and their impact on the culture of the region, including animism and polytheism


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflicts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe, America, Africa, and Asia.


Explain the changing boundaries in Europe and Asia as a result of the competition between nation-states during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.


Explain the changes in European overseas empires during this period, including the waning of the Spanish and Portuguese empires and the struggle between empires and colonists.


Explain the similarities between the Qin and Ming dynasties in China, including foreign relations, culture, and economic practices.


Evaluate the success of the Ming dynasty in sustaining a prosperous Chinese empire and strengthening Chinese hegemony in Asia.


Analyze the factors that contributed to the collapse of the Mughal empire in India, including the role of religious intolerance.


Analyze the trade policy of mercantilism and its influence on the relationship between imperial centers and their peripheries.


Explain the disruption within West African kingdoms as a result of the competition between European countries over slave trade.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the influence of ideas and technology on the development of nation-states and empires in the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries.


Explain how the scientific revolution in Europe led to the questioning of orthodox ideas.


Analyze the ideas of social equality, democracy, constitutionalism, and nationalism brought about by the Enlightenment and their effects on institutions.


Identify the major technological and social characteristics of the Industrial Revolution.


Analyze the relationship between the expanding world market economy and the development of industrialization in Great Britain, the United States, Germany, and Japan, including shifts in world demography and urbanization and changing class and race relations.


Compare capitalism with other forms of political and economic ideologies, including socialism, communism, and anarchism.


Analyze Asias relationship with European states through 1800, including Japans policy of limiting contacts with foreigners.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the creation of nationstates in Europe and the struggle by non-European nations to gain and/or maintain sovereignty.


Explain the impact of English political institutions and attitudes on their North American colonies, and the American Revolution.


Analyze the reasons for independence movements as exemplified by the French and Haitian revolutions and eighteenth-century South American rebellions.


Analyze various movements for individual rights, including worldwide abolitionism, the end of slave trade movements in England and Latin America, the liberation of serfs in Russia, and the growing movement for womens rights.


Explain the causes of the revolutions of 1820, 1830, and 1848 and the reasons why these revolutions failed to achieve nationalist and democratic objectives.


Analyze the successes and limitations of movements for national unity, including the unification of Germany and Italy and the American Civil War.


Describe the reactions in Asian kingdoms to the Western ideas of nationalism, including the Indian nationalist movement, the Meiji era in Japan, and the Manchu dynasty in China.


Explain the causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917, including the reasons that the revolutionary government progressed from moderate to radical.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and consequences of global warfare in the first half of the twentieth century.


Analyze the relative importance of economic and political rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, social class, militarism, and imperialism as underlying causes of World War I and World War II, including the role of nationalism and propaganda in mobilizing civilian populations around the world to support the two world wars.


Analyze the ways that the responses of the governments of Britain, France, Germany, and Italy to the economic and political challenges of the 1920s and 1930s contributed to the renewal of international hostilities in the years leading to World War II.


Describe major shifts in world geopolitics between 1900 and 1945, including the changing role of the United States in international affairs and the move from isolationism to an increased role as a world power.


Explain the origins of the conflict in the Middle East as a result of the collapse of the German, Habsburg, and Ottoman empires after World War I and the creation of the state of Israel after World War II.


Explain the impact of collapsing imperial regimes and growing nationalist movements in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia, including Pan-Africanism and the emerging civil rights movement in the United States.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and consequences of decolonization in the second half of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century.


Evaluate the relative importance of factors such as world war, economic depression, nationalist ideology, labor organizations, communism, and liberal democratic ideals in the emergence of movements for national self-rule or sovereignty in Africa and Asia.


Explain the rationale for the development of supranational organizations (e.g., the United Nations, the European Union, the African Union, the Organization of American States).


Illustrate the impact of the Cold War on developing and newly independent countries, including Soviet, United States, and Chinese involvement in the domestic and foreign affairs of countries such as Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Vietnam, Korea, Chile, Cuba, Guatemala, and the Congo.


Describe the diffusion of aspects of popular cultures, including music, film, art forms, and foodways.


Analyze the impact of movements for equality in the United States, Africa, and Southeast Asia as well as the varying reactions around the world to equity issues.


Analyze the impact that the collapse of the Soviet Union and communist governments in Eastern Europe had on the people and geopolitics of Eurasia, including the balkanization of Yugoslavia, the reunification of Germany, and the creation of the new republics in Central Asia.


Evaluate the benefits and costs of increasing worldwide trade and technological growth, including the movement of people and products, the growth of multinational corporations, the increase in environmental concerns, and the increase in cultural exchanges.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of foundational political theory, concepts, and application.


Analyze political theories related to the existence, necessity, and purpose of government, including natural rights, balance of the public and private interests, and physical and economic security.


Analyze components of government and the governing process, including politics, power, authority, sovereignty, legitimacy, public institutions, efficacy, and civic life.


Evaluate the role and relationship of the citizen to government in democratic, republican, authoritarian, and totalitarian systems.


Analyze the institutional and organizational structure of government that allows it to carry out its purpose and function effectively, including the branches of government and legitimate bureaucratic institutions.


Evaluate limited government and unlimited government with regard to governance, including rule of law, the role of constitutions, civil rights, political freedom, economic freedom, and the ability of citizens to impact or influence the governing process.


Evaluate the organization of government in confederal, federal, and unitary systems, including the distribution of power and the advantages and disadvantages of each system.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of foundational American political principles and the historical events and philosophical ideas that shaped the development and application of these principles.


Summarize core principles of United States government, including limited government, federalism, checks and balances, separation of powers, rule of law, popular sovereignty, republicanism, individual rights, freedom, equality, and selfgovernment


Analyze developmental influences on the core political principles of American government, including Greek democracy, Roman republicanism, the JudeoChristian heritage, and the European philosophers John Locke, Charles de Montesquieu, and William Blackstone


Analyze the British heritage that fostered development of the core political principles of American government, including the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right (1628), the Glorious Revolution, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact.


Evaluate significant American founding documents in relation to core political principles, including the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, state constitutions, the United States Constitution, The Federalist papers, and the Bill of Rights.


Evaluate significant American historical documents in relation to the application of core principles (e.g., the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, the Ordinance of Nullification, the Seneca Falls Declaration, the Emancipation Proclamation, Martin Luther King Jr.s Letter from a Birmingham Jail), the eleventh through the twentyseventh amendments to the Constitution, and critical Supreme Court cases.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the basic organization and function of United States government on national, state, and local levels and the role of federalism in addressing the distribution of power.


Evaluate the Constitution as the written framework of the United States government, including expression of the core principles of limited government, federalism, checks and balances, separation of powers, rule of law, popular sovereignty, republicanism, individual rights, freedom, equality, and self-government.


Evaluate the formal and informal structure, role, responsibilities, and authority of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government as the embodiments of constitutional principles.


Analyze federalism and its application in the United States, including the concepts of enumerated, concurrent, and reserved powers; the meaning of the ninth and tenth amendments; the principle of states rights; the promotion of limited government; the protection of individual rights; and the potential for conflict among the levels of government.


Analyze the organization and responsibilities of local and state governments in the United States federal system, including the role of state constitutions, the limitations on state governments, the typical organization of state governments, the relationship between state and local governments, and the major responsibilities of state governments.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of civil rights and civil liberties, the role of American citizens in the American political system, and distinctive expressions of American political culture.


Evaluate the role of the citizen in the American political process, including civic responsibilities and the interaction between the citizen and government.


Analyze the process of political socialization and its relation to political participation.


Evaluate the role and function of common avenues utilized by citizens in political participation, including political parties, voting, polls, interest groups, and community service.


Analyze the process through which citizens monitor and influence public policy, including political parties, interest groups, the media, lobbying, donations, issue advocacy, and candidate support.


Evaluate the importance of civil rights and civil liberties for citizens in American political culture and the protective role of the national government through the Bill of Rights, the judicial system, and the Fourteenth Amendment.


Explain how fundamental values, principles, and rights often conflict within the American political system; why these conflicts arise; and how these conflicts are and can be addressed.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the industrial development and the consequences of that development on society and politics during the second half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries.

USHC 4.1

Summarize the impact that government policy and the construction of the transcontinental railroads had on the development of the national market and on the culture of Native American peoples


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States.


Summarize the distinct characteristics of each colonial region in the settlement and development of British North America, including religious, social, political, and economic differences.


Analyze the early development of representative government and political rights in the American colonies, including the influence of the British political system and the rule of law as written in the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights, and the conflict between the colonial legislatures and the British Parliament over the right to tax that resulted in the American Revolutionary War.


Analyze the impact of the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution on establishing the ideals of a democratic republic.


Analyze how dissatisfactions with the government under the Articles of Confederation were addressed with the writing of the Constitution of 1787, including the debates and compromises reached at the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification of the Constitution.


Explain how the fundamental principle of limited government is protected by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, including democracy, republicanism, federalism, the separation of powers, the system of checks and balances, and individual rights.


Analyze the development of the two-party system during the presidency of George Washington, including controversies over domestic and foreign policies and the regional interests of the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists.


Summarize the expansion of the power of the national government as a result of Supreme Court decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall, such as the establishment of judicial review in Marbury v. Madison and the impact of political party affiliation on the Court.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of how economic developments and the westward movement impacted regional differences and democracy in the early nineteenth century.


Summarize the impact of the westward movement on nationalism and democracy, including the expansion of the franchise, the displacement of Native Americans from the southeast and conflicts over states rights and federal power during the era of Jacksonian democracy as the result of major land acquisitions such as the Louisiana Purchase, the Oregon Treaty, and the Mexican Cession.


Explain how the Monroe Doctrine and the concept of Manifest Destiny affected the United States relationships with foreign powers, including the role of the United States in the Texan Revolution and the Mexican War.


Compare the economic development in different regions (the South, the North, and the West) of the United States during the early nineteenth century, including ways that economic policy contributed to political controversies.


Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and womens rights.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War and an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America.


Evaluate the relative importance of political events and issues that divided the nation and led to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, the abolitionist movement, the Dred Scott case, conflicting views on states rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party, and the formation of the Confederate States of America.


Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy; and the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession.


Analyze the effects of Reconstruction on the southern states and on the role of the federal government, including the impact of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments on opportunities for African Americans.


Summarize the end of Reconstruction, including the role of antiAfrican American factions and competing national interests in undermining support for Reconstruction; the impact of the removal of federal protection for freedmen; and the impact of Jim Crow laws and voter restrictions on African American rights in the post-Reconstruction era.


Evaluate the varied responses of African Americans to the restrictions imposed on them in the post-Reconstruction period, including the leadership and strategies of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, and Ida B. Wells-Barnett.


Analyze the factors that influenced the economic growth of the United States and its emergence as an industrial power, including the abundance of natural resources; government support and protection in the form of railroad subsidies, tariffs, and labor policies; and the expansion of international markets.


Evaluate the role of capitalism and its impact on democracy, including the ascent of new industries, the increasing availability of consumer goods and the rising standard of living, the role of entrepreneurs, the rise of business through monopoly and the influence of business ideologies.


Explain the impact of industrial growth and business cycles on farmers, workers, immigrants, labor unions, and the Populist movement and the ways that these groups and the government responded to the economic problems caused by industry and business.


Explain the causes and effects of urbanization in late nineteenth-century America, including the movement from farm to city, the changing immigration patterns, the rise of ethnic neighborhoods, the role of political machines, and the migration of African Americans to the North, Midwest, and West.


