New Jersey Student Learning Standards for Social Studies — Grade 12

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Assess the impact of international trade, global business organizations, and overseas competition on the United States economy and workforce.


Explain how British North American colonies adapted the British governance structure to fit their ideas of individual rights, economic growth, and participatory government.


Analyze how gender, property ownership, religion, and legal status affected political rights.


Evaluate the arguments regarding the role of the federal government during the New Deal era.


Assess the effectiveness of governmental policies enacted during the New Deal period (i.e., the FDIC, NLRB, and Social Security) in protecting the welfare of individuals.


Evaluate the short- and long-term impact of the expanded role of government on economic policy, capitalism, and society.


Evaluate the effectiveness of international agreements following World War I (e.g., League of Nations, Treaty of Versailles, Washington Naval Conference, Kellogg- Briand Pact) in preventing international disputes.


Compare and contrast different perspectives about how the United States should respond to aggressive policies and actions taken by other nations at this time.


Determine if American policies regarding Japanese internment and actions against other minority groups were a denial of civil rights.


Analyze the decision to use the atomic bomb and the consequences of doing so.


Assess the responses of the United States and other nations to the violation of human rights that occurred during the Holocaust and other genocides.


Analyze ideological differences and other factors that contributed to the Cold War and to United States involvement in conflicts intended to contain communism, including the Korean War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Vietnam War.


Examine constitutional issues involving war powers, as they relate to United States military intervention in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and other conflicts.


Explain how the Arab-Israeli conflict influenced American foreign policy.


Analyze the effectiveness of the New Jersey Constitution of 1947, New Jersey Supreme Court decisions (i.e., Hedgepeth and Williams v. Trenton Board of Education), and New Jerseys Law Against Discrimination (i.e., P.L. 1945, c.169) in eliminating segregation and discrimination.


Analyze the effectiveness of national legislation, policies, and Supreme Court decisions (i.e., the Civil Rights Act, the Voting Rights Act, the Equal Rights Amendment, Title VII, Title IX, Affirmative Action, Brown v. Board of Education, and Roe v. Wade) in promoting civil liberties and equal opportunities.


Determine the extent to which changes in national policy after 1965 impacted immigration to New Jersey and the United States.


Evaluate the effectiveness of the checks and balances system in preventing one branch of national government from usurping too much power during contemporary times.


Analyze how the Supreme Court has interpreted the Constitution to define the rights of the individual, and evaluate the impact on public policies.


Assess the merit and effectiveness of recent legislation in addressing the health, welfare, and citizenship status of individuals and groups.


Analyze the conflicting ideologies and actions of political parties regarding spending priorities, the role of government in the economy, and social reforms.


Evaluate the effectiveness and fairness of the process by which national, state, and local officials are elected and vote on issues of public concern.


Determine the extent to which nongovernmental organizations, special interest groups, third party political groups, and the media affect public policy.


Analyze the impact of community groups and state policies that strive to increase the youth vote (i.e., distribution of voter registration forms in high schools).


Assess the effectiveness of government policies in balancing the rights of the individual against the need for national security.


Analyze the factors that led to the fall of communism in Eastern European countries and the Soviet Union, and determine how the fall influenced the global power structure.


Determine the effectiveness of the United States in pursuing national interests while also attempting to address global political, economic, and social problems.


Evaluate the role of diplomacy in developing peaceful relations, alliances, and global agreements with other nations.


Assess the impact of the arms race and the proliferation of nuclear weapons on world power, security, and national foreign policy.


Analyze the impact of United States support for the policies and actions of the United Nations and other international organizations.


Evaluate the effectiveness of United States policies and actions in supporting the economic and democratic growth of developing nations.


Examine the impact of media and technology on political and social issues in a global society.


Analyze government efforts to address intellectual property rights, personal privacy, and other ethical issues in science, medicine, and business that arise from the global use of new technologies.


Assess from various perspectives the effectiveness with which the United States government addresses economic issues that affect individuals, business, and/or other countries.


Assess the importance of the intellectual origins of the Foundational Documents (i.e., Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and Bill of Rights) and assess their importance on the spread of democracy around the world.


Compare and contrast state constitutions, including New Jerseys 1776 constitution, with the United States Constitution, and determine their impact on the development of American constitutional government.


Compare and contrast the arguments of Federalists and Anti-Federalists during the ratification debates, and assess their continuing relevance.


Explain how judicial review made the Supreme Court an influential branch of government, and assess the continuing impact of the Supreme Court today.


Examine the emergence of early political parties and their views on centralized government and foreign affairs, and compare these positions with those of todays political parties.


Assess the influence of Manifest Destiny on foreign policy during different time periods in American history.


Determine the extent to which Americas foreign policy (i.e., Tripoli pirates, the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, the Monroe Doctrine, the War with Mexico, and Native American removal) was influenced by perceived national interest.


Assess the role of geopolitics in the development of American foreign relations during this period.


Describe how the Supreme Court increased the power of the national government and promoted national economic growth during this era.


Judge the fairness of government treaties, policies, and actions that resulted in Native American migration and removal.


Compare and contrast the successes and failures of political (i.e., the 1844 State Constitution) and social (i.e., abolition, womens rights, and temperance) reform movements in New Jersey and the nation during the Antebellum period.


Determine the extent to which state and local issues, the press, the rise of interest group politics, and the rise of party politics impacted the development of democratic institutions and practices.


Examine multiple perspectives on slavery and evaluate the claims used to justify the arguments.


Examine the origins of the antislavery movement and the impact of particular events, such as the Amistad decision, on the movement.


Analyze the ways in which prevailing attitudes, socioeconomic factors, and government actions (i.e., the Fugitive Slave Act and Dred Scott Decision) in the North and South (i.e., Secession) led to the Civil War.


Analyze how ideas found in key documents (i.e., the Declaration of Independence, the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the Gettysburg Address) contributed to demanding equality for all.


Judge the effectiveness of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments in obtaining citizenship and equality for African Americans.


Assess the impact of governmental efforts to regulate industrial and financial systems in order to provide economic stability.


Analyze the effectiveness of governmental policies and of actions by groups and individuals to address discrimination against new immigrants, Native Americans, and African Americans.


Evaluate the effectiveness of Progressive reforms in preventing unfair business practices and political corruption and in promoting social justice.


Evaluate the ways in which women organized to promote government policies (i.e., abolition, womens suffrage, and the temperance movement) designed to address injustice, inequality, workplace safety, and immorality.


Relate the creation of African American advocacy organizations (i.e., the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) to United States Supreme Court decisions (i.e., Plessy v. Ferguson) and state and local governmental policies.


Analyze the reasons for the policy of neutrality regarding World War I, and explain why the United States eventually entered the war.


Evaluate the impact of government policies designed to promote patriotism and to protect national security during times of war on individual rights (i.e., the Espionage Act and the Sedition Amendment).


Analyze the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations from the perspectives of different countries.


Relate government policies to the prosperity of the country during the 1920s, and determine the impact of these policies on business and the consumer.


Compare and contrast the global marketing practices of United States factories and farms with American public opinion and government policies that favored isolationism.


Relate social intolerance, xenophobia, and fear of anarchists to government policies restricting immigration, advocacy, and labor organizations.


Analyze how the actions and policies of the United States government contributed to the Great Depression.


Explain how geographic variations (e.g., climate, soil conditions, and other natural resources) impacted economic development in the New World.


Assess the effectiveness of New Deal programs designed to protect the environment.


Explain the role that geography played in the development of military strategies and weaponry in World War II.


Evaluate the effectiveness of the Marshall Plan and regional alliances in the rebuilding of European nations in the post World War II period.


Determine the factors that led to migration from American cities to suburbs in the 1950s and 1960s, and describe how this movement impacted cities.


Evaluate the effectiveness of environmental movements and their influence on public attitudes and environmental protection laws.


Determine the impact of recent immigration and migration patterns in New Jersey and the United States on demographic, social, economic, and political issues.


Analyze how regionalization, urbanization, and suburbanization have led to social and economic reform movements in New Jersey and the United States.


Evaluate the impact of individual, business, and government decisions and actions on the environment, and assess the efficacy of government policies and agencies in New Jersey and the United States in addressing these decisions.


Analyze the use of eminent domain in New Jersey and the United States from a variety of perspectives.


Evaluate the effectiveness of the United States governments efforts to provide humanitarian assistance during international natural disasters and times of crises.


Explain why natural resources (i.e., fossil fuels, food, and water) continue to be a source of conflict, and analyze how the United States and other nations have addressed issues concerning the distribution and sustainability of natural resources.


Analyze how the United States has attempted to account for regional differences while also striving to create an American identity.


Evaluate the effectiveness of the Northwest Ordinance in resolving disputes over Western lands and the expansion of slavery.


Assess the impact of Western settlement on the expansion of United States political boundaries. C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology


Use maps and primary sources to assess the impact that geography, improved military strategies, political and military decisions (e.g., leadership), and new modes of transportation had on the outcome of the Civil War.


Analyze the impact of population shifts and migration patterns during the Reconstruction period.


Explain how the Homestead Act, the availability of land and natural resources, and the development of transcontinental railroads and waterways promoted the growth of a nationwide economy and the movement of populations.


Assess the impact of rapid urbanization on the environment and on the quality of life in cities.


Determine the role geography played in gaining access to raw materials and finding new global markets to promote trade. 6.1.12.B.6.b Compare and contrast issues involved in the struggle between the unregulated development of natural resources and efforts to conserve and protect natural resources during the period of industrial expansion.


Compare and contrast issues involved in the struggle between the unregulated development of natural resources and efforts to conserve and protect natural resources during the period of industrial expansion.


Explain how global competition by nations for land and resources led to increased militarism.


Determine the impact of the expansion of agricultural production into marginal farmlands and other ineffective agricultural practices on people and the environment.


Determine how agricultural practices, overproduction, and the Dust Bowl intensified the worsening economic situation during the Great Depression.


Explain how economic ideas and the practices of mercantilism and capitalism conflicted during this time period.


Determine the extent to which natural resources, labor systems (i.e., the use of indentured servants, African slaves, and immigrant labor), and entrepreneurship contributed to economic development in the American colonies.


Evaluate the effectiveness of economic regulations and standards established during this time period in combating the Great Depression.


Compare and contrast the economic ideologies of the two major political parties regarding the role of government during the New Deal and today.


Evaluate the shift in economic resources from the production of domestic to military goods during World War II in terms of opportunity costs and trade-offs, and analyze the impact of the post-war shift back to domestic production.


Relate new wartime inventions to scientific and technological advancements in the civilian world.


Explain the implications and outcomes of the Space Race from the perspectives of the scientific community, the government, and the people.


Assess the impact of agricultural innovation on the world economy.


Analyze how scientific advancements impacted the national and global economies and daily life.


Assess the role of the public and private sectors in promoting economic growth and ensuring economic stability.


Explain how individuals and organizations used economic measures (e.g., the Montgomery Bus Boycott, sit downs, etc.) as weapons in the struggle for civil and human rights.


Evaluate the effectiveness of economic policies that sought to combat post-World War II inflation.


Evaluate the effectiveness of social legislation that was enacted to end poverty in the 1960s and today by assessing the economic impact on the economy (e.g., inflation, recession, taxation, deficit spending, employment, education).


Relate American economic expansion after World War II to increased consumer demand.


Use economic indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of state and national fiscal (i.e., government spending and taxation) and monetary (i.e., interest rates) policies.


Judge to what extent government should intervene at the local, state, and national levels on issues related to the economy.


Analyze economic trends, income distribution, labor participation (i.e., employment, the composition of the work force), and government and consumer debt and their impact on society.


Relate the changing manufacturing, service, science, and technology industries and educational opportunities to the economy and social dynamics in New Jersey.


Relate the role of Americas dependence on foreign oil to its economy and foreign policy.


Assess economic priorities related to international and domestic needs, as reflected in the national budget.


Evaluate the economic, political, and social impact of new and emerging technologies on individuals and nations.


Predict the impact of technology on the global workforce and on entrepreneurship.


Assess the effectiveness of the new state and national governments attempts to respond to economic challenges including domestic (e.g., inflation, debt) and foreign trade policy issues.


Analyze how technological developments transformed the economy, created international markets, and affected the environment in New Jersey and the nation.


Relate the wealth of natural resources to the economic development of the United States and to the quality of life of individuals.


Assess the role that economics played in enabling the North and South to wage war.


Compare and contrast the immediate and long-term effects of the Civil War on the 22 economies of the North and South.


Explain why the Civil War was more costly to America than previous conflicts were


Analyze the economic practices of corporations and monopolies regarding the production and marketing of goods, and determine the positive or negative impact of these practices on individuals and the nation and the need for government regulations.


Compare and contrast economic development of the North, South, and West in the post-Civil War period.


Analyze the cyclical nature of the economy and the impact of periods of expansion and recession on businesses and individuals.


Evaluate the effectiveness of labor and agricultural organizations in improving economic opportunities for various groups.


Determine how supply and demand influenced price and output during the Industrial Revolution.


Analyze the impact of money, investment, credit, savings, debt, and financial institutions on the development of the nation and the lives of individuals.


Determine how technological advancements affected the nature of World War I on land, on water, and in the air.


Assess the immediate and long-term impact of women and African Americans entering the work force in large numbers during World War I.


Analyze the push-pull factors that led to the Great Migration.


Relate social, cultural, and technological changes in the interwar period to the rise of a consumer economy and the changing role and status of women.


Explain how government can adjust taxes, interest rates, and spending and use other policies to restore the countrys economic health.


Explain how economic indicators (i.e., gross domestic product, the consumer price index, the national debt, and the trade deficit) are used to evaluate the health of the economy.


Explain the interdependence of various parts of a market economy (i.e., private enterprise, government programs, and the Federal Reserve System).


Compare and contrast the causes and outcomes of the stock market crash in 1929 with other periods of economic instability.


Assess the impact of the interactions and conflicts between native groups and North American settlers.


Analyze how other nations responded to the Great Depression.


Compare and contrast the leadership abilities of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and those of past and recent presidents.


Explain how key individuals, including minorities and women (i.e., Mary McLeod Bethune, Frances Perkins, and Eleanor Roosevelt), shaped the core ideologies and policies of the New Deal.


Determine the extent to which New Deal public works and arts programs impacted New Jersey and the nation.


Analyze the roles of various alliances among nations and their leaders in the conduct and outcomes of the World War II.


Evaluate the role of New Jersey (i.e., defense industries, Seabrook Farms, military installations, and Battleship New Jersey) and prominent New Jersey citizens (i.e., Albert Einstein) in World War II.


Explain why women, African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and other minority groups often expressed a strong sense of nationalism despite the discrimination they experienced in the military and workforce.


Compare the varying perspectives of victims, survivors, bystanders, rescuers, and perpetrators during the Holocaust.


Explain how World War II and the Holocaust led to the creation of international organizations (i.e., the United Nations) to protect human rights, and describe the subsequent impact of these organizations.


Analyze the impact of American governmental policies on independence movements in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and the Middle East.


Analyze efforts to eliminate communism, such as McCarthyism, and their impact on individual civil liberties.


Evaluate how the development of nuclear weapons by industrialized countries and developing counties affected international relations.


Compare and contrast American public support of the government and military during the Vietnam War with that of other conflicts.


Analyze the role that media played in bringing information to the American public and shaping public attitudes toward the Vietnam War.


Determine the impetus for the Civil Rights Movement, and explain why national governmental actions were needed to ensure civil rights for African Americans.


Compare and contrast the leadership and ideology of Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X during the Civil Rights Movement, and evaluate their legacies.


Analyze the successes and failures of womens rights organizations, the American Indian Movement, and La Raza in their pursuit of civil rights and equal opportunities.


Determine the extent to which suburban living and television supported conformity and stereotyping during this time period, while new music, art, and literature acted as catalysts for the counterculture movement.


Explain why the Peace Corps was created and how its role has evolved over time.


Relate the changing role of women in the labor force to changes in family structure.


Determine the relationship between United States domestic and foreign policies.


Assess the effectiveness of actions taken to address the causes of continuing urban tensions and violence.


Determine the impact of the changing role of labor unions on the economy, politics, and employer-employee relationships.


Evaluate the extent to which women, minorities, individuals with gender preferences, and individuals with disabilities have met their goals of equality in the workplace, politics, and society.


Evaluate the role of religion on cultural and social mores, public opinion, and political decisions.


Determine the influence of multicultural beliefs, products (i.e., art, food, music, and literature), and practices in shaping contemporary American culture.


Compare United Nations policies and goals (i.e., the International Declaration of Human Rights and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals) intended to promote human rights and prevent the violation of human rights with actions taken by the United States.


Compare the perspectives of other nations and the United States regarding United States foreign policy.


Explain how and why religious tensions and historic differences in the Middle East have led to international conflicts, and analyze the effectiveness of United States policy and actions in bringing peaceful resolutions to the region.


Analyze the reasons for terrorism and the impact that terrorism has had on individuals and government policies, and assess the effectiveness of actions taken by the United States and other nations to prevent terrorism.


Analyze the impact of American culture on other world cultures from multiple perspectives.


Explain how and why technology is transforming access to education and educational practices worldwide.


Determine past and present factors that led to the widening of the gap between the rich and poor, and evaluate how this has affected individuals and society.


Analyze contributions and perspectives of African Americans, Native Americans, and women during the American Revolution.


Explain why American ideals put forth in the Constitution (i.e., due process, rule of law, and individual rights) have been denied to different groups of people throughout time.


Relate events in Europe to the development of American trade and American foreign and domestic policies.


Analyze arguments for new womens roles and rights, and explain why 18th century society limited womens aspirations.


Determine the impact of African American leaders and institutions in shaping free Black communities in the North.


Determine how expansion created opportunities for some and hardships for others by considering multiple perspectives.


Explain how immigration intensified ethnic and cultural conflicts and complicated the forging of a national identity.


Assess how states' rights (i.e., Nullification) and sectional interests influenced party politics and shaped national policies (i.e., the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850).


Analyze the role education played in improving economic opportunities and in the development of responsible citizens.


Determine the impact of religious and social movements on the development of American culture, literature, and art.


Compare and contrast the roles of African Americans who lived in Union and Confederate states during the Civil War.


Compare and contrast the impact of the American Civil War and the impact of a past or current civil war in another country in terms of the consequences for peoples lives and work.


Analyze the debate about how to reunite the country, and determine the extent to which enacted Reconstruction policies achieved their goals.


Relate conflicting political, economic, social, and sectional perspectives on Reconstruction to the resistance of some Southern individuals and states.


Analyze the impact of the Civil War and the 14th Amendment on the development of the country and on the relationship between the national and state governments.


Analyze government policies and other factors that promoted innovation, entrepreneurship, and industrialization in New Jersey and the United States during this period.


Evaluate how events led to the creation of labor and agricultural organizations that protect the rights of workers.


Assess the effectiveness of public education in fostering national unity and American values and in helping people meet their economic needs and expectations.


Relate varying immigrants experiences to gender, race, ethnicity, or occupation.


Assess the impact of technological innovation and immigration on the development of agriculture, industry, and urban culture during the late 19th century in New Jersey (i.e., Paterson Silk Strike 1913) and the United States.


Compare and contrast the foreign policies of American presidents during this time period, and analyze how these presidents contributed to the United States becoming a world power.


Analyze the successes and failures of efforts to expand womens rights, including the work of important leaders (i.e., Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Alice Paul, and Lucy Stone) and the eventual ratification of the 19th Amendment.


Evaluate the effectiveness of Woodrow Wilsons leadership during and immediately after World War I.


Determine the extent to which propaganda, the media, and special interest groups shaped American public opinion and American foreign policy during World War I.


Analyze the factors contributing to a rise in authoritarian forms of government and ideologies (i.e., fascism, communism, and socialism) after World War I.


Explain why the Great Migration led to heightened racial tensions, restrictive laws, a rise in repressive organizations, and an increase in violence.


Assess the impact of artists, writers, and musicians of the 1920s, including the Harlem Renaissance, on American culture and values.


Explore the global context of the Great Depression and the reasons for the worldwide economic collapse.


Analyze the impact of the Great Depression on the American family, migratory groups, and ethnic and racial minorities.


Compare and contrast the motivations for and methods by which various empires (e.g., Ming, Qing, Spanish, Mughal, Ottoman) expanded, and assess why some were more effective than others in maintaining control of their empires.


Compare the principle ideas of the Enlightenment in Europe (e.g., political, social, gender, education) with similar ideas in Asia and the Muslim empires of the Middle East and North Africa.


Determine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the rise of powerful, centralized nation states in Europe (i.e., the French absolute monarchy and the English limited monarchy).


Explain how and why various ideals (e.g., liberty, popular sovereignty, natural rights, democracy, nationalism) became driving forces for reforms and revolutions, their influence on Latin American independence movements, and evaluate their impact on government, society, and economic opportunities.


Relate the responses of various governments to pressure for self-government or self-determination to subsequent reform or revolution.


Analyze the relationship between industrialization and the rise of democratic and social reforms, including the expansion of parliamentary government.


Compare and contrast the struggles for womens suffrage and workers rights in Europe and North America, and evaluate the degree to which each movement achieved its goals.


Analyze the motives for and methods by which European nations, Japan, and the United States expanded their imperialistic practices in Africa and Asia during this era, and evaluate the impact of these actions on their relations.


Explain the differences between socialism, communism, and fascism and explain the reasons for their spread in Europe and Asia.


Compare the rise of nationalism in China, Turkey, and India.


Analyze the motivations, causes, and consequences of the genocides of Armenians, Roma (gypsies), and Jews, as well as the mass exterminations of Ukrainians and Chinese.


Assess government responses to incidents of ethnic cleansing and genocide


Explain how and why differences in ideologies and policies between the United States and the USSR resulted in a cold war, the formation of new alliances (e.g., NATO, SEATO, Warsaw Pact), and periodic military clashes (e.g., Korean War, conflicts in the Middle East).


Analyze the structure and goals of the United Nations and evaluate the organizations ability to solve or mediate international conflicts.


Explain how World War II led to aspirations for self-determination, and compare and contrast the methods used by African and Asian countries to achieve independence.


Analyze the causes and consequences of mass killings (e.g., Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Somalia, Sudan), and evaluate the responsibilities of the world community in response to such events.


Assess the progress of human and civil rights around the world since the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights.


Evaluate the role of international cooperation and multinational organizations in attempting to solve global issues.


Analyze the relationships and tensions between national sovereignty and global interest in matters such as territory, economic development, use of natural resources, and human rights.


Analyze why terrorist movements have proliferated, and evaluate their impact on governments, individuals, and societies.


Assess the effectiveness of responses by governments and international organizations to tensions resulting from ethnic, territorial, religious, and/or nationalist differences.


Explain major changes in world political boundaries between 1450 and 1770, and assess the extent of European political and military control in Africa, Asia, and the Americas by the mid-18th century.


Determine the role of natural resources, climate, and topography in European exploration, colonization, and settlement patterns


Relate the division of European regions during this time period into those that remained Catholic and those that became Protestant to the practice of religion in the New World.


Assess the impact of imperialism by comparing and contrasting the political boundaries of the world in 1815 and 1914.


Relate the role of geography to the spread of independence movements in Latin America.


Determine the geographic impact of World War I by comparing and contrasting the political boundaries of the world in 1914 and 1939.


Determine how geography impacted military strategies and major turning points during World War II.


Explain how the disintegration of the Ottoman empire and the mandate system led to the creation of new nations in the Middle East.


Explain the intended and unintended consequences of new national boundaries established by the treaties that ended World War II.


Determine the impact of geography on decisions made by the Soviet Union and the United States to expand and protect their spheres of influence.


Analyze the reasons for the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, and evaluate the impact of these events on changing national boundaries in Eastern Europe and Asia.


Determine the impact of migration on the way of life (e.g., social, economic, and political structures) in countries of origin and in adopted countries.


Analyze post-independence struggles in South Asia, including the struggle over the partitioning of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan, as well as later tensions over Kashmir.


Assess the role of boundary disputes and limited natural resources as sources of conflict.


Determine the global impact of increased population growth, migration, and changes in urban-rural populations on natural resources and land use.


Compare and contrast the economic policies of China and Japan, and determine the impact these policies had on growth, the desire for colonies, and the relative positions of China and Japan within the emerging global economy.


Trace the movement of essential commodities (e.g., sugar, cotton) from Asia to Europe to America, and determine the impact trade on the New Worlds economy and society.


Assess the role of mercantilism in stimulating European expansion through trade, conquest, and colonization.


Determine the effects of increased global trade and the importation of gold and silver from the New World on inflation in Europe, Southwest Asia, and Africa.


Determine the extent to which various technologies, (e.g., printing, the marine compass, cannonry, Arabic numerals) derived from Europes interactions with Islam and Asia provided the necessary tools for European exploration and conquest.


Relate the development of more modern banking and financial systems to European economic influence in the world.


Analyze interrelationships among the agricultural revolution, population growth, industrialization, specialization of labor, and patterns of land-holding.


Analyze interrelationships among the Industrial Revolution, nationalism, competition for global markets, imperialism, and natural resources.


Compare the characteristics of capitalism, communism, and socialism to determine why each system emerged in different world regions.


Determine how, and the extent to which, scientific and technological changes, transportation, and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural changes.


Compare the impact of imperialism on economic development in Africa, Asia, and Latin America regarding barriers or opportunities for future development and political independence.


Analyze government responses to the Great Depression and their consequences, including the growth of fascist, socialist, and communist movements and the effects on capitalist economic theory and practice.


Compare and contrast World Wars I and II in terms of technological innovations (i.e., industrial production, scientific research, war tactics) and social impact (i.e., national mobilization, loss of life, and destruction of property).


Assess the short- and long-term demographic, social, economic, and environmental consequences of the violence and destruction of the two World Wars.


Analyze the ways in which new forms of communication, transportation, and weaponry affected relationships between governments and their citizens and bolstered the power of new authoritarian regimes during this period.


Explain how and why Western European countries and Japan achieved rapid economic recovery after World War II.


Compare and contrast free market capitalism, Western European democratic socialism, and Soviet communism.


Assess the impact of the international arms race, the space race, and nuclear proliferation on international politics from multiple perspectives.


Determine the challenges faced by developing nations in their efforts to compete in a global economy.


Assess the reasons for and consequences of the growth of communism and shift toward a market economy in China.


Assess the impact of the European Union on member nations and other nations.


Evaluate the role of the petroleum industry in world politics, the global economy, and the environment.


Evaluate efforts of governmental, nongovernmental, and international organizations to address economic imbalances and social inequalities.


Compare and contrast demographic trends in industrialized and developing nations, and evaluate the potential impact of these trends on the economy, political stability, and use of resources.


Assess the role government monetary policies, central banks, international investment, and exchange rates play in maintaining stable regional and global economies.


Determine how the availability of scientific, technological, and medical advances impacts the quality of life in different countries.


Assess the political, social, and economic impact of the Columbian Exchange (e.g., plants, animals, ideas, pathogens) on Europeans and Native Americans.


Compare slavery practices and other forms of coerced labor or social bondage common in East Africa, West Africa, Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Americas.


Analyze various motivations for the Atlantic slave trade and the impact on Europeans, Africans, and Americans.


Explain how the new social stratification created by voluntary and coerced interactions among Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans in Spanish colonies laid the foundation for conflict.


Assess the impact of economic, political, and social policies and practices regarding African slaves, indigenous peoples, and Europeans in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies.


Analyze the political, cultural, and moral role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies.


Determine the factors that led to the Renaissance, the significance of the location of the Italian city-states as the center of the Renaissance, and the impact on the arts.


Determine the factors that led to the Reformation and the impact on European politics.


Justify how innovations from Asian and Islamic civilizations, as well as from ancient Greek and Roman culture, laid the foundation for the Renaissance.


Analyze the impact of new intellectual, philosophical, and scientific ideas on how humans viewed themselves and how they viewed their physical and spiritual worlds.


Assess the impact of the printing press and other technologies developed on the dissemination of ideas.


Explain how individuals and groups promoted revolutionary actions and brought about change during this time period.


Explain how industrialization and urbanization affected class structure, family life, the daily lives of men, women, and children, and the environment.


Compare and contrast Chinas and Japans views of and responses to imperialism, and determine the effects of imperialism on the development and prosperity of each country in the 20th century.


Analyze the extent to which racism was both a cause and consequence of imperialism, and evaluate the impact of imperialism from multiple perspectives.


Analyze the impact of the policies of different European colonizers on indigenous societies, and explain the responses of these societies to imperialistic rule.


Analyze the extent to which nationalism, industrialization, territory disputes, imperialism, militarism, and alliances led to World War I.


Analyze the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations from the perspectives of different nations.


Assess the causes of revolution in the 20th century (i.e., in Russia, China, India, and Cuba), and determine the impact on global politics.


Analyze the extent to which the legacy of World War I, the global depression, ethnic and ideological conflicts, imperialism, and traditional political or economic rivalries caused World War II.


Compare how Allied countries responded to the expansionist actions of Germany and Italy.


Explain the role of colonial peoples in the war efforts of the Allies and the Central/Axis Powers in both World Wars.


Analyze the role of racial bias, nationalism, and propaganda in mobilizing civilian populations in support of total war.


Assess the extent to which world war, depression, nationalist ideology, communism, and liberal democratic ideals contributed to the emergence of movements for national self-rule or sovereignty in Africa and Asia.


Compare and contrast the actions of individuals as perpetrators, bystanders, and rescuers during events of persecution or genocide, and describe the long-term consequences of genocide for all involved.


Analyze how the social, economic, and political roles of women were transformed during this time period.


Assess the cultural impact of World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II by analyzing the values and social ideas in the arts.


Relate the lingering effects of colonialism to the efforts of Latin American, African, and Asian nations to build stable economies and national identities.


Assess the impact of Gandhis methods of civil disobedience and passive resistance in India, and determine how his methods were later used by people from other countries.


Assess the influence of television, the Internet, and other forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information, worldwide.


Analyze how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women in different parts of the world, and evaluate womens progress toward social equality, economic equality, and political equality in various countries.


Assess the role of increased personal and business electronic communications in creating a global culture, and evaluate the impact on traditional cultures and values.


Develop a plan for public accountability and transparency in government related to a particular issue(s) and share the plan with appropriate government officials.


Compare current case studies involving slavery, child labor, or other unfair labor practices in the United States with those of other nations, and evaluate the extent to which such problems are universal.


Collaborate with students from other countries to develop possible solutions to an issue of environmental justice, and present those solutions to relevant national and international governmental and/or nongovernmental organizations.


Participate in a simulated meeting (e.g., President's Council, World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF)), research evidence from multiple sources about an economic problem, (e.g., inflation, unemployment, deficit), and develop a plan of action.


Analyze the impact of current governmental practices and laws affecting national security and/or individual civil rights/ privacy.


Analyze a current foreign policy issue by considering current and historical perspectives, examining strategies, and presenting possible actions.