Alabama Learning Standards for English Language and Arts — Grade 8


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L.8.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Apply rules of subject-verb agreement when interrupted by a prepositional phrase, with inverted word order, with indefinite pronouns as subjects, compound subjects joined by correlative and coordinating conjunctions, and collective nouns when verb form depends on the rest of the sentence. (Alabama)

L.8.1a

Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.

L.8.1b

Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.

L.8.1c

Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.

L.8.1d

Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.*

L.8.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

L.8.2a

Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.

L.8.2b

Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.

L.8.3

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

L.8.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

L.8.4a

Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

L.8.4b

Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).

L.8.4c

Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.

L.8.4d

Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

L.8.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

L.8.5a

Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.

L.8.5b

Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.

L.8.5c

Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).

L.8.6

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

L8.3a

Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).

RI.8.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

RI.8.10

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the Grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

RI.8.2

Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

RI.8.3

Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

RI.8.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.

RI.8.5

Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

RI.8.6

Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

RI.8.7

Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.

RI.8.8

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

RI.8.9

Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

RL.10

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the Grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

RL.8.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

RL.8.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

RL.8.3

Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

RL.8.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

RL.8.5

Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.

RL.8.6

Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.

RL.8.7

Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.

RL.8.9

Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.

SL.8.1

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

SL.8.1a

Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.

SL.8.1b

Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.

SL.8.1c

Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.

SL.8.1d

Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.

SL.8.2

Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.

SL.8.3

Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

SL.8.4

Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

SL.8.5

Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.

SL.8.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See Grade 7 Language standards 36 and 38 for specific expectations.)

W.8.1

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

W.8.10

Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

W.8.1a

Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.

W.8.1b

Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.

W.8.1c

Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.

W.8.1d

Establish and maintain a formal style.

W.8.1e

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

W.8.2

Write informative or explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

W.8.2a

Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison or contrast, and cause and effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

W.8.2b

Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.

W.8.2c

Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.

W.8.2d

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

W.8.2e

Establish and maintain a formal style.

W.8.2f

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

W.8.3

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

W.8.3a

Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator, characters, or both; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.

W.8.3b

Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.

W.8.3c

Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.

W.8.3d

Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.

W.8.3e

Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

W.8.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 20-22 above.)

W.8.5

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three standards in the Language strand in Grades K-7.)

W.8.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.

W.8.7

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

W.8.8

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

W.8.9

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

W.8.9a

Apply Grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., 'Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history').

W.8.9b

Apply Grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. 'Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims').