Alabama Learning Standards for Mathematics — Grade 4


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4-G1

Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

4-G2

Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.

4-G3

Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

4-MD1

Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units, including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz; l, ml; and hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table.

4-MD2

Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

4-MD3

Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real-world and mathematical problems.

4-MD4

Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots.

4-MD5

Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement.

4-MD5a

An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a 'one-degree angle' and can be used to measure angles.

4-MD5b

An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.

4-MD6

Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.

4-MD7

Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real-world or mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.

4-NBT1

Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right.

4-NBT2

Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

4-NBT3

Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.

4-NBT4

Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

4-NBT5

Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

4-NBT6

Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

4-NF1

Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction nxa/nxb by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

4-NF2

Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

4-NF3

Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.

4-NF3a

Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.

4-NF3b

Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

4-NF3c

Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

4-NF3d

Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

4-NF4

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

4-NF4a

Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b.

4-NF4b

Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

4-NF4c

Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

4-NF5

Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. (Students who can generate equivalent fractions can develop strategies for adding fractions with unlike denominators in general. But addition and subtraction with unlike denominators in general is not a requirement at this grade.)

4-NF6

Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100.

4-NF7

Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.

4-OA1

Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

4-OA2

Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison. (See Appendix A, Table 2.)

4-OA3

Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

4-OA4

Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite.

4-OA5

Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself.