Georgia Social Studies Standards — Grade 12

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The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of United States constitutional government. a. Analyze key ideas of limited government and the rule of law as seen in the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights. b. Analyze the writings of Hobbes (Leviathan), Locke (Second Treatise on Government), and Montesquieu (The Spirit of Laws) as they affect our concept of government.


The student will describe the legislative process including the roles played by committees and leadership. a. Explain the steps in the legislative process. b. Explain the function of various leadership positions within the legislature.


The student will describe the influence of lobbyists (business, labor, professional organizations) and special interest groups on the legislative process. a. Explain the function of lobbyists. b. Describe the laws and rules that govern lobbyists. c. Explain the function of special interest groups.


The student will analyze the various roles played by the President of the United States; include Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, chief executive, chief agenda setter, representative of the nation, chief of state, foreign policy leader, and party leader.


The student will describe the qualifications for becoming President of the United States. a. Explain the written qualifications for President of the United States. b. Describe unwritten qualifications common to past presidents.


The student will explain the impeachment process and its usage for elected officials. a. Explain the impeachment process as defined in the U.S. Constitution. b. Describe the impeachment proceedings of Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton.


The student will explain the functions of the departments and agencies of the federal bureaucracy. a. Compare and contrast the organization and responsibilities of independent regulatory agencies, government corporations, and executive agencies. b. Explain the functions of the Cabinet.


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the operation of the federal judiciary. a. Explain the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, federal courts and the state courts. b. Examine how John Marshall established the Supreme Court as an independent, coequal branch of government through his opinions in Marbury v. Madison. c. Describe how the Supreme Court decides cases. d. Compare the philosophies of judicial activism and judicial restraint.


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of state and local government described in the Georgia Constitution. a. Examine the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. b. Examine the structure of local governments with emphasis on county, city, and town. c. Identify current state and local officials. d. Analyze the relationship among state and local governments. e. Evaluate direct democracy by the initiative, referendum, and recall processes.


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the powers of Georgias state and local governments. a. Examine the powers of state and local government. b. Examine sources of revenue received by each level of government. c. Analyze the services provided by state and local government.


The student will compare and contrast governments that are unitary, confederal, and federal; autocratic, oligarchic and democratic; and presidential and parliamentary.


The student will analyze the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence. a. Compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence and the Social Contract Theory. b. Evaluate the Declaration of Independence as a persuasive argument.


The student will describe the tools used to carry out United States foreign policy (diplomacy; economic, military, and humanitarian aid; treaties; sanctions and military intervention).


The student will describe the causes and effects of criminal activity. a. Examine the nature and causes of crimes. b. Explain the effects criminal acts have on their intended victims. c. Categorize different types of crimes. d. Explain the different types of defenses used by perpetrators of crime.


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the criminal justice process. a. Analyze the steps in the criminal justice process. b. Explain an individuals due process rights. c. Describe the steps in a criminal trial or civil suit. d. Examine the different types of sentences a convicted person can receive.


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the United States Constitution. a. Explain the main ideas in debate over ratification; include those in The Federalist. b. Analyze the purpose of government stated in the Preamble of the United States Constitution. c. Explain the fundamental principles upon which the United States Constitution is based; include the rule of law, popular sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the national government. a. Describe the structure and powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. b. Analyze the relationship between the three branches in a system of checks and balances and separation of powers


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the federal system of government described in the United States Constitution. a. Explain the relationship of state governments to the national government. b. Define the difference between enumerated and implied powers. c. Describe the extent to which power is shared. d. Identify powers denied to state and national governments. e. Analyze the ongoing debate that focuses on the balance of power between state and national governments. f. Analyze the supremacy clause found in Article VI and the role of the U.S. Constitution as the supreme law of the land. g. Explain the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag of the United States


The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights. a. Examine the Bill of Rights with emphasis on First Amendment freedoms. b. Analyze due process law expressed in the 5th and 14th Amendments. c. Explain selective incorporation of the Bill of Rights. d. Explain how government seeks to maintain the balance between individual liberties and the public interest. e. Explain every citizens right to be treated equally under the law.


The student will describe how thoughtful and effective participation in civic life is characterized by obeying the law, paying taxes, serving on a jury, participating in the political process, performing public service, registering for military duty, being informed about current issues, and respecting differing opinions.


The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections. a. Describe the organization, role, and constituencies of political parties. b. Describe the nomination and election process. c. Examine campaign funding and spending. d. Analyze the influence of media coverage, campaign advertising, and public opinion polls. e. Identify how amendments extend the right to vote


The student will explain the differences between the House of Representatives and the Senate, with emphasis on terms of office, powers, organization, leadership, and representation of each house


The student will explain why limited productive resources and unlimited wants result in scarcity, opportunity costs, and tradeoffs for individuals, businesses, and governments. a. Define scarcity as a basic condition that exists when unlimited wants exceed limited productive resources. b. Define and give examples of productive resources (factors of production) (e.g., land (natural), labor (human), capital (capital goods), entrepreneurship). c. List a variety of strategies for allocating scarce resources. d. Define opportunity cost as the next best alternative given up when individuals, businesses, and governments confront scarcity by making choices.


The student will give examples of how rational decision making entails comparing the marginal benefits and the marginal costs of an action. a. Illustrate by means of a production possibilities curve the trade offs between two options. b. Explain that rational decisions occur when the marginal benefits of an action equal or exceed the marginal costs.


The student will explain how specialization and voluntary exchange between buyers and sellers increase the satisfaction of both parties. a. Give examples of how individuals and businesses specialize. b. Explain that both parties gain as a result of voluntary, non-fraudulent exchange.


The student will compare and contrast different economic systems and explain how they answer the three basic economic questions of what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce. a. Compare command, market, and mixed economic systems with regard to private ownership, profit motive, consumer sovereignty, competition, and government regulation. b. Evaluate how well each type of system answers the three economic questions and meets the broad social and economic goals of freedom, security, equity, growth, efficiency, and stability.


The student will describe the roles of government in a market economy. a. Explain why government provides public goods and services, redistributes income, protects property rights, and resolves market failures. b. Give examples of government regulation and deregulation and their effects on consumers and producers.


The student will explain how productivity, economic growth, and future standards of living are influenced by investment in factories, machinery, new technology, and the health, education, and training of people. a. Define productivity as the relationship of inputs to outputs. b. Give illustrations of investment in equipment and technology and explain their relationship to economic growth. c. Give examples of how investment in education can lead to a higher standard of living.


The student will explain why individuals, businesses, and governments trade goods and services. a. Define and distinguish between absolute advantage and comparative advantage. b. Explain that most trade takes place because of comparative advantage in the production of a good or service. c. Explain the difference between balance of trade and balance of payments.


The student will explain why countries sometimes erect trade barriers and sometimes advocate free trade. a. Define trade barriers as tariffs, quotas, embargoes, standards, and subsidies. b. Identify costs and benefits of trade barriers over time. c. List specific examples of trade barriers. d. List specific examples of trading blocks such as the EU, NAFTA, and ASEAN. e. Evaluate arguments for and against free trade.


The student will explain how changes in exchange rates can have an impact on the purchasing power of individuals in the United States and in other countries. a. Define exchange rate as the price of one nations currency in terms of another nations currency. b. Locate information on exchange rates. c. Interpret exchange rate tables. d. Explain why, when exchange rates change, some groups benefit and others lose.


The student will illustrate the means by which economic activity is measured. a. Explain that overall levels of income, employment, and prices are determined by the spending and production decisions of households, businesses, government, and net exports. b. Define Gross Domestic Product (GDP), economic growth, unemployment, Consumer Price Index (CPI), inflation, stagflation, and aggregate supply and aggregate demand. c. Explain how economic growth, inflation, and unemployment are calculated. d. Identify structural, cyclical, and frictional unemployment. e. Define the stages of the business cycle; include peak, contraction, trough, recovery, expansion as well as recession and depression. f. Describe the difference between the national debt and government deficits.


The student will explain the role and functions of the Federal Reserve System. a. Describe the organization of the Federal Reserve System. b. Define monetary policy. c. Describe how the Federal Reserve uses the tools of monetary policy to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth.


The student will explain how the government uses fiscal policy to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth. a. Define fiscal policy. b. Explain the governments taxing and spending decisions.


The student will describe how households, businesses, and governments are interdependent and interact through flows of goods, services, and money. a. Illustrate by means of a circular flow diagram, the Product market; the Resource (factor) market; the real flow of goods and services between and among businesses, households, and government; and the flow of money. b. Explain the role of money as a medium of exchange.


The student will explain how the Law of Demand, the Law of Supply, prices, and profits work to determine production and distribution in a market economy. a. Define the Law of Supply and the Law of Demand. b. Describe the role of buyers and sellers in determining market clearing price. c. Illustrate on a graph how supply and demand determine equilibrium price and quantity. d. Explain how prices serve as incentives in a market economy.


The student will explain how markets, prices, and competition influence economic behavior. a. Identify and illustrate on a graph factors that cause changes in market supply and demand. b. Explain and illustrate on a graph how price floors create surpluses and price ceilings create shortages. c. Define price elasticity of demand and supply.


