Tennessee Academic Standards for English — Grade 9


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9.9-10.L.CSE.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; use effective parallel structure and various types of phrases and clauses to convey specific meaning and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

9.9-10.L.CSE.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; when reading and writing, explain the functions of semicolons and colons to separate related ideas and use them correctly to do so; write and edit work so that it conforms to a style guide appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

9.9-10.L.KL.3

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

9.9-10.L.VAU.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on 9th -10th grade-level text by choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

9.9-10.L.VAU.4.a

Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or a phrase.

9.9-10.L.VAU.4.b

Use common grade-appropriate morphological elements as clues to the meaning of a word or a phrase.

9.9-10.L.VAU.4.c

Consult reference materials, both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or phrase.

9.9-10.L.VAU.4.d

Use etymological patterns in spelling as clues to the meaning of a word or phrase.

9.9-10.L.VAU.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings in grades 9-10 reading and content; interpret figures of speech in context and analyze their role in a text; analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

9.9-10.L.VAU.6

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the post-secondary and workforce readiness level; demonstrate independence in building vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

9.9-10.RI.CS.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone.

9.9-10.RI.CS.5

Analyze how an authors ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.

9.9-10.RI.CS.6

Determine an authors point of view or purpose and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

9.9-10.RI.IKI.7

Evaluate the topic or subject in two diverse formats or media.

9.9-10.RI.IKI.8

Evaluate how reasoning and evidence affects the argument and specific claims in a text.

9.9-10.RI.IKI.9

Analyze a variety of thematically-related texts of historical and literary significance for the way they address related topics, facts, and concepts.

9.9-10.RI.KID.1

Analyze what a text says explicitly and draw inferences; cite the strongest, most compelling textual evidence to support conclusions.

9.9-10.RI.KID.2

Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development; provide an objective or critical summary.

9.9-10.RI.KID.3

Analyze how an author presents and develops key ideas and events to impact meaning.

9.9-10.RL.CS.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, such as how language evokes a sense of time and place, and how it communicates an informal or formal tone.

9.9-10.RL.CS.5

Analyze how an authors choices concerning text structure, plot structure, and/or time manipulation create effects such as mystery, tension, or surprise.

9.9-10.RL.CS.6

Analyze how point of view and/or author purpose shapes the content and style of diverse texts.

9.9-10.RL.IKI.7

Evaluate the topic, subject, and/or theme in two diverse formats or media.

9.9-10.RL.IKI.9

Analyze a variety of related literary texts and evaluate how an author draws on, alludes to, or transforms source material to provide a deeper and more thorough interpretation of the text.

9.9-10.RL.KID.1

Analyze what a text says explicitly and draw inferences; cite the strongest, most compelling textual evidence to support conclusions.

9.9-10.RL.KID.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development; provide an objective or critical summary.

9.9-10.RL.KID.3

Analyze how complex characters, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text to impact meaning.

9.9-10.SL.CC.1

Initiate and participate effectively with varied partners in a range of collaborative discussions on appropriate 9th- 10th grade topics, texts, and issues, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

9.9-10.SL.CC.2

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media formats; evaluate the credibility and accuracy of each source.

9.9-10.SL.CC.3

Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric; identify any fallacious reasoning and/or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

9.9-10.SL.PKI.4

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically, so that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

9.9-10.SL.PKI.5

Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

9.9-10.SL.PKI.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

9.9-10.W.PDW.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

9.9-10.W.PDW.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 9-10.)

9.9-10.W.PDW.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technologys capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

9.9-10.W.RBPK.7

Conduct and write short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem by narrowing or broadening the inquiry when appropriate, synthesizing multiple sources on the subject, and demonstrating a new understanding of the subject under investigation.

9.9-10.W.RBPK.8

Use multiple search terms to generate a variety of print and digital sources; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

9.9-10.W.RBPK.9

Support and defend interpretations, analyses, reflections, or research with evidence found in literature or informational texts, applying grade band 9-10 standards for reading to source material.

9.9-10.W.RW.10

Write routinely over extended time frames and shorter time frames for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

9.9-10.W.TTP.1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning supported by relevant and sufficient evidence.

9.9-10.W.TTP.1.a

Introduce precise claim(s).

9.9-10.W.TTP.1.b

Develop claim(s) and counterclaim(s) fairly, supplying evidence for each claim and counterclaim while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audiences knowledge level and concerns.

9.9-10.W.TTP.1.c

Create an organization that establishes cohesion and clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaim(s), reasons, and evidence.

9.9-10.W.TTP.1.d

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

9.9-10.W.TTP.1.e

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.

9.9-10.W.TTP.1.f

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.

9.9-10.W.TTP.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to analyze and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection and organization of content.

9.9-10.W.TTP.2.a

Provide an introduction that is relevant to the rest of the text and effectively engages the audience.

9.9-10.W.TTP.2.b

Organize ideas to create cohesion and clarify relationships among ideas and concepts, including but not limited to use of appropriate and varied transitions.

9.9-10.W.TTP.2.c

Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audiences knowledge of the topic.

9.9-10.W.TTP.2.d

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

9.9-10.W.TTP.2.e

Use appropriate formatting, graphics, and multimedia to aid comprehension.

9.9-10.W.TTP.2.f

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.

9.9-10.W.TTP.2.g

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.

9.9-10.W.TTP.3

Write narrative fiction or literary nonfiction to convey experiences and/or events using effective techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

9.9-10.W.TTP.3.a

Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing point of view, and introducing a narrator/speaker and/or characters.

9.9-10.W.TTP.3.b

Sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.

9.9-10.W.TTP.3.c

Create a smooth progression of experiences or events.

9.9-10.W.TTP.3.d

Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines to convey experiences, events, and/or characters.

9.9-10.W.TTP.3.e

Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

9.9-10.W.TTP.3.f

Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.

9.9-10.W.TTP.3.g

Establish and maintain an appropriate style and tone.

9.9.RI.RRTC.10

Read and comprehend a variety of literary nonfiction throughout the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with a gradual release of scaffolding at the higher end as needed.

9.9.RL.RRTC.10

Read and comprehend a variety of literature throughout the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with a gradual release of scaffolding at the higher end as needed.

9.L.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

9.L.1.a

Use parallel structure.*

9.L.1.b

Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

9.L.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

9.L.2.a

Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.

9.L.2.b

Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.

9.L.3

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

9.L.3.a

Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabians Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

9.L.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

9.L.4.a

Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a words position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

9.L.4.b

Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).

9.L.4.c

Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.

9.L.4.d

Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

9.L.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

9.L.5.a

Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.

9.L.5.b

Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

9.L.6

Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

9.RI.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

9.RI.10

By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

9.RI.2

Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

9.RI.3

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

9.RI.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

9.RI.5

Analyze in detail how an authors ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).

9.RI.6

Determine an authors point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

9.RI.7

Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a persons life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

9.RI.8

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

9.RI.9

Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washingtons Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelts Four Freedoms Speech, Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail), including how they address related themes and concepts.

9.RL.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

9.RL.10

By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

9.RL.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

9.RL.3

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

9.RL.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).

9.RL.5

Analyze how an authors choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

9.RL.6

Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

9.RL.7

Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Audens Muse des Beaux Arts and Breughels Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

9.RL.8

(Not applicable to literature)

9.RL.9

Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

9.SL.1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

9.SL.1.a

Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

9.SL.1.b

Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.

9.SL.1.c

Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

9.SL.1.d

Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

9.SL.2

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

9.SL.3

Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

9.SL.4

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

9.SL.5

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

9.SL.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9-10 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 54 for specific expectations.)

9.W.1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence

9.W.1.a

Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons and evidence

9.W.1.b

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audiences knowledge level and concerns.

9.W.1.c

Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

9.W.1.d

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

9.W.1.e

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented

9.W.10

Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]).

9.W.11

Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning).

9.W.12

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

9.W.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

9.W.2.a

Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

9.W.2.b

Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audiences knowledge of the topic.

9.W.2.c

Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.

9.W.2.d

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.

9.W.2.e

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

9.W.2.f

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

9.W.3

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

9.W.3.a

Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.

9.W.3.b

Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.

9.W.3.c

Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.

9.W.3.d

Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.

9.W.3.e

Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

9.W.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

9.W.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 9-10 on page 55.)

9.W.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technologys capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically

9.W.7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

9.W.8

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

9.W.9

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.