New Jersey Student Learning Standards for Social Studies — Grade 8


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6.1.8.A.1.a

Compare and contrast forms of governance, belief systems, and family structures among African, European, and Native American groups.

6.1.8.A.2.a

Determine the roles of religious freedom and participatory government in various North American colonies.

6.1.8.A.2.b

Explain how and why early government structures developed, and determine the impact of these early structures on the evolution of American politics and institutions.

6.1.8.A.2.c

Explain how demographics (i.e., race, gender, and economic status) affected social, economic, and political opportunities during the Colonial era.

6.1.8.A.3.a

Examine the ideals found in the Declaration of Independence, and assess the extent to which they were fulfilled for women, African Americans, and Native Americans during this time period.

6.1.8.A.3.b

Evaluate the effectiveness of the fundamental principles of the Constitution (i.e., consent of the governed, rule of law, federalism, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, and individual rights) in establishing a federal government that allows for growth and change over time.

6.1.8.A.3.c

Determine the role that compromise played in the creation and adoption of the Constitution and Bill of Rights.

6.1.8.A.3.d

Compare and contrast the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution in terms of the decision-making powers of national government.

6.1.8.A.3.e

Explain how and why constitutional civil liberties were impacted by acts of government (i.e., Alien and Sedition Acts) during the Early Republic.

6.1.8.A.3.f

Explain how political parties were formed and continue to be shaped by differing perspectives regarding the role and power of federal government.

6.1.8.A.3.g

Evaluate the impact of the Constitution and Bill of Rights on current day issues.

6.1.8.A.4.a

Explain the changes in Americas relationships with other nations by analyzing policies, treaties, tariffs, and agreements.

6.1.8.A.4.b

Analyze how the concept of Manifest Destiny influenced the acquisition of land through annexation, diplomacy, and war.

6.1.8.A.4.c

Assess the extent to which voting rights were expanded during the Jacksonian period.

6.1.8.A.5.a

Explain how and why the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address continue to impact American life.

6.1.8.A.5.b

Compare and contrast the approaches of Congress and Presidents Lincoln and Johnson toward the reconstruction of the South.

6.1.8.B.1.a

Describe migration and settlement patterns of Native American groups, and explain how these patterns affected interactions in different regions of the Western Hemisphere.

6.1.8.B.1.b

Analyze the world in spatial terms (e.g., longitude, latitude) using historical maps to determine what led to the exploration of new water and land routes.

6.1.8.B.2.a

Determine factors that impacted emigration, settlement patterns, and regional identities of the colonies.

6.1.8.B.2.b

Compare and contrast how the search for natural resources resulted in conflict and cooperation among European colonists and Native American groups in the New World.

6.1.8.B.3.a

Assess how conflicts and alliances among European countries and Native American groups impacted the expansion of the American colonies.

6.1.8.B.3.b

Determine the extent to which the geography of the United States influenced the debate on representation in Congress and federalism by examining the New Jersey and Virginia plans.

6.1.8.B.3.c

Use maps and other geographic tools to evaluate the impact of geography on the execution and outcome of the American Revolutionary War.

6.1.8.B.3.d

Explain why New Jerseys location played an integral role in the American Revolution.

6.1.8.B.4.a

Assess the impact of the Louisiana Purchase and western exploration on the expansion and economic development of the United States.

6.1.8.B.4.b

Map territorial expansion and settlement, as well as the locations of conflicts with and resettlement of Native Americans.

6.1.8.B.5.a

Assess the role of various factors (i.e., geography, natural resources, demographics, transportation, leadership, and technology) that affected the course and outcome of the Civil War

6.1.8.C.1.a

Evaluate the impact of science, religion, and technology innovations on European exploration.

6.1.8.C.1.b

Explain why individuals and societies trade, how trade functions, and the role of trade during this period.

6.1.8.C.2.a

Compare the practice of slavery and indentured servitude in Colonial labor systems.

6.1.8.C.2.b

Explain the system of mercantilism and its impact on the economies of the colonies and European countries.

6.1.8.C.2.c

Analyze the impact of triangular trade on multiple nations and groups.

6.1.8.C.3.a

Explain how taxes and government regulation can affect economic opportunities, and assess the impact of these on relations between Britain and its North American colonies.

6.1.8.C.3.b

Summarize the effect of inflation and debt on the American people and the response of state and national governments during this time.

6.1.8.C.3.c

Evaluate the impact of the cotton gin and other innovations on the institution of slavery and on the economic and political development of the country.

6.1.8.C.4.a

Analyze the debates involving the National Bank, uniform currency, and tariffs, and determine the extent to which each of these economic tools met the economic challenges facing the new nation.

6.1.8.C.4.b

Explain how major technological developments revolutionized land and water transportation, as well as the economy, in New Jersey and the nation.

6.1.8.C.4.c

Analyze how technological innovations affected the status and social class of different groups of people, and explain the outcomes that resulted.

6.1.8.C.5.a

Assess the human and material costs of the Civil War in the North and South.

6.1.8.C.5.b

Analyze the economic impact of Reconstruction on the South from different perspectives.

6.1.8.D.1.a

Compare and contrast gender roles, religion, values, cultural practices, and political systems of Native American groups.

6.1.8.D.1.b

Explain how interactions among African, European, and Native American groups began a cultural transformation.

6.1.8.D.1.c

Evaluate the impact of the Colombian Exchange on ecology, agriculture, and culture from different perspectives.

6.1.8.D.2.a

Analyze the power struggle among European countries, and determine its impact on people living in Europe and the Americas.

6.1.8.D.2.b

Compare and contrast the voluntary and involuntary migratory experiences of different groups of people, and explain why their experiences differed.

6.1.8.D.3.a

Explain how the consequences of the Seven Years War, changes in British policies toward American colonies, and responses by various groups and individuals in the North American colonies led to the American Revolution.

6.1.8.D.3.b

Explain why the Declaration of Independence was written and how its key principles evolved to become unifying ideas of American democracy.

6.1.8.D.3.c

Analyze the impact of George Washington as general of the American revolutionary forces and as the first president of the United States.

6.1.8.D.3.d

Analyze how prominent individuals and other nations contributed to the causes, execution, and outcomes of the American Revolution.

6.1.8.D.3.e

Examine the roles and perspectives of various socioeconomic groups (e.g., rural farmers, urban craftsmen, northern merchants, and southern planters), African Americans, Native Americans, and women during the American Revolution, and determine how these groups were impacted by the war.

6.1.8.D.3.f

Analyze from multiple perspectives how the terms of the Treaty of Paris affected United States relations with Native Americans and with European powers that had territories in North America.

6.1.8.D.3.g

Evaluate the extent to which the leadership and decisions of early administrations of the national government met the goals established in the Preamble of the Constitution.

6.1.8.D.4.a

Analyze the push-pull factors that led to increases in immigration, and explain why ethnic and cultural conflicts resulted.

6.1.8.D.4.b

Describe efforts to reform education, womens rights, slavery, and other issues during the Antebellum period.

6.1.8.D.4.c

Explain the growing resistance to slavery and New Jerseys role in the Underground Railroad.

6.1.8.D.5.a

Prioritize the causes and events that led to the Civil War from different perspectives.

6.1.8.D.5.b

Analyze critical events and battles of the Civil War and determine how they contributed to the final outcome of the war.

6.1.8.D.5.c

Examine the roles of women, African Americans, and Native Americans in the Civil War.

6.1.8.D.5.d

Analyze the effectiveness of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the United States Constitution from multiple perspectives.

6.2.8.A.1.a

Compare and contrast the social organization, natural resources, and land use of early hunters/gatherers and those who lived in early agrarian societies.

6.2.8.A.2.a

Explain how/why different early river valley civilizations developed similar forms of government and legal structures.

6.2.8.A.2.b

Determine the role of slavery in the economic and social structures of early river valley civilizations.

6.2.8.A.3.a

Compare and contrast the methods (i.e., autocratic rule, philosophies, and bureaucratic structures) used by the rulers of Rome, China, and India to control and unify their expanding empires.

6.2.8.A.3.b

Compare and contrast the rights and responsibilities of free men, women, slaves, and foreigners in the political, economic, and social structures of classical civilizations.

6.2.8.A.3.c

Determine the foundational concepts and principles of Athenian democracy and the Roman Republic that later influenced the development of the United States Constitution.

6.2.8.A.3.d

Compare the status (i.e., political, economic, and social) of groups in the Ancient World to those of people today and evaluate how individuals perceived the principles of liberty and equality then and now.

6.2.8.A.3.e

Compare and contrast the American legal system with the legal systems of classical civilizations, and determine the extent to which these early systems influenced our current legal system.

6.2.8.A.4.a

Analyze the role of religion and other means rulers used to unify and centrally govern expanding territories with diverse populations.

6.2.8.A.4.b

Compare and contrast the Japanese and European systems of feudalism and the effectiveness of each in promoting social, economic, and political order.

6.2.8.A.4.c

Determine the influence of medieval English legal and constitutional practices (i.e., the Magna Carta, parliament, the development of habeas corpus, and an independent judiciary) on modern democratic thought and institutions.

6.2.8.B.1.a

Explain the various migratory patterns of hunters/gatherers that moved from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas, and describe the impact of migration on their lives and on the shaping of societies.

6.2.8.B.2.a

Determine the extent to which geography influenced settlement, the development of trade networks, technological innovations, and the sustainability of early river valley civilizations.

6.2.8.B.2.b

Compare and contrast physical and political maps of early river valley civilizations and their modern counterparts (i.e., Mesopotamia and Iraq; Ancient Egypt and Modern Egypt; Indus River Valley and Modern Pakistan/India; Ancient China and Modern China), and determine the geopolitical impact of these civilizations, then and now.

6.2.8.B.3.a

Determine how geography and the availability of natural resources influenced the development of the political, economic, and cultural systems of each of the classical civilizations and provided motivation for expansion.

6.2.8.B.3.b

Explain how geography and the availability of natural resources led to both the development of Greek city-states and to their decline.

6.2.8.B.4.a

Explain how geography influenced the development of the political, economic, and cultural centers of each empire as well as the empires relationships with other parts of the world.

6.2.8.B.4.b

Assess how maritime and overland trade routes (i.e., the African caravan and Silk Road) impacted urbanization, transportation, communication, and the development of international trade centers.

6.2.8.B.4.c

Determine how Africas physical geography and natural resources presented challenges and opportunities for trade, development, and the spread of religion.

6.2.8.B.4.d

Explain why the Arabian Peninsulas physical features and location made it the epicenter of Afro-Eurasian trade and fostered the spread of Islam into Africa, Europe, and Asia.

6.2.8.B.4.e

Analyze the motivations for civilizations to modify the environment, determine the positive and negative consequences of environmental changes made during this time period, and relate these changes to current environmental challenges.

6.2.8.B.4.f

Explain how the geographies and climates of Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas influenced their economic development and interaction or isolation with other societies.

6.2.8.C.1.a

Describe the influence of the agricultural revolution (e.g., the impact of food surplus from farming) on population growth and the subsequent development of civilizations.

6.2.8.C.1.b

Determine the impact of technological advancements on hunter/gatherer and agrarian societies.

6.2.8.C.2.a

Explain how technological advancements led to greater economic specialization, improved weaponry, trade, and the development of a class system in early river valley civilizations.

6.2.8.C.3.a

Analyze the impact of expanding land and sea trade routes as well as a uniform system of exchange in the Mediterranean World and Asia.

6.2.8.C.3.b

Explain how classical civilizations used technology and innovation to enhance agricultural/ manufacturing output and commerce, to expand military capabilities, to improve life in urban areas, and to allow for greater division of labor.

6.2.8.C.4.a

Explain how and why the interrelationships among improved agricultural production, population growth, urbanization, and commercialization led to the rise of powerful states and kingdoms (i.e., Europe, Asia, Americas).

6.2.8.C.4.b

Determine the extent to which interaction between the Islamic world and medieval Europe increased trade, enhanced technology innovation, and impacted scientific thought and the arts.

6.2.8.D.1.a

Demonstrate an understanding of pre-agricultural and post-agricultural periods in terms of relative length of time.

6.2.8.D.1.b

Describe how the development of both written and unwritten languages impacted human understanding, development of culture, and social structure.

6.2.8.D.1.c

Explain how archaeological discoveries are used to develop and enhance understanding of life prior to written records.

6.2.8.D.2.a

Analyze the impact of religion on daily life, government, and culture in various early river valley civilizations.

6.2.8.D.2.b

Explain how the development of written language transformed all aspects of life in early river valley civilizations.

6.2.8.D.2.c

Analyze the factors that led to the rise and fall of various early river valley civilizations and determine whether there was a common pattern of growth and decline.

6.2.8.D.2.d

Evaluate the importance and enduring legacy of the major achievements of the early river valley civilizations over time.

6.2.8.D.3.a

Compare and contrast social hierarchies in classical civilizations as they relate to power, wealth, and equality.

6.2.8.D.3.b

Determine common factors that contributed to the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, Gupta India, and Han China.

6.2.8.D.3.c

Evaluate the importance and enduring legacy of the major achievements of Greece, Rome, India, and China over time.

6.2.8.D.3.d

Compare and contrast the tenets of various world religions that developed in or around this time period (i.e., Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Sikhism, and Taoism), their patterns of expansion, and their responses to the current challenges of globalization.

6.2.8.D.3.e

Determine the extent to which religion, economic issues, and conflict shaped the values and decisions of the classical civilizations.

6.2.8.D.4. a

Analyze the role of religion and economics in shaping each empires social hierarchy, and evaluate the impact these hierarchical structures had on the lives of various groups of people.

6.2.8.D.4.b

Analyze the causes and outcomes of the Crusades from different perspectives, including the perspectives of European political and religious leaders, the crusaders, Jews, Muslims, and traders.

6.2.8.D.4.c

Assess the demographic, economic, and religious impact of the plague on Europe.

6.2.8.D.4.d

Determine which events led to the rise and eventual decline of European feudalism.

6.2.8.D.4.e

Analyze the immediate and long-term impact on China and Europe of the open exchange between Europe and the Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty.

6.2.8.D.4.f

Determine the extent to which the Byzantine Empire influenced the Islamic world and western Europe.

6.2.8.D.4.g

Evaluate the importance and enduring legacy of the major achievements of the people living Asia, Africa (Islam), Europe and the Americas over time.

6.3.8.A.1

Deliberate on a public issue affecting an upcoming election, consider opposing arguments, and develop a reasoned conclusion.

6.3.8.A.2

Participate in a real or simulated hearing to develop a legislative proposal that addresses a public issue, and share it with an appropriate legislative body (e.g., school board, municipal or county government, state legislature).

6.3.8.A.3

Collaborate with international students to deliberate about and address issues of gender equality, child mortality, or education.

6.3.8.B.1

Evaluate alternative land use proposals and make recommendations to the appropriate governmental agency regarding the best course of action.

6.3.8.C.1

Examine the perspectives of multiple stakeholders involved in the local budget process (e.g., obtaining information, discussing priorities).

6.3.8.D.1

Engage in simulated democratic processes (e.g., legislative hearings, judicial proceedings, elections) to understand how conflicting points of view are addressed in a democratic society.