Virginia Science Standards of Learning — Grade 6


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6.1a

observations are made involving fine discrimination between similar objects and organisms;

6.1b

precise and approximate measurements are recorded;

6.1c

scale models are used to estimate distance, volume, and quantity;

6.1d

hypotheses are stated in ways that identify the independent and dependent variables;

6.1e

a method is devised to test the validity of predictions and inferences;

6.1f

one variable is manipulated over time, using many repeated trials;

6.1g

data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using metric measurements and tools;

6.1h

data are analyzed and communicated through graphical representation;

6.1i

models and simulations are designed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena and systems; and

6.1j

current applications are used to reinforce science concepts.

6.2a

potential and kinetic energy;

6.2b

the role of the sun in the formation of most energy sources on Earth;

6.2c

nonrenewable energy sources;

6.2d

renewable energy sources; and

6.2e

energy transformations.

6.3a

Earths energy budget;

6.3b

the role of radiation and convection in the distribution of energy;

6.3c

the motion of the atmosphere and the oceans;

6.3d

cloud formation; and

6.3e

the role of thermal energy in weather-related phenomena including thunderstorms and hurricanes.

6.4a

atoms consist of particles, including electrons, protons, and neutrons;

6.4b

atoms of a particular element are alike but are different from atoms of other elements;

6.4c

elements may be represented by chemical symbols;

6.4d

two or more atoms interact to form new substances, which are held together by electrical forces (bonds

6.4e

compounds may be represented by chemical formulas;

6.4f

chemical equations can be used to model chemical changes; and

6.4g

a limited number of elements comprise the largest portion of the solid Earth, living matter, the oceans, and the atmosphere.

6.5a

water as the universal solvent;

6.5b

the properties of water in all three phases;

6.5c

the action of water in physical and chemical weathering;

6.5d

the ability of large bodies of water to store thermal energy and moderate climate;

6.5e

the importance of water for agriculture, power generation, and public health; and

6.5f

the importance of protecting and maintaining water resources.

6.6a

air as a mixture of gaseous elements and compounds;

6.6b

pressure, temperature, and humidity;

6.6c

atmospheric changes with altitude;

6.6d

natural and human-caused changes to the atmosphere and the importance of protecting and maintaining air quality;

6.6e

the relationship of atmospheric measures and weather conditions; and

6.6f

basic information from weather maps, including fronts, systems, and basic measurements.

6.7a

the health of ecosystems and the abiotic factors of a watershed;

6.7b

the location and structure of Virginias regional watershed systems;

6.7c

divides, tributaries, river systems, and river and stream processes;

6.7f

major conservation, health, and safety issues associated with watersheds; and

6.7g

water monitoring and analysis using field equipment including hand-held technology.

6.8a

the sun, moon, Earth, other planets and their moons, dwarf planets, meteors, asteroids, and comets;

6.8b

relative size of and distance between planets;

6.8c

the role of gravity;

6.8d

revolution and rotation;

6.8e

the mechanics of day and night and the phases of the moon;

6.8f

the unique properties of Earth as a planet;

6.8g

the relationship of Earths tilt and the seasons;

6.8h

the cause of tides; and

6.8i

the history and technology of space exploration.

6.9a

management of renewable resources;

6.9b

management of nonrenewable resources;

6.9c

the mitigation of land-use and environmental hazards through preventive measures; and

6.9d

cost/benefit tradeoffs in conservation policies.