Arkansas English Language Arts Standards — Grade 12


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L.11-12.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking as appropriate for Grades 11-12.

L.11-12.1.A

Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested

L.11-12.1.B

Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, Garner's Modern American Usage) as needed.

L.11-12.1.C

Form and use correctly the full range of verb tenses and moods.

L.11-12.1.D

Use appropriate shifts in verb voice and mood, and ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.

L.11-12.1.E

This standard is taught in Grade 5 and should be reinforced as needed. Use the relative adverbs where, when, and why.

L.11-12.1.F

Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifier

L.11-12.1.G

This standard is taught in Grade 4 and should be reinforced as needed. Form and use prepositional phrases.

L.11-12.1.H

This standard is taught in Grade 7 and should be reinforced as needed. Produce a variety of compound complex sentences using dependent clauses, subordinating conjunctions, and coordinating conjunctions.

L.11-12.1.I

This standard is taught in Grade 4 and should be reinforced as needed. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.

L.11-12.1.J

This standard is taught in Kindergarten and should be reinforced as needed. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) e.g., who, what, when, where, why, how).

L.11-12.1.K

This standard is taught in Grade 3 and should be reinforced as needed. Form all upper- and lowercase letters to write words legibly in cursive.

L.11-12.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling as appropriate for Grades 11-12 when writing.

L.11-12.2.A

This standard is taught in Grade 4 and should be reinforced as needed. Use correct capitalization.

L.11-12.2.B

Observe hyphenation conventions.

L.11-12.2.C

Use appropriate punctuation (e.g., commas, ellipsis, dash, semicolon) to separate elements in a sentence.

L.11-12.3

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

L.11-12.3.A

Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte's Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed.

L.11-12.3.B

Apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

L.11-12.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

L.11-12.4.A

Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

L.11-12.4.B

Identify and correctly use patterns of word forms that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).

L.11-12.4.C

Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage

L.11-12.4.D

Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

L.11-12.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings, as appropriate for the grade level.

L.11-12.5.A

Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.

L.11-12.5.B

Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

L.11-12.5.C

This standard is taught in Grade 8 and should be reinforced as needed. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).

L.11-12.5.D

This standard is taught in Grade 1 and should be reinforced as needed. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.

L.11-12.6

Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression

RI.11-12.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

RI.11-12.10

By the end of Grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the Grades 11-12 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of Grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the Grades 11-12 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

RI.11-12.2

Examine a grade-appropriate informational text. Provide an objective summary of the text. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis.

RI.11-12.3

Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

RI.11-12.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful.

RI.11-12.5

Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

RI.11-12.6

Determine an author's point of view, perspective, or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.

RI.11-12.7

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats in order to address a question or solve a problem.

RI.11-12.8

Delineate and evaluate the reasoning, premises, purposes, and arguments in texts such as works of public advocacy or foundational documents.

RI.11-12.9

Analyze documents of historical and literary significance, including U.S. documents when appropriate, for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.

RL.11-12.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

RL.11-12.10

By the end of Grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the Grades 11-12 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of Grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the Grades 11-12 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

RL.11-12.2

Examine a grade-appropriate literary text. Provide an objective summary. Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account.

RL.11-12.3

Analyze how characterization, plot, setting, and other elements interact and contribute to the development and complexity of a text.

RL.11-12.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful.

RL.11-12.5

Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

RL.11-12.6

Analyze a case in which grasping perspective and/or purpose requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

RL.11-12.7

Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text

RL.11-12.8

RL.11-12.8 is not applicable to literature based on anchor standard CCRA.R.8. Analyze and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

RL.11-12.9

Analyze how two or more influential literary works from the same time period address similar themes or topics.

SL.11-12.1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative conversations (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grades 1112 topics, texts, and issues, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

SL.11-12.1.A

Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

SL.11-12.1.B

Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.

SL.11-12.1.C

Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.

SL.11-12.1.D

Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.

SL.11-12.2

Integrate multiple sources of information that is gained by means other than reading (e.g., texts read aloud; oral presentations of charts, graphs, or diagrams; speeches) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

SL.11-12.3

Evaluate a speaker's perspective, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

SL.11-12.4

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

SL.11-12.5

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, auditory, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

SL.11-12.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of standard and/or formal English when indicated or appropriate

W.11-12.1

Write arguments to support claims when analyzing substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant, sufficient evidence.

W.11-12.1.A

Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

W.11-12.1.B

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence and insightful commentary for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

W.11-12.1.C

Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to create cohesion and convey logical relationships among claims, evidence, and commentary.

W.11-12.1.D

Establish and maintain an appropriate style, tone, and format within the norms and conventions of the discipline.

W.11-12.1.E

Provide a concluding statement or section that extends from and supports the argument presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the argument).

W.11-12.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences

W.11-12.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

W.11-12.2.A

Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; when useful, include headings, graphics, and multimedia to aid in comprehension.

W.11-12.2.B

Develop the topic thoroughly by supplying the most significant and relevant evidence (e.g., facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples) and by providing insightful commentary appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.

W.11-12.2.C

Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.

W.11-12.2.D

Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.

W.11-12.2.E

Establish and maintain a formal style, objective tone, and appropriate format within norms and conventions of the discipline.

W.11-12.2.F

Provide a concluding statement or section that extends from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

W.11-12.3

Write narratives to develop real and/or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

W.11-12.3.A

Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or more points of view/perspectives, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.

W.11-12.3.B

Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.

W.11-12.3.C

Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).

W.11-12.3.D

Use precise words, phrases, and details, as well as sensory language, to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.

W.11-12.3.E

Provide a purposeful ending that follows from and/or reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative when required by the task.

W.11-12.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

W.11-12.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

W.11-12.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

W.11-12.7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

W.11-12.8

Gather relevant information from multiple credible print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively. Assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience. Integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source. Follow a standard format for citation.

W.11-12.9

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, research, and/or synthesis.

W.11-12.9.A

Apply Grades 11-12 Reading standards to literature.

W.11-12.9.B

Apply Grades 11-12 Reading standards to informational texts.