The student will explain the organization and role of business and analyze the four types of market structures in the U.S. economy. a. Compare and contrast three forms of business organizationsole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation. b. Explain the role of profit as an incentive for entrepreneurs. c. Identify the basic characteristics of monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, and pure competition.


The student will apply rational decision making to personal spending and saving choices. a. Explain that people respond to positive and negative incentives in predictable ways. b. Use a rational decision making model to select one option over another. c. Create a savings or financial investment plan for a future goal.


The student will explain that banks and other financial institutions are businesses that channel funds from savers to investors. a. Compare services offered by different financial institutions. b. Explain reasons for the spread between interest charged and interest earned. c. Give examples of the direct relationship between risk and return. d. Evaluate a variety of savings and investment options; include stocks, bonds, and mutual funds.


The student will explain how changes in monetary and fiscal policy can have an impact on an individuals spending and saving choices. a. Give examples of who benefits and who loses from inflation. b. Define progressive, regressive, and proportional taxes. c. Explain how an increase in sales tax affects different income groups.


The student will evaluate the costs and benefits of using credit. a. List factors that affect credit worthiness. b. Compare interest rates on loans and credit cards from different institutions. c. Explain the difference between simple and compound interest rates.


The student will describe how insurance and other risk-management strategies protect against financial loss. a. List various types of insurance such as automobile, health, life, disability, and property. b. Explain the costs and benefits associated with different types of insurance; include deductibles, premiums, shared liability, and asset protection.


The student will describe how the earnings of workers are determined in the marketplace. a. Identify skills that are required to be successful in the workplace. b. Explain the significance of investment in education, training, and skill development.


The student will identify the characteristics and major approaches to learning. a. Identify learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience. b. Explain the behavioral approach to learning. c. Compare and contrast the paradigms of classical and operant conditioning. d. Describe changes in behavior using the social learning theory.


The student will analyze key concepts associated with information processing. a. Describe the components of the human information processing system: include working memory, long term memory, sensory memory, and attention. b. Evaluate strategies that enhance memory: include mnemonics, rehearsal, and elaboration. c. Analyze theories of forgetting: include loss of access, interference, displacement, and decay. d. Explain the phenomena involved in problem solving and decisionmaking include heuristics, algorithms, biases, expectancies, and mental set.


Describe behavioral, social, and cognitive changes from the prenatal period throughout the life span. a. Chart physical changes of a human being from conception through late adulthood. b. Explain the developmental models of Freud, Piaget, Kholberg, and Erikson. c. Compare and contrast the theories of language and language acquisition: include Chomsky, Skinner, and Whorf. d. Describe the role of critical periods in development.


The student will explain the development, structure, and function of biological systems and their role in behavior, cognition, and emotion. a. Discuss the major divisions and sub-divisions of the nervous system and their role in behavior: include central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral [autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and somatic]. b. Identify the components and function of a neuron. c. Explain the process of neurotransmission: include action potentials and synaptic transmission. d. Identify the major structures and functions of the brain. e. Describe the methods used to analyze neural form and function: include the MRI, fMRI, PET, CAT, and EEG. f. Examine the role of genetics in the development of behaviors.


The student will compare different states of consciousness. a. Describe the sleep cycle, circadian rhythm. b. Explain why we sleep and dream. c. Investigate the validity of hypnosis as a state of consciousness. d. Analyze the physical and psychological issues associated with addiction. e. Explain how the major drug classes (stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens) affect neurotransmission and behaviors.


The student will discuss the components of stress. a. Categorize and explain the different physiological and psychological reactions to stress. b. Identify strategies to deal with stress that promote health: include coping strategies and behavioral modification.


The student will describe how the physical world is translated into a psychological experience. a. Describe the basic structures of the eye and ear, the associated neural pathways, and the process of sensory transduction. b. Recognize causes which can lead to hearing and vision deficits: include environmental causes, aging, genetics, diet, disease, and trauma. c. Describe the major theories associated with visual and auditory sensation and perception: include opponent process theory and trichromatic theory of vision, frequency theory, volley theory, and place theory of hearing. d. Analyze different perceptual illusions and describe why illusions are important for our understanding of perception. e. Compare top-down and bottom-up processing.


The student will identify major theories and concepts related to motivation and emotion. a. Compare and contrast the biological, cognitive/learning, and humanistic perspectives of motivation. b. Compare and contrast theories of emotion: include James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Singer-Schacters Two Factor.


The student will explain selected historical and contemporary perspectives and practices of psychologists. a. Define the field of psychology. b. Identify the key figures in the history of the field of psychology and their major contributions: include Wundt, Freud, Skinner, James, Watson and Rogers. c. List and describe the major occupations and subfields of psychology.


The student will explain the research methods and the types of statistics used in the field of psychology. a. Explain how psychologists conduct research to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior. b. Describe the types of research methods used by psychologists: include experiment, survey, case study, and observation. c. Identify the basic elements of an experiment: include independent and dependent variables, types of experimental control (blind/double-blind procedures, placebo controls). d. Explain the differences between a correlation and an experiment. e. Classify the types and uses of statistics in psychological research; include descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. f. Interpret graphic data representations. g. Explain ethical issues in psychological research.


The student will analyze the impact of the social environment on behaviors and attitudes. a. Explain phenomena which result from the influence of the social environment on the individual and vice versa; include obedience, social facilitation, social loafing, bystander apathy, conformity, groupthink, group polarization, and deindividuation. b. Analyze attribution and cognitive dissonance theories pertaining to social judgments and attitudes. c. Explain the factors that contribute to affiliation and attraction. Include proximity, mere-exposure effect, and similarity. d. Analyze and evaluate the ethics of experimentation in social psychology; include Milgrams experiment of obedience and Zimbardos Stanford Prison Experiment.


The student will analyze concepts related to the measurement and nature of intelligence. a. Differentiate between general and multiple intelligences. b. Explain how intelligence may be influenced by heredity and environment. c. Evaluate the reliability, validity, and standardization of historical and contemporary intelligence tests. d. Evaluate the implications of measurement of intelligence on the individual and culture


The student will evaluate assessment tools and theories in personality. a. Evaluate Psychodynamic Theory and its impact on contemporary psychology. b. Evaluate the Humanistic Perspective. c. Analyze the purpose and theories of the Trait Perspective of personality. d. Analyze the Social-Cognitive Perspective of personality.


The student will identify abnormal behavior and treatment. a. Identify criteria that distinguish normal from disordered behavior; include the criteria of distress, deviance, and dysfunction. b. Describe methods used to diagnose and assess abnormal behavior: include the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the MMPI, and projective tests. c. Compare anxiety disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia and describe appropriate treatments for these disorders. d. Analyze the challenges associated with labeling psychological disorders and the impact of diagnosis on patients e. Compare the biomedical, psychoanalytical, cognitive, and behavioral approaches to the treatment of psychological disorders.


Students will explain the development and importance of culture. a. Describe how culture is a social construction. b. Identify the basic characteristics of culture. c. Explain the importance of culture as an organizing tool in society. d. Describe the components of culture to include language, symbols, norms, and values.


Students will evaluate how cultures develop and evolve. a. Explain cultural change and diversity include ethnocentrism, cultural relevance, folk culture, pop culture, counter culture, subculture, and culture shock. b. Compare material and non-material culture. c. Analyze the impact of globalization on US and other world cultures


Students will analyze social structure and interaction within society. a. Explain the components of social structure; include status, role and social institutions. b. Describe and compare various types of societies. c. Categorize groups within a society by comparing primary and secondary groups, in and out groups, reference groups, and social networks. d. Analyze the components, varieties, and functions of group dynamics; include such factors as group size, leadership and authority, and such processes such as bystander effect and groupthink. e. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of formal organizations and bureaucracies.


Students will explain the origins of sociology and the sociological perspective, and how sociology relates to the other social sciences. a. Explain sociology, sociological perspective, and the sociological imagination. b. Describe the origins of sociology as a social science and the significance of its historical framework. c. Explain the relationship of sociology to the other social sciences. d. Identify careers where sociological knowledge is applicable.


Students will explain the research methodologies used in sociology. a. Identify the major research methods used in sociology. b. Explain how various methods are used to conduct research in sociology. c. Evaluate the strengths and weakness of the methods of sociology research. d. Explain the importance and influence of ethics in guiding research and data collection in sociology.


Students will explain the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. a. Explain and apply the theoretical perspectives of Structural Functionalism, Symbolic Interaction, and Conflict Theory. b. Compare and evaluate the theoretical perspectives of Structural Functionalism, Symbolic Interaction, and Conflict Theory.


Students will analyze forms of social inequality. a. Explain how unequal distribution of power and resources affect the life chances of individuals in that society. b. Analyze the sources and effects of stratification on the basis of social class, race and ethnicity, gender, age, and emotional, mental, and physical disabilities. c. Analyze the sources of global stratification and inequality. d. Evaluate the impact of global stratification and inequality on global relations.