Compare the accomplishments and limitations of the womens suffrage movement and the Progressive Movement in affecting social and political reforms in America, including the roles of the media and of reformers such as Carrie Chapman Catt, Alice Paul, Jane Addams, and presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of domestic and foreign developments that contributed to the emergence of the United States as a world power in the twentieth century.


Analyze the development of American expansionism, including the change from isolationism to intervention and the rationales for imperialism based on Social Darwinism, expanding capitalism, and domestic tensions.


Explain the influence of the Spanish-American War on the emergence of the United States as a world power, including the role of yellow journalism in the American declaration of war against Spain, United States interests and expansion in the South Pacific, and the debate between pro- and anti-imperialists over annexation of the Philippines.


Summarize United States foreign policies in different regions of the world during the early twentieth century, including the purposes and effects of the Open Door policy with China, the United States role in the Panama Revolution, Theodore Roosevelts big stick diplomacy, William Tafts dollar diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilsons moral diplomacy and changing worldwide perceptions of the United States.


Analyze the causes and consequences of United States involvement in World War I, including the failure of neutrality and the reasons for the declaration of war, the role of propaganda in creating a unified war effort, the limitation of individual liberties, and Woodrow Wilsons leadership in the Treaty of Versailles and the creation of the League of Nations.


Analyze the United States rejection of internationalism, including postwar disillusionment, the Senates refusal to ratify the Versailles Treaty, the election of 1920, and the role of the United States in international affairs in the 1920s.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflict between traditionalism and progressivism in the 1920s and the economic collapse and the political response to the economic crisis in the 1930s.


Explain the impact of the changes in the 1920s on the economy, society, and culture, including the expansion of mass production techniques, the invention of new home appliances, the introduction of the installment plan, the role of transportation in changing urban life, the effect of radio and movies in creating a national mass culture, and the cultural changes exemplified by the Harlem Renaissance.


Explain the causes and effects of the social change and conflict between traditional and modern culture that took place during the 1920s, including the role of women, the Red Scare, the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, immigration quotas, Prohibition, and the Scopes trial.


Explain the causes and consequences of the Great Depression, including the disparities in income and wealth distribution; the collapse of the farm economy and the effects of the Dust Bowl; limited governmental regulation; taxes, investment; and stock market speculation; policies of the federal government and the Federal Reserve System; and the effects of the Depression on the people.


Analyze President Franklin Roosevelts New Deal as a response to the economic crisis of the Great Depression, including the effectiveness of New Deal programs in relieving suffering and achieving economic recovery, in protecting the rights of women and minorities, and in making significant reforms to protect the economy such as Social Security and labor laws.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the impact of World


Analyze the decision of the United States to enter World War II, including the nations movement from a policy of isolationism to international involvement and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.


Evaluate the impact of war mobilization on the home front, including consumer sacrifices, the role of women and minorities in the workforce, and limits on individual rights that resulted in the internment of Japanese Americans.


Explain how controversies among the Big Three Allied leaders over war strategies led to post-war conflict between the United States and the USSR, including delays in the opening of the second front in Europe, the participation of the Soviet Union in the war in the Pacific, and the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.


Summarize the economic, humanitarian, and diplomatic effects of World War II, including the end of the Great Depression, the Holocaust, the war crimes trials, and the creation of Israel.


Analyze the impact of the Cold War on national security and individual freedom, including the containment policy and the role of military alliances, the effects of the Red Scare and McCarthyism, the conflicts in Korea and the Middle East, the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall, the Cuban missile crisis, and the nuclear arms race.


Analyze the causes and consequences of social and cultural changes in postwar America, including educational programs, the consumer culture and expanding suburbanization, the advances in medical and agricultural technology that led to changes in the standard of living and demographic patterns, and the roles of women in American society.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of social, economic and political issues in contemporary America.


Analyze the African American Civil Rights Movement, including initial strategies, landmark court cases and legislation, the roles of key civil rights advocates and the media, and the influence of the Civil Rights Movement on other groups seeking equality


Compare the social and economic policies of presidents Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon, including support for civil rights legislation, programs for the elderly and the poor, environmental protection, and the impact of these policies on politics.


Explain the development of the war in Vietnam and its impact on American government and politics, including the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and the policies of the Johnson administration, protests and opposition to the war, the role of the media, the policies of the Nixon administration, and the growing credibility gap that culminated in the Watergate scandal.


Analyze the causes and consequences of the resurgence of the conservative movement, including social and cultural changes of the 1960s and 1970s, Supreme Court decisions on integration and abortion, the economic and social policies of the Reagan administration, and the role of the media.


Summarize key political and economic issues of the last twenty-five years, including continuing dependence on foreign oil; trade agreements and globalization; health and education reforms; increases in economic disparity and recession; tax policy; the national surplus, debt, and deficits; immigration; presidential resignation/impeachment; and the elections of 2000 and 2008.


Summarize Americas role in the changing world, including the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the expansion of the European Union, the continuing crisis in the Middle East, and the rise of global terrorism.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human characteristics of places, including the creation of regions and the ways that culture and experience influence the perception of place.


Analyze physical characteristics of the environment that result in opportunities and obstacles for people (e.g., the role of climate in agriculture, site characteristics that limit development).


Analyze human characteristics of places, including the ways places change with innovation and the diffusion of people and ideas (e.g., the spread of religion and democracy).


Explain how physical environment and human characteristics can be used to organize a region and how regions change over time (e.g., from heavy manufacturing belts to rust belts).


Differentiate the ways in which people change their views of places and regions as a result of physical, cultural, economic and political conditions (e.g., views of the Middle East after September 11, 2001).


Explain how individuals view places and regions on the basis of their particular stage of life, gender, social class, ethnicity, values, and access to technology (e.g., how retirees have changed the cultural landscape and available human services in Florida).


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earths surface, including the dynamics of the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere


Explain the ways in which Earths physical systems and processes (the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere) are dynamic and interactive (e.g., conditions that cause changes in climate).


Explain how variability in Earth-Sun relationships affects Earths physical processes over time (e.g., glaciation).


Infer the resulting change produced by a specific physical process operating on Earths surface (e.g., the role of plate tectonics in mountain building).


Explain how a physical event or process can influence an ecosystem in terms of its characteristics and its ability to withstand stress (e.g., the response of forest flora to a fire).


Infer how physical processes can cause change over time in the distribution and characteristics of ecosystems and biomes (e.g., how changes in temperature and moisture can drive desertification).


Evaluate ecosystems in terms of their biodiversity and productivity (e.g., how both characteristics vary across space and in their value to all living things).


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earths surface.


Evaluate demographic patterns to predict trends in the spatial distribution of population using graphs, maps, and other models (e.g., Hispanic population growth in the United States).


Analyze population issues and policies, including pro-natal and anti-natal policies of different countries and their effects on population characteristics (e.g., Chinas one-child policy).


Explain the cultural, economic, political, and environmental push and pull factors that contribute to human migration (e.g., residents evacuating from a natural disaster like Hurricane Katrina).


Evaluate the impact of human migration on physical and human systems including changes in population density, the use of resources, and the provision of services (e.g., the environmental costs of refugee settlement camps in Africa).


Compare the response of different groups and governments to migration, including national migration policies and differing responses by local communities (e.g., the requirement that immigrants adopt the new language).


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of culture, the patterns of culture, and cultural change.


Identify the characteristics of culture and the impacts of cultural beliefs on gender roles and the perception of race and ethnicity as they vary from one region to another (e.g., legal rights for women in the Middle East and South Asia).


Compare and contrast the consequences of differing cultural views of nature and the use of natural resources including the development of a built environment from a natural environment (e.g., the former Soviet Unions disregard for the environment).


Compare the roles that cultural factors such as religious, linguistic, and ethnic differences play in cooperation and conflict within and among societies.


Explain the spatial processes of cultural convergence (e.g., American-based fast-food franchises in the developing world).


Explain how a blending of cultures can alter cultural solidarity (e.g., the blurring sense of nationality stemming from the creation of the European Union)


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the role that geography plays in economic development.


Summarize the changes in the spatial distribution and the patterns of production and consumption of selected goods and services as they vary from one region of the world to another (e.g., the manufacturing shift away from the United States).


Classify and describe the spatial distribution of major economic systems, including traditional, command, and market economic systems (e.g., North Koreas command economy as opposed to Germanys market economy).


Explain the spatial relationships between various economic activities (e.g., the integrated relationship between farms and markets in agriculture).


Summarize the factors that influence the location and spatial distribution of economic activities, including the factors of site and situation (e.g., Singapores deep-water ports and their locations relative to markets).


Explain the consequences of the current global trade systems for economic and environmental sustainability in both importing and exporting countries (e.g., the impacts of overfishing on local ecosystems to meet foreign product demand).


Explain the connection between the delivery of goods and services and the transportation and communications networks that are needed to provide them (e.g., the hub-and-spoke systems used by airfreight companies).


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement.


Compare the changing functions, sizes, and spatial patterns of rural and urban regions (e.g., the concentration of shopping services in suburbs).


Explain how the structure of rural and urban places is impacted by economic, social, political, and environmental transitions, including gains or losses by industries and the outsourcing or offshoring of labor (e.g., the shift from textiles to automobile manufacturing in the American South).


Explain how globalization has changed the function of cities (e.g., the role of technology that has reduced logistics related to distance).


Explain the advantages and disadvantages of daily life in rural and urban locations (e.g., transportation systems, zoning, congestion, population density, cultural opportunities, cost of living).


Compare different urban models to explain the structures and patterns in cities that vary from one region to another (e.g., the spine in Latin American cities).


Summarize the physical and human impacts of emerging urban forms in the world (e.g., the environmental challenges posed by increasing urbanization and sprawl).


The student will demonstrate an understanding of how cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earths surface.


Explain how cooperation and/or conflict can lead to the control of Earths surface (e.g., the establishment of new social, political, or economic divisions).


Explain the causes of boundary conflicts and internal disputes between culture groups (e.g., the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict).


Explain why political boundaries such as national borders or political districts change (e.g., those of historic imperial powers).


Explain how the size, shape, and relative location of a country or a nation can be an advantage or a disadvantage to it (e.g., the natural-resource potential of Russia as opposed to its ability to protect its immense landmass from outside aggression).


Explain how a countrys ambition to obtain foreign markets and resources can cause fractures and disruptions in the world (e.g., the energy needs of China in its emerging role in Africa).


Analyze how globalization affects different functions of citizenship (e.g., the need for only one passport for members of the European Union).


The student will demonstrate an understanding of how human actions modify the physical environment; how physical systems affect human systems; and how resources change in meaning, use, distribution, and importance.


Evaluate the ways in which technology has expanded the human capability to modify the physical environment both locally and globally (e.g., the risks and benefits associated with how the petroleum industry uses offshore drilling).


Compare how human modification of the physical environment varies from one region to another and may require different human responses (e.g., the resettlement of Chinese villages in response to the Three Gorges Dam).


Explain the ways in which individuals and societies mitigate the effects of hazards and adapt to them as part of their environment (e.g., the earthquake and subsequent nuclear disaster in Japan).


Analyze the relationships between the spatial distribution of humans and resources (e.g., the positive and negative consequences of resource use as exemplified by the shrinking of the Aral Sea).


Analyze policy decisions regarding the use of resources in different regions of the world, including how the demand for resources impacts economies, population distribution, and the environment.