Virginia Science Standards of Learning — Grade 9


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BIO.1a

observations of living organisms are recorded in the lab and in the field;

BIO.1b

hypotheses are formulated based on direct observations and information from scientific literature;

BIO.1c

variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;

BIO.1d

graphing and arithmetic calculations are used as tools in data analysis;

BIO.1e

conclusions are formed based on recorded quantitative and qualitative data;

BIO.1f

sources of error inherent in experimental design are identified and discussed;

BIO.1g

validity of data is determined;

BIO.1h

chemicals and equipment are used in a safe manner;

BIO.1i

appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware, is used for gathering and analyzing data, communicating results, modeling concepts, and simulating experimental conditions;

BIO.1j

research utilizes scientific literature;

BIO.1k

differentiation is made between a scientific hypothesis, theory, and law;

BIO.1l

alternative scientific explanations and models are recognized and analyzed; and

BIO.1m

current applications of biological concepts are used.

BIO.2a

water chemistry and its impact on life processes;

BIO.2b

the structure and function of macromolecules;

BIO.2c

the nature of enzymes; and

BIO.2d

the capture, storage, transformation, and flow of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.

BIO.3a

evidence supporting the cell theory;

BIO.3b

characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;

BIO.3c

similarities between the activities of the organelles in a single cell and a whole organism;

BIO.3d

the cell membrane model; and

BIO.3e

the impact of surface area to volume ratio on cell division, material transport, and other life processes.

BIO.4a

comparison of their metabolic activities;

BIO.4b

maintenance of homeostasis;

BIO.4c

how the structures and functions vary among and within the Eukarya kingdoms of protists, fungi, plants, and animals, including humans;

BIO.4d

human health issues, human anatomy, and body systems;

BIO.4e

how viruses compare with organisms; and

BIO.4f

evidence supporting the germ theory of infectious disease.

BIO.5a

cell growth and division;

BIO.5c

cell specialization;

BIO.5d

prediction of inheritance of traits based on the Mendelian laws of heredity;

BIO.5e

historical development of the structural model of DNA;

BIO.5g

the structure, function, and replication of nucleic acids;

BIO.5h

events involved in the construction of proteins;

BIO.5i

use, limitations, and misuse of genetic information; and

BIO.5j

exploration of the impact of DNA technologies.

BIO.6a

structural similarities among organisms;

BIO.6b

fossil record interpretation;

BIO.6c

comparison of developmental stages in different organisms;

BIO.6d

examination of biochemical similarities and differences among organisms; and

BIO.6e

systems of classification that are adaptable to new scientific discoveries.

BIO.7a

evidence found in fossil records;

BIO.7b

how genetic variation, reproductive strategies, and environmental pressures impact the survival of populations;

BIO.7c

how natural selection leads to adaptations;

BIO.7d

emergence of new species; and

BIO.7e

scientific evidence and explanations for biological evolution.

BIO.8a

interactions within and among populations including carrying capacities, limiting factors, and growth curves;

BIO.8b

nutrient cycling with energy flow through ecosystems;

BIO.8c

succession patterns in ecosystems;

BIO.8d

the effects of natural events and human activities on ecosystems; and

BIO.8e

analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

CH.1a

designated laboratory techniques;

CH.1b

safe use of chemicals and equipment;

CH.1c

proper response to emergency situations;

CH.1d

manipulation of multiple variables, using repeated trials;

CH.1e

accurate recording, organization, and analysis of data through repeated trials;

CH.1f

mathematical and procedural error analysis;

CH.1g

mathematical manipulations including SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, and dimensional analysis;

CH.1h

use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware, for gathering data, communicating results, and using simulations to model concepts;

CH.1i

construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint; and

CH.1j

the use of current applications to reinforce chemistry concepts.

CH.2a

average atomic mass, mass number, and atomic number;

CH.2b

isotopes, half lives, and radioactive decay;

CH.2c

mass and charge characteristics of subatomic particles;

CH.2d

families or groups;

CH.2f

trends including atomic radii, electronegativity, shielding effect, and ionization energy;

CH.2g

electron configurations, valence electrons, and oxidation numbers;

CH.2h

chemical and physical properties; and

CH.2i

historical and quantum models.

CH.3b

balancing chemical equations;

CH.3c

writing chemical formulas;

CH.3e

reaction types; and

CH.3f

reaction rates, kinetics, and equilibrium.

CH.4a

Avogadros principle and molar volume;

CH.4b

stoichiometric relationships;

CH.4c

solution concentrations; and

CH.4d

acid/base theory; strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes; dissociation and ionization; pH and pOH; and the titration process.

CH.5a

pressure, temperature, and volume;

CH.5b

partial pressure and gas laws;

CH.5e

molar heats of fusion and vaporization;

CH.5f

specific heat capacity; and

CH.5g

colligative properties.

CH.6a

unique properties of carbon that allow multi-carbon compounds; and

CH.6b

uses in pharmaceuticals and genetics, petrochemicals, plastics, and food.

ES.10a

physical and chemical changes related to tides, waves, currents, sea level and ice cap variations, upwelling, and salinity variations;

ES.10b

importance of environmental and geologic implications;

ES.10c

systems interactions;

ES.10d

features of the sea floor as reflections of tectonic processes; and

ES.10e

economic and public policy issues concerning the oceans and the coastal zone including the Chesapeake Bay.

ES.11a

scientific evidence for atmospheric composition changes over geologic time;

ES.11b

current theories related to the effects of early life on the chemical makeup of the atmosphere;

ES.11c

atmospheric regulation mechanisms including the effects of density differences and energy transfer; and

ES.11d

potential changes to the atmosphere and climate due to human, biologic, and geologic activity.

ES.12a

observation and collection of weather data;

ES.12b

prediction of weather patterns;

ES.12c

severe weather occurrences, such as tornadoes, hurricanes, and major storms; and

ES.12d

weather phenomena and the factors that affect climate including radiation, conduction, and convection.

ES.13a

cosmology including the Big Bang theory; and

ES.13b

the origin and evolution of stars, star systems, and galaxies.

ES.1a

volume, area, mass, elapsed time, direction, temperature, pressure, distance, density, and changes in elevation/depth are calculated utilizing the most appropriate tools;

ES.1b

technologies, including computers, probeware, and geospatial technologies, are used to collect, analyze, and report data and to demonstrate concepts and simulate experimental conditions;

ES.1c

scales, diagrams, charts, graphs, tables, imagery, models, and profiles are constructed and interpreted;

ES.1d

maps and globes are read and interpreted, including location by latitude and longitude;

ES.1e

variables are manipulated with repeated trials; and

ES.1f

current applications are used to reinforce Earth science concepts.

ES.2a

science explains and predicts the interactions and dynamics of complex Earth systems;

ES.2b

evidence is required to evaluate hypotheses and explanations;

ES.2c

observation and logic are essential for reaching a conclusion; and

ES.2d

evidence is evaluated for scientific theories.

ES.3a

position of Earth in the solar system;

ES.3b

sun-Earth-moon relationships; (seasons, tides, and eclipses

ES.3c

characteristics of the sun, planets and their moons, comets, meteors, and asteroids; and

ES.3d

the history and contributions of space exploration.

ES.4a

hardness, color and streak, luster, cleavage, fracture, and unique properties; and

ES.5b

sedimentary rocks; and

ES.6a

fossil fuels, minerals, rocks, water, and vegetation;

ES.6b

advantages and disadvantages of various energy sources;

ES.6c

resources found in Virginia; and

ES.6d

environmental costs and benefits.

ES.7a

geologic processes and their resulting features; and

ES.7b

tectonic processes.

ES.8a

processes of soil development;

ES.8b

development of karst topography;

ES.8c

relationships between groundwater zones, including saturated and unsaturated zones, and the water table;

ES.8d

identification of sources of fresh water including rivers, springs, and aquifers, with reference to the hydrologic cycle;

ES.8e

dependence on freshwater resources and the effects of human usage on water quality; and

ES.8f

identification of the major watershed systems in Virginia, including the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.

ES.9a

traces and remains of ancient, often extinct, life are preserved by various means in many sedimentary rocks;

ES.9b

superposition, cross-cutting relationships, index fossils, and radioactive decay are methods of dating bodies of rock;

ES.9c

absolute and relative dating have different applications but can be used together to determine the age of rocks and structures; and

ES.9d

rocks and fossils from many different geologic periods and epochs are found in Virginia.

LS.10a

phototropism, hibernation, and dormancy;

LS.10b

factors that increase or decrease population size; and

LS.10c

eutrophication, climate changes, and catastrophic disturbances.

LS.11a

food production and harvest;

LS.11b

change in habitat size, quality, or structure;

LS.11c

change in species competition;

LS.11d

population disturbances and factors that threaten or enhance species survival; and

LS.11e

environmental issues.

LS.12a

the structure and role of DNA;

LS.12b

the function of genes and chromosomes;

LS.12c

genotypes and phenotypes;

LS.12d

characteristics that can and cannot be inherited;

LS.12e

genetic engineering and its applications; and

LS.12f

historical contributions and significance of discoveries related to genetics.

LS.13a

the relationships of mutation, adaptation, natural selection, and extinction;

LS.13b

evidence of evolution of different species in the fossil record; and

LS.13c

how environmental influences, as well as genetic variation, can lead to diversity of organisms.

LS.1a

data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means;

LS.1b

a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes;

LS.1c

triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, and probeware are used to gather data;

LS.1d

models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;

LS.1e

sources of experimental error are identified;

LS.1f

dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified;

LS.1g

variables are controlled to test hypotheses, and trials are repeated;

LS.1h

data are organized, communicated through graphical representation, interpreted, and used to make predictions;

LS.1i

patterns are identified in data and are interpreted and evaluated; and

LS.1j

current applications are used to reinforce life science concepts.

LS.2a

cell structure and organelles;

LS.2b

similarities and differences between plant and animal cells;

LS.2c

development of cell theory; and

LS.3a

cells, tissues, organs, and systems; and

LS.3b

patterns of cellular organization and their relationship to life processes in living things.

LS.4a

the distinguishing characteristics of domains of organisms;

LS.4b

the distinguishing characteristics of kingdoms of organisms;

LS.4c

the distinguishing characteristics of major animal phyla and plant divisions; and

LS.4d

the characteristics that define a species.

LS.5a

energy transfer between sunlight and chlorophyll;

LS.5b

transformation of water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen; and

LS.5c

photosynthesis as the foundation of virtually all food webs.

LS.6a

the carbon, water, and nitrogen cycles;

LS.6b

interactions resulting in a flow of energy and matter throughout the system;

LS.6c

complex relationships within terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems; and

LS.6d

energy flow in food webs and energy pyramids.

LS.7a

competition, cooperation, social hierarchy, territorial imperative; and

LS.7b

influence of behavior on a population.

LS.8a

the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs;

LS.8b

the relationship between predators and prey;

LS.8c

competition and cooperation;

LS.8d

symbiotic relationships; and

LS.9a

differences between ecosystems and biomes;

LS.9b

characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater ecosystems; and

LS.9c

adaptations that enable organisms to survive within a specific ecosystem.

PH.10a

inverse square laws (Newtons law of universal gravitation and Coulombs law

PH.10b

technological applications.

PH.11b

series, parallel, and combined circuits;

PH.11c

electrical power; and

PH.11d

alternating and direct currents.

PH.12a

wave/particle duality;

PH.12b

wave properties of matter;

PH.12c

matter/energy equivalence;

PH.12d

quantum mechanics and uncertainty;

PH.12g

solid state physics;

PH.12i

superconductivity; and

PH.1a

the components of a system are defined;

PH.1b

instruments are selected and used to extend observations and measurements;

PH.1c

information is recorded and presented in an organized format;

PH.1d

the limitations of the experimental apparatus and design are recognized;

PH.1e

the limitations of measured quantities are recognized through the appropriate use of significant figures or error ranges;

PH.1f

models and simulations are used to visualize and explain phenomena, to make predictions from hypotheses, and to interpret data; and

PH.1g

appropriate technology, including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware, is used for gathering and analyzing data and communicating results.

PH.2a

a description of a physical problem is translated into a mathematical statement in order to find a solution;

PH.2b

relationships between physical quantities are determined using the shape of a curve passing through experimentally obtained data;

PH.2c

the slope of a linear relationship is calculated and includes appropriate units;

PH.2d

interpolated, extrapolated, and analyzed trends are used to make predictions; and

PH.2e

situations with vector quantities are analyzed utilizing trigonometric or graphical methods.

PH.3a

analysis of scientific sources to develop and refine research hypotheses;

PH.3b

analysis of how science explains and predicts relationships;

PH.3c

evaluation of evidence for scientific theories;

PH.3d

examination of how new discoveries result in modification of existing theories or establishment of new paradigms; and

PH.3e

construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint.

PH.4a

examples from the real world; and

PH.4b

exploration of the roles and contributions of science and technology.

PH.5b

uniform circular motion;

PH.5d

Newtons laws of motion;

PH.5f

planetary motion; and

PH.5g

work, power, and energy.

PH.6a

kinetic and potential energy;

PH.6b

elastic and inelastic collisions; and

PH.6c

mass/energy equivalence.

PH.7a

transfer and storage of energy among systems including mechanical, thermal, gravitational, electromagnetic, chemical, and nuclear systems; and

PH.7b

efficiency of systems.

PH.8a

wave characteristics;

PH.8b

fundamental wave processes; and

PH.8c

light and sound in terms of wave models.

PH.9a

the properties, behaviors, and relative size of radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays;

PH.9b

wave/particle dual nature of light; and

PH.9c

current applications based on the respective wavelengths.

PS.10a

speed, velocity, and acceleration;

PS.10b

Newtons laws of motion;

PS.10c

work, force, mechanical advantage, efficiency, and power; and

PS.10d

technological applications of work, force, and motion.

PS.11a

static electricity, current electricity, and circuits;

PS.11b

relationship between a magnetic field and an electric current;

PS.11c

electromagnets, motors, and generators and their uses; and

PS.11d

conductors, semiconductors, and insulators.

PS.1a

chemicals and equipment are used safely;

PS.1b

length, mass, volume, density, temperature, weight, and force are accurately measured;

PS.1c

conversions are made among metric units, applying appropriate prefixes;

PS.1d

triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, probeware, and spring scales are used to gather data;

PS.1e

numbers are expressed in scientific notation where appropriate;

PS.1f

independent and dependent variables, constants, controls, and repeated trials are identified;

PS.1g

data tables showing the independent and dependent variables, derived quantities, and the number of trials are constructed and interpreted;

PS.1h

data tables for descriptive statistics showing specific measures of central tendency, the range of the data set, and the number of repeated trials are constructed and interpreted;

PS.1i

frequency distributions, scatterplots, line plots, and histograms are constructed and interpreted;

PS.1j

valid conclusions are made after analyzing data;

PS.1k

research methods are used to investigate practical problems and questions;

PS.1l

experimental results are presented in appropriate written form;

PS.1m

models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena; and

PS.1n

current applications of physical science concepts are used.

PS.2a

the particle theory of matter;

PS.2b

elements, compounds, mixtures, acids, bases, and salts;

PS.2c

solids, liquids, and gases;

PS.2d

physical properties;

PS.2e

chemical properties; and

PS.2f

characteristics of types of matter based on physical and chemical properties.

PS.3a

the contributions of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr in understanding the atom; and

PS.3b

the modern model of atomic structure.

PS.4a

symbols, atomic numbers, atomic mass, chemical families (groups

PS.4b

classification of elements as metals, metalloids, and nonmetals; and

PS.4c

formation of compounds through ionic and covalent bonding.

PS.5b

chemical changes; and

PS.6a

potential and kinetic energy; and

PS.6b

mechanical, chemical, electrical, thermal, radiant, and nuclear energy.

PS.7a

Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales and absolute zero;

PS.7b

phase change, freezing point, melting point, boiling point, vaporization, and condensation;

PS.7c

conduction, convection, and radiation; and

PS.7d

applications of thermal energy transfer.

PS.8a

wavelength, frequency, speed, amplitude, rarefaction, and compression;

PS.8c

the nature of compression waves; and

PS.8d

technological applications of sound.

PS.9a

wavelength, frequency, speed, amplitude, crest, and trough;

PS.9b

the wave behavior of light;

PS.9c

images formed by lenses and mirrors;

PS.9d

the electromagnetic spectrum; and

PS.9e

technological applications of light.