Students will analyze social change processes in a society. a. Describe the various forms of collective behavior. b. Explain the impact of globalization on social change. c. Evaluate the impact of technology on social change. d. Analyze the impact of demographic changes and changes in settlement patterns on a society. Sociology Social Studies Georgia Performance Standards Georgia Department of Education Page 4 of 9 Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved Social Studies Skills Matrices MAP AND GLOBE SKILLS GOAL: The student will use maps to retrieve social studies information. I: indicates when a skill is introduced in the standards and elements as part of the content D: indicates grade levels where the teacher must develop that skill using the appropriate content M: indicates grade level by which student should achieve mastery, the ability to use the skill in all situations A: indicates grade levels where students will continue to apply and improve mastered skills Map and Globe Skills K 1 2


Students will explain the process of socialization. a. Identify and describes the roles and responsibilities of an individual in society. b. Analyze the individual development theories of Cooley and Mead. c. Identify and evaluate the stages of socialization; include childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and death/dying. d. Evaluate the factors that socialize the individual; include family, peers, education, media, and religion. e. Analyze how individuals are socialized by gender and race/ethnicity.


Students will analyze deviance in society. a. Explain the socially constructed nature of deviance. b. Explain the relationship of social control and power in society. c. Analyze the causes of deviant behavior. d. Explain the impact of deviance on society.


Students will analyze the impact of social control on deviance in society. a. Explain theories of social control; include control and labeling theories. b. Explain conformity in relationship to deviance and social control. c. Describe adaptation, cooperation, accommodation, and competition in the context of social control.


Students will analyze the function of social institutions as agents of social control across differing societies and times. a. Analyze the function of social institutions in society; include family, education, religion, economy, government/politics, health care, and media. b. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of various social institutions. c. Evaluate other possible social institutions such as sports and science. d. Analyze the functions and inequalities of the criminal justice system in relationship to a societys construct of crime and punishment. e. Explain the role of total institutions. f. Analyze the re-socialization process.


The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. a. Explain Virginias development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacons Rebellion, and the development of slavery. b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillips War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to the founding of Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter and the transition to a royal colony. c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania. d. Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec. e. Analyze the impact of location and place on colonial settlement, transportation, and economic development; include the southern, middle, and New England colonies.


The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction. b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmens Bureau. c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. d. Explain Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction. e. Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction. f. Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and the subsequent compromise of 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction.


The student will describe the economic, social, and geographic impact of the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction. a. Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business. b. Describe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor. c. Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies d. Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life


The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth. a. Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrants origins to southern and eastern Europe and the impact of this change on urban America. b. Identify the American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers. c. Describe the growth of the western population and its impact on Native Americans with reference to Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee. d. Describe the 1894 Pullman strike as an example of industrial unrest.


The student will identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era. a. Explain Upton Sinclairs The Jungle and federal oversight of the meatpacking industry. b. Identify Jane Addams and Hull House and describe the role of women in reform movements. c. Describe the rise of Jim Crow, Plessy v. Ferguson, and the emergence of the NAACP. d. Explain Ida Tarbells role as a muckraker. e. Describe the significance of progressive reforms such as the initiative, recall, and referendum; direct election of senators; reform of labor laws; and efforts to improve living conditions for the poor in cities. f. Describe the conservation movement and the development of national parks and forests; include the role of Theodore Roosevelt.


The student will explain Americas evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century. a. Explain the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and anti-Asian immigration sentiment on the west coast. b. Describe the Spanish-American War, the war in the Philippines, and the debate over American expansionism. c. Explain U.S. involvement in Latin America, as reflected by the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine and the creation of the Panama Canal.


The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare. b. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs. c. Explain Wilsons Fourteen Points and the proposed League of Nations. d. Describe passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth Amendment, establishing woman suffrage.


The student will identify key developments in the aftermath of WW I. a. Explain how rising communism and socialism in the United States led to the Red Scare and immigrant restriction. b. Identify Henry Ford, mass production, and the automobile. c. Describe the impact of radio and the movies. d. Describe modern forms of cultural expression; include Louis Armstrong and the origins of jazz, Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance, Irving Berlin, and Tin Pan Alley.


The student will analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Depression. a. Describe the causes, including overproduction, underconsumption, and stock market speculation that led to the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. b. Explain factors (include over-farming and climate) that led to the Dust Bowl and the resulting movement and migration west. c. Explain the social and political impact of widespread unemployment that resulted in developments such as Hoovervilles.


The student will describe Franklin Roosevelts New Deal as a response to the depression and compare the ways governmental programs aided those in need. a. Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a works program and as an effort to control the environment. b. Explain the Wagner Act and the rise of industrial unionism. c. Explain the passage of the Social Security Act as a part of the second New Deal. d. Identify Eleanor Roosevelt as a symbol of social progress and womens activism. e. Identify the political challenges to Roosevelts domestic and international leadership; include the role of Huey Long, the court packing bill, and the Neutrality Act.


The student will identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government. a. Explain A. Philip Randolphs proposed march on Washington, D.C., and President Franklin D. Roosevelts response. b. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese- Americans, German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. c. Explain major events; include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the fall of Berlin. d. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of women in war industries. e. Describe the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing the atomic bomb. f. Compare the geographic locations of the European Theater and the Pacific Theater and the difficulties the U.S. faced in delivering weapons, food, and medical supplies to troops.


The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed. a. Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade. b. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population, and African-American culture. c. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism. d. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.


The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. a. Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy. b. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China and the outbreak of the Korean War and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy. c. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis. d. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet Offensive, and growing opposition to the war. e. Explain the role of geography on the U.S. containment policy, the Korean War, the Bay of Pigs, the Cuban missile crisis, and the Vietnam War.


The student will explain the impact of technological development and economic growth on the United States, 1945-1975. a. Describe the baby boom and its impact as shown by Levittown and the Interstate Highway Act. b. Describe the impact television has had on American culture; include the presidential debates (Kennedy/Nixon, 1960) and news coverage of the Civil Rights Movement. c. Analyze the impact of technology on American life; include the development of the personal computer and the expanded use of air conditioning. d. Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I and President Eisenhowers actions.


The student will identify dimensions of the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1970. a. Explain the importance of President Trumans order to integrate the U.S. military and the federal government. b. Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball. c. Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision. d. Describe the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.s Letter from a Birmingham Jail and his I Have a Dream Speech. e. Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.


The student will describe and assess the impact of political developments between 1945 and 1970. a. Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision. b. Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation. c. Explain Lyndon Johnsons Great Society; include the establishment of Medicare. d. Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968; include the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, and the events surrounding the Democratic National Convention.


The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s. a. Compare and contrast the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides, and changing composition. b. Describe the National Organization of Women and the origins and goals of the modern womens movement. c. Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement. d. Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers movement. e. Explain the importance of Rachel Carsons Silent Spring and the resulting developments; include Earth Day, the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the modern environmental movement. f. Describe the rise of the conservative movement as seen in the presidential candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M. Nixon (1968).


The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968. a. Describe President Richard M. Nixons opening of China, his resignation due to the Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald Ford. b. Explain the impact of Supreme Court decisions on ideas about civil liberties and civil rights; include such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) and the Bakke decision on affirmative action. c. Explain the Carter administrations efforts in the Middle East; include the Camp David Accords, his response to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, and the Iranian hostage crisis. d. Describe domestic and international events of Ronald Reagans presidency; include Reaganomics, the Iran-contra scandal, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. e. Explain the relationship between Congress and President Bill Clinton; include the North American Free Trade Agreement and his impeachment and acquittal. f. Analyze the 2000 presidential election and its outcome, emphasizing the role of the electoral college. g. Analyze the response of President George W. Bush to the attacks of September 11, 2001, on the United States, the war against terrorism, and the subsequent American interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq


The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution. a. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution. b. Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence. c. Explain the importance of Thomas Paines Common Sense to the movement for independence.


The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. a. Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; include the writing of John Locke and the role of Thomas Jefferson. b. Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette. c. Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge. d. Explain the role of geography at the Battle of Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis, and the Treaty of Paris, 1783.


The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government. b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of slavery. d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states rights. e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton).


The student will analyze the impact of territorial expansion and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation. a. Explain the Northwest Ordinances importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states. b. Describe Jeffersons diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territorys exploration by Lewis and Clark. c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the wars significance on the development of a national identity. d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the development of the nations infrastructure. e. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine.


Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it. a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitneys invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets. b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny. c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school. d. Explain womens efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Conference. e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism.


The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters). b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories. c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states rights ideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism. d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso. e. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and population growth.


The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Browns Raid. b. Describe President Lincolns efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus. c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis. d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta and the impact of geography on these battles. e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. f. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and the South through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output.


The student will explain the physical aspects of geography. a. Describe the concept of place by explaining how physical characteristics such as landforms, bodies of water, climate, soils, natural vegetation, and animal life are used to describe a place. b. Explain how human characteristics, such as population settlement patterns, and human activities, such as agriculture and industry, can describe a place. c. Analyze the interrelationship between physical and human characteristics of a place.


The student will explain the cultural aspects of geography. a. Describe the concept of place by explaining how the culture of a region is a product of the regions physical characteristics. b. Explain how cultural characteristics of a place can be used to describe a place. c. Analyze how physical factors such as mountains, climate, and bodies of water interact with the people of a region to produce a distinctive culture. d. Explain how the development of customs and traditions help to define a culture and a people.


The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary North Africa/Southwest Asia. a. Describe the location of major physical features and their impact on North Africa/Southwest Asia. b. Describe the major climates of North Africa/Southwest Asia and how they have affected the development of North Africa/Southwest Asia. c. Analyze the impact natural resources, especially oil, have on North Africa/Southwest Asia. d. Analyze the impact of water supplies on the growth of population centers. e. Explain the impact of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the development of the regions culture. f. Explain why this region contains areas on two different continents. g. Describe the major ethnic and cultural groups in North Africa/Southwest Asia; include major customs and traditions.


The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. a. Describe the location of major physical features and their impact on Sub-Saharan Africa. b. Describe the major climates of Sub-Saharan Africa and how they have affected the development of Sub-Saharan Africa. c. Describe the pattern of population distribution in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa in relation to urbanization and modernization. d. Explain how Sub-Saharan Africas physical features have had an impact on the distribution of its population. e. Analyze how the migration of people such as the Bantu and Zulu has had an impact on the economic, cultural, and political aspects of Sub-Saharan Africa. f. Analyze strengths and weaknesses in the development of Sub-Saharan Africa; include factors such as linguistic, tribal, and religious diversity; literacy levels; and the colonial legacy. g. Describe the ethnic and religious groups in Sub-Saharan Africa; include major customs and traditions. h. Analyze the impact of drought and desertification on Sub-Saharan Africa.


The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary South Asia, Southeastern Asia, and Eastern Asia. a. Describe the location of major physical features and their impact on the regions of Asia. b. Describe the major climates of each region and how they have affected each regions development. c. Analyze the impact of the topography and climate on population distribution in the regions. d. Describe the various ethnic and religious groups in the region and the effect of geography on their development and their major customs and traditions. e. Analyze the impact of population growth in the region on both the region and on other regions of the world; include China, India, and Japan. f. Explain the division of the Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan and the eventual creation of Bangladesh. g. Describe the Pacific Rim and its cultural, political, and economic significance.


The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary Europe. a. Describe the location of major physical features and their impact on Europe. b. Describe the major climates of Europe and how they have affected Europe. c. Analyze the importance of Europes coastal location, climatic characteristics, and river systems regarding population, economic development, and world influence. d. Describe the various ethnic and religious groups in Europe and the influence of geography on those groups and their major customs and traditions. e. Explain why Europe has a highly integrated network of highways, waterways, railroads, and airline linkages. f. Analyze the impact of geography on Russia in terms of population distribution, trade, and involvement in European affairs. g. Analyze the environmental issues associated with industrial and natural resource development in Europe, including Russia.


The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary Latin America. a. Explain why the region is known as Latin America; include cultural reasons. b. Describe the location of major physical features and their impact on Latin America. c. Describe the major climates of Latin America and how they have affected Latin America. d. Explain how geographic features and climatic patterns affect population distribution. e. Analyze the impact of natural disasters and political instability on economic activity in Latin America. f. Describe the various ethnic and religious groups in Latin America; include South America, Central America and the Caribbean, as well as major customs and traditions. g. Analyze the impact of deforestation on Latin America and explain actions being taken. h. Explain how Latin American countries such as Brazil are developing their resources to compete in the global market and to improve industrial productivity. i. Analyze the impact illegal drug production and trade have on Latin America.


The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary Canada and the United States. a. Describe the location of major physical features and their impact on Canada and the United States. b. Describe the major climates of Canada and the United States and how they affect Canada and the United States. c. Explain the reasons for the population distribution in Canada and the United States. d. Explain how the physical geography of Canada and the United States contributed to regional growth and development. e. Describe the ethnic and religious groups in Canada and the United States; include major customs and traditions. f. Analyze how transportation and communications improvements led to the growth of industry in the United States and the consequences of such growth, especially environmentally, for both Canada and the United States.


The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary Oceania, including Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. a. Describe the location of major physical features and their impact on the region. b. Describe the major climates and their impact on the region. c. Analyze the impact isolation has had on the cultural and biological development of the region. d. Describe the various ethnic and religious groups; include major customs and traditions. e. Explain how the migration of diverse ethnic groups and available natural resources have affected the economic and political development. f. Explain why it was necessary for world governments involved in the exploration of Antarctica to develop and sign the Antarctic Treaty of 1961.


The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE. a. Describe the development of Mesopotamian societies; include the religious, cultural, economic, and political facets of society, with attention to Hammurabis law code. b. Describe the relationship of religion and political authority in Ancient Egypt. c. Explain the development of monotheism; include the concepts developed by the ancient Hebrews, and Zoroastrianism. d. Describe early trading networks in the Eastern Mediterranean; include the impact Phoenicians had on the Mediterranean World. e. Explain the development and importance of writing; include cuneiform, hieroglyphics, and the Phoenician alphabet.


The student will analyze the impact of the age of discovery and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia. a. Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain. b. Define the Columbian Exchange and its global economic and cultural impact. c. Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration; include the astrolabe.


Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE. a. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rules; include how Oda Nobunaga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and how Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in China. b. Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China.


The student will examine the origins and contributions of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires. a. Describe the geographical extent of the Ottoman Empire during the rule of Suleyman the Magnificent, the Safavid Empire during the reign of Shah Abbas I, and the Mughal Empire during the reigns of Babur and Akbar. b. Explain the ways in which these Muslim empires influenced religion, law, and the arts in their parts of the world.


The student will examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view of Europeans. a. Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view. b. Identify the major ideas of the Enlightenment from the writings of Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau and their relationship to politics and society.


The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE. a. Describe the development of Indian civilization; include the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire, the Golden Age under Gupta, and the emperor Ashoka. b. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism on India and subsequent diffusion of Buddhism. c. Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the Zhou and Qin. d. Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture; include the examination system, the Mandate of Heaven, the status of peasants, the status of merchants, and the patriarchal family, and explain diffusion to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Korea. e. Explain how the geography of the Indian Subcontinent contributed to the movement of people and ideas.


The student will examine the political, philosophical, and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400 CE. a. Compare the origins and structure of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. b. Identify the ideas and impact of important individuals; include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle and describe the diffusion of Greek culture by Aristotles pupil Alexander the Great and the impact of Julius and Augustus Caesar. c. Analyze the contributions of Hellenistic and Roman culture; include law, gender, and science. d. Describe polytheism in the Greek and Roman world and the origins and diffusion of Christianity in the Roman world. e. Analyze the factors that led to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.


The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 CE. a. Analyze the importance of Justinian, include the influence of the Empress Theodora, Justinians Code, and Justinians efforts to recapture the west. b. Describe the relationship between the Roman and Byzantine Empires; include the impact Byzantium had on Moscow and the Russian Empire, the effect of Byzantine culture on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev, and the rise of Constantinople as a center for law, religion, and the arts. c. Explain the Great Schism of 1054 CE. d. Analyze the spread of the Mongol Empire; include the role of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan in developing the empire, the impact of the Mongols on Russia, China and the West, the development of trade, and European observations through the writings of Marco Polo. e. Explain the Ottoman Empires role in the decline of Byzantium and the capture of Constantinople in 1453 CE.


The student will trace the origins and expansion of the Islamic World between 600 CE and 1300 CE. a. Explain the origins of Islam and the growth of the Islamic Empire. b. Identify the Muslim trade routes to India, China, Europe, and Africa and assess the economic impact of this trade. c. Explain the reasons for the split between Sunni and Shia Muslims. d. Identify the contributions of Islamic scholars in medicine (Ibn Sina) and geography (Ibn Battuta). e. Describe the impact of the Crusades on both the Islamic World and Europe. f. Analyze the relationship between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.


The student will describe the diverse characteristics of early African societies before 1800 CE. a. Identify the Bantu migration patterns and contribution to settled agriculture. b. Describe the development and decline of the Sudanic kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, Songhai); include the roles of Sundiata, and the pilgrimage of Mansa Musa to Mecca. c. Describe the trading networks by examining trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and slaves; include the Swahili trading cities. d. Analyze the process of religious syncretism as a blending of traditional African beliefs with new ideas from Islam and Christianity. e. Analyze the role of geography and the distribution of resources played in the development of trans-Saharan trading networks.


The student will analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics. a. Explain the manorial system and feudalism; include the status of peasants and feudal monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne. b. Describe the political impact of Christianity; include Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IV of Germany (Holy Roman Emperor). c. Explain the role of the church in medieval society. d. Describe how increasing trade led to the growth of towns and cities.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of the development of societies in Central and South America. a. Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and Inca empires. b. Compare the culture of the Americas; include government, economy, religion, and the arts of the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas.


The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation. a. Explain the social, economic, and political changes that contributed to the rise of Florence and the ideas of Machiavelli. b. Identify artistic and scientific achievements of Leonardo da Vinci, the Renaissance man, and Michelangelo. c. Explain the main characteristics of humanism; include the ideas of Petrarch, Dante, and Erasmus. d. Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation; include the ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin. e. Describe the Counter Reformation at the Council of Trent and the role of the Jesuits. f. Describe the English Reformation and the role of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. g. Explain the importance of Gutenberg and the invention of the printing press.