Virginia Science Standards of Learning — Grade 4


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4.1a

distinctions are made among observations, conclusions, inferences, and predictions;

4.1b

objects or events are classified and arranged according to characteristics or properties;

4.1c

appropriate instruments are selected and used to measure length, mass, volume, and temperature in metric units;

4.1d

appropriate instruments are selected and used to measure elapsed time;

4.1e

predictions and inferences are made, and conclusions are drawn based on data from a variety of sources;

4.1f

independent and dependent variables are identified;

4.1g

constants in an experimental situation are identified;

4.1h

hypotheses are developed as cause and effect relationships;

4.1i

data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and displayed using bar and basic line graphs;

4.1j

numerical data that are contradictory or unusual in experimental results are recognized;

4.1k

data are communicated with simple graphs, pictures, written statements, and numbers;

4.1l

models are constructed to clarify explanations, demonstrate relationships, and solve needs; and

4.1m

current applications are used to reinforce science concepts.

4.2a

motion is described by an objects direction and speed;

4.2b

changes in motion are related to force and mass;

4.2c

friction is a force that opposes motion; and

4.2d

moving objects have kinetic energy.

4.3a

conductors and insulators;

4.3c

static electricity;

4.3d

the ability of electrical energy to be transformed into light and motion, and to produce heat;

4.3e

simple electromagnets and magnetism; and

4.3f

historical contributions in understanding electricity.

4.4a

the structures of typical plants and the function of each structure;

4.4b

processes and structures involved with plant reproduction;

4.4c

photosynthesis; and

4.4d

adaptations allow plants to satisfy life needs and respond to the environment.

4.5a

plant and animal adaptations;

4.5b

organization of populations, communities, and ecosystems and how they interrelate;

4.5c

flow of energy through food webs;

4.5d

habitats and niches;

4.5e

changes in an organisms niche at various stages in its life cycle; and

4.5f

influences of human activity on ecosystems.

4.6a

weather phenomena;

4.6b

weather measurements and meteorological tools; and

4.6c

use of weather measurements and weather phenomena to make weather predictions.

4.7a

the planets in the solar system;

4.7b

the order of the planets in the solar system; and

4.7c

the relative sizes of the planets.

4.8a

the motions of Earth, the moon, and the sun;

4.8b

the causes for Earths seasons;

4.8c

the causes for the phases of the moon;

4.8d

the relative size, position, age, and makeup of Earth, the moon, and the sun; and

4.8e

historical contributions in understanding the Earth-moon-sun system.

4.9a

watersheds and water resources;

4.9b

animals and plants;

4.9c

minerals, rocks, ores, and energy sources; and

4.9d

forests, soil, and land.