Connecticut Elementary and Secondary Social Studies Frameworks — Grade 8


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CIV 6–7.1

Explain specific roles played by citizens (such as voters, jurors, taxpayers, members of the armed forces, petitioners, protesters, and officeholders)

CIV 6–7.2

Assess specific rules and laws (both actual and proposed) as means of addressing public problems.

CIV 6–7.3

Compare historical and contemporary means of changing societies and promoting the common good.

CIV 8.1

Explain the origins, functions, and structure of government with reference to the U.S. Constitution, state constitutions, and selected other systems of government.

CIV 8.2

Analyze ideas and principles contained in the founding documents of the United States, and explain how they influence the social and political system.

CIV 8.3

Analyze the purposes, implementation, and consequences of public policies in multiple settings.

CIV 8.4

Compare historical and contemporary means of changing societies, and promoting the common good.

ECO 6–7.1

Explain how economic decisions affect the well-being of individuals, businesses, and society.

ECO 6–7.2

Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues in terms of benefits and costs for different groups and society as a whole.

ECO 6–7.3

Explain how changes in supply and demand cause changes in prices and quantities of goods and services, labor, credit, and foreign currencies.

ECO 6–7.4

Analyze the role of innovation and entrepreneurship in a market economy.

ECO 6–7.5

Describe the roles of institutions such as corporations, nonprofits, and labor unions in a market economy.

ECO 6–7.6

Explain barriers to trade and how those barriers influence trade among nations.

ECO 6–7.7

Explain the benefits and the costs of trade policies to individuals, businesses, and society.

ECO 8.1

Explain how economic decisions affect the well-being of individuals, businesses, and society.

ECO 8.2

Describe the role of competition in the determination of prices and wages in a market economy.

ECO 8.3

Analyze the role of innovation and entrepreneurship in a market economy.

ECO 8.4

Explain how inflation, deflation, and unemployment affect different groups.

ECO 8.5

Explain why standards of living increase as productivity improves.

ECO 8.6

Explain the benefits and the costs of trade policies to individuals, businesses, and society

GEO 6–7.1

Construct maps to represent and explain the pattern of cultural and environmental characteristics in our world.

GEO 6–7.10

Explain how the relationship between the environmental characteristics of places and the production of goods influences the world trade.

GEO 6–7.11

Explain how global changes in population distribution affect changes in land use in particular regions.

GEO 6–7.2

Use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions, and changes in their environmental characteristics.

GEO 6–7.3

Explain how cultural patterns and economic decisions influence environments and the daily lives of people.

GEO 6–7.4

Analyze the cultural and environmental characteristics that make places both similar to and different from one another.

GEO 6–7.5

Explain the connections between the physical and human characteristics of a region and the identity of individuals and cultures living there.

GEO 6–7.6

Explain how changes in transportation and communication technology influence human settlements and affect the diffusion of ideas and cultural practices.

GEO 6–7.7

Analyze how relationships between humans and environments extend or contract settlement and movement.

GEO 6–7.8

Evaluate the influences of long-term, human-induced environmental change on conflict and cooperation.

GEO 6–7.9

Analyze the ways in which cultural and environmental characteristics vary among various regions of the world.

GEO 8.1

Construct maps to represent and explain the spatial patterns of cultural and environmental characteristics.

GEO 8.2

Analyze the combinations of cultural and environmental characteristics that make places both similar to and different from other places.

GEO 8.3

Explain how changes in transportation and communication technology influence the spatial connections among human settlements and affect the diffusion of ideas and cultural practices.

GEO 8.4

Explain how the relationship between the environmental characteristics of places and production of goods influences the spatial patterns of world trade.

HIST 6–8.1

Use questions about historically significant people or events to explain the impact on a region.

HIST 8.1

Analyze connections among events and developments in historical contexts.

HIST 8.10

Organize applicable evidence into a coherent argument about the past.

HIST 8.2

Classify series of historical events and developments as examples of change and/or continuity.

HIST 8.3

Analyze multiple factors that influenced the perspectives of people during different historical eras

HIST 8.4

Explain how and why perspectives of people have changed over time (e.g., American Revolution, slavery, labor, the role of women).

HIST 8.5

Analyze how peoples perspectives influenced what information is available in the historical sources they created.

HIST 8.6

Detect possible limitations in the historical record based on evidence collected from different kinds of historical sources.

HIST 8.7

Use questions generated about multiple historical sources to identify further areas of inquiry and additional sources.

HIST 8.8

Evaluate the relevance and utility of a historical source based on information such as maker, date, place of origin, intended audience, and purpose.

HIST 8.9

Explain multiple causes and effects of events and developments in the past.

INQ 6–8.1

Explain how a question represents key ideas in the field.

INQ 6–8.10

Construct arguments using claims and evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging the strengths and limitations of the arguments.

INQ 6–8.11

Construct explanations using reasoning, correct sequences, examples, and details with relevant information and data, while acknowledging the strengths and weaknesses of the explanations.

INQ 6–8.12

Present adaptations of arguments and explanations on topics of interest to others to reach audiences and venues outside the classroom using print and oral technologies (e.g., posters, essays, letters, debates, speeches, reports, and maps) and digital technologies (e.g., Internet, social media, and digital documentary).

INQ 6–8.13

Critique arguments for credibility.

INQ 6–8.14

Critique the structure of explanations.

INQ 6–8.15

Draw on multiple disciplinary lenses to analyze how a specific problem can manifest itself at local, regional, and global levels over time, identifying its characteristics and causes, and the challenges and opportunities faced by those trying to address the problem.

INQ 6–8.16

Assess their individual and collective capacities to take action to address local, regional, and global problems, taking into account a range of possible levels of power, strategies, and potential outcomes.

INQ 6–8.17

Apply a range of deliberative and democratic procedures to make decisions and take action in their classrooms and schools, and in out-of-school civic contexts.

INQ 6–8.2

Explain points of agreement experts have about interpretations and applications of disciplinary concepts and ideas associated with a compelling question.

INQ 6–8.3

Explain points of agreement experts have about interpretations and application of disciplinary concepts and ideas associated with a supporting question.

INQ 6–8.4

Explain how the relationship between supporting questions and compelling questions is mutually reinforcing.

INQ 6–8.5

Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration multiple points of view represented in the sources.

INQ 6–8.6

Gather relevant information from multiple sources while using the origin, authority, structure, context, and corroborative value of the sources to guide the selection.

INQ 6–8.7

Evaluate the credibility of a source by determining its relevance and intended use.

INQ 6–8.8

Identify evidence that draws information from multiple sources to support claims, noting evidentiary limitations.

INQ 6–8.9

Develop claims and counterclaims while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.