# Alabama Learning Standards for Mathematics — Grade 3

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#### 3-G1

Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories.

#### 3-G2

Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole.

#### 3-MD1

Tell and write time to the nearest minute, and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.

#### 3-MD2

Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). (Excludes compound units such as cm3 and finding the geometric volume of a container.) Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. (Excludes multiplicative comparison problems (problems involving notions of 'times as much').) (See Appendix A, Table 2.)

#### 3-MD3

Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step 'how many more' and 'how many less' problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs.

#### 3-MD4

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units whole numbers, halves, or quarters.

#### 3-MD5

Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures, and understand concepts of area measurement.

#### 3-MD5a

A square with side length 1 unit called 'a unit square,' is said to have 'one square unit' of area and can be used to measure area.

#### 3-MD5b

A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.

#### 3-MD6

Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).

#### 3-MD7

Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

#### 3-MD7a

Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.

#### 3-MD7b

Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.

#### 3-MD7c

Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a x b and a x c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.

#### 3-MD7d

Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into nonoverlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real-world problems.

#### 3-MD8

Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.

#### 3-NBT1

Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.

#### 3-NBT2

Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

#### 3-NBT3

Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10 - 90 (e.g., 9 x 80, 5 x 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.

#### 3-NF1

Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts and size 1/b.

#### 3-NF2

Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.

#### 3-NF2a

Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.

#### 3-NF2b

Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.

#### 3-NF3

Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.

#### 3-NF3a

Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size or the same point on a number line.

#### 3-NF3b

Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3. Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

#### 3-NF3c

Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers.

#### 3-NF3d

Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

#### 3-OA1

Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 x 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each.

#### 3-OA2

Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each.

#### 3-OA3

Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Appendix A, Table 2.)

#### 3-OA4

Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers.

#### 3-OA5

Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.)

#### 3-OA6

Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.)

#### 3-OA7

Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 x 5 = 40, one knows 40 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

#### 3-OA8

Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. (This standard is limited to problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers; students should know how to perform operations in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations).)

#### 3-OA9

Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations.