Arizona Science Standards — Grade 12


Click on any standard to search for aligned resources. This data may be subject to copyright. You may download a CSV of the Arizona Science Standards if your intention constitutes fair use.


Plan, assess, and analyze learning aligned to these standards using Kiddom.

Learn more: How Kiddom Empowers Teachers.

9-12.ESS1.1

Identify ways materials are cycled within the Earth system (i.e., carbon cycle, water cycle, rock cycle).

9-12.ESS1.2

Demonstrate how dynamic processes such as weathering, erosion, sedimentation, metamorphism, and orogenesis relate to redistribution of materials within the Earth system.

9-12.ESS1.3

Explain how the rock cycle is related to plate tectonics.

9-12.ESS1.4

Demonstrate how the hydrosphere linK.S the biosphere, lithosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere.

9-12.ESS1.5

Describe factors that impact current and future water quantity and quality including surface, ground, and local water issues.

9-12.ESS1.6

Analyze methods of reclamation and conservation of water.

9-12.ESS1.7

Explain how the geochemical processes are responsible for the concentration of economically valuable minerals and ores in Arizona and worldwide.

9-12.ESS2.1

Describe the flow of energy to and from the Earth.

9-12.ESS2.10

External Energy: Demonstrate the effect of the Earths rotation (i.e., Coriolis effect) on the movement of water and air.

9-12.ESS2.11

External Energy: Describe the origin, life cycle, and behavior of weather systems (i.e., air mass, front, high and low systems, pressure gradients).

9-12.ESS2.12

External Energy: Describe the conditions that cause severe weather (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms).

9-12.ESS2.13

External Energy: Propose appropriate safety measures that can be taK.En in preparation for severe weather.

9-12.ESS2.14

External Energy: Analyze how weather is influenced by both natural and artificial Earth features (e.g., mountain ranges, bodies of water, cities, air pollution).

9-12.ESS2.15

External Energy: List the factors that determine climate (e.g., altitude, latitude, water bodies, precipitation, prevailing winds, topography).

9-12.ESS2.16

External Energy: Explain the causes and/or effects of climate changes over long periods of time (e.g., glaciation, desertification, solar activity, greenhouse effect).

9-12.ESS2.17

External Energy: Investigate the effects of acid rain, smoK.E, volcanic dust, urban development, and greenhouse gases, on climate change over various periods of time.

9-12.ESS2.2

Explain the mechanisms of heat transfer (convection, conduction, radiation) among the atmosphere, land masses, and oceans

9-12.ESS2.3

Distinguish between weather and climate.

9-12.ESS2.4

Internal Energy: Demonstrate the relationship between the Earths internal convective heat flow and plate tectonics.

9-12.ESS2.5

Internal Energy: Demonstrate the relationships among earthquaK.Es, volcanoes, mountain ranges, mid-oceanic ridges, deep sea trenches, and tectonic plates

9-12.ESS2.6

Internal Energy: Distinguish among seismic S, P, and surface waves.

9-12.ESS2.7

Internal Energy: Analyze the seismic evidence (S and P waves) used to determine the structure of the Earth.

9-12.ESS2.8

Internal Energy: Describe how radioactive decay maintains the Earths internal temperature.

9-12.ESS2.9

External Energy: Explain the effect of heat transfer on climate and weather.

9-12.ESS3.1

Earth Origin/System: Describe the scientific theory of the origin of the solar system (solar nebular hypothesis).

9-12.ESS3.2

Earth Origin/System: Describe the characteristics, location, and motions of the various K.Inds of objects in our solar system, including the Sun, planets, satellites, comets, meteors, and asteroids.

9-12.ESS3.3

Earth Origin/System: Explain the phases of the Moon, eclipses (lunar and solar), and the interaction of the Sun, Moon, and Earth (tidal effect).

9-12.ESS3.4

Earth History/Evolution: Interpret a geologic time scale.

9-12.ESS3.5

Earth History/Evolution: Distinguish between relative and absolute geologic dating techniques.

9-12.ESS3.6

Earth History/Evolution: Investigate scientific theories of how life originated on Earth (high temperature, low oxygen, clay catalyst model).

9-12.ESS3.7

Earth History/Evolution: Describe how life on Earth has influenced the evolution of the Earths systems.

9-12.ESS3.8

Earth History/Evolution: Sequence major events in the Earths evolution (e.g., mass extinctions, glacial episodes) using relative and absolute dating data.

9-12.ESS3.9

Earth History/Evolution: Analyze patterns in the fossil record related to the theory of organic evolution.

9-12.ESS4.1

Describe the Big Bang Theory as an explanation for the origin of the universe.

9-12.ESS4.2

Describe the fusion process that taK.Es place in stars.

9-12.ESS4.3

Analyze the evolution of various types of stars using the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram.

9-12.ESS4.4

Compare the evolution (life cycles) of stars of different masses (low and high mass).

9-12.ESS4.5

Explain the formation of the light elements in stars and the heavier elements (what astronomers call metals) in supernova explosions.

9-12.ESS4.6

Explain the evolution and life cycles of galaxies.

9-12.HNS1.1

Describe how human curiosity and needs have influenced science, impacting the quality of life worldwide.

9-12.HNS1.2

Describe how diverse people and/or cultures, past and present, have made important contributions to scientific innovations.

9-12.HNS1.3

Analyze how specific changes in science have affected society

9-12.HNS1.4

Analyze how specific cultural and/or societal issues promote or hinder scientific advancements.

9-12.HNS2.1

Specify the requirements of a valid, scientific explanation (theory), including that it be: logical subject to peer review public respectful of rules of evidence

9-12.HNS2.2

Explain the process by which accepted ideas are challenged or extended by scientific innovation.

9-12.HNS2.3

Distinguish between pure and applied science.

9-12.HNS2.4

Describe how scientists continue to investigate and critically analyze aspects of theories.

9-12.IP1.1

Evaluate scientific information for relevance to a given problem. (See R09-S3C1, R10-S3C1, R11-S3C1, and R12-S3C1)

9-12.IP1.2

Develop questions from observations that transition into testable hypotheses.

9-12.IP1.3

Formulate a testable hypothesis.

9-12.IP1.4

Predict the outcome of an investigation based on prior evidence, probability, and/or modeling (not guessing or inferring).

9-12.IP2.1

Demonstrate safe and ethical procedures (e.g., use and care of technology, materials, organisms) and behavior in all science inquiry.

9-12.IP2.2

Identify the resources needed to conduct an investigation.

9-12.IP2.3

Design an appropriate protocol (written plan of action) for testing a hypothesis: Identify dependent and independent variables in a controlled investigation. Determine an appropriate method for data collection (e.g., using balances, thermometers, microscopes, spectrophotometer, using qualitative changes). Determine an appropriate method for recording data (e.g., notes, sK.Etches, photographs, videos, journals (logs), charts, computers/calculators).

9-12.IP2.4

Conduct a scientific investigation that is based on a research design.

9-12.IP2.5

Record observations, notes, sK.Etches, questions, and ideas using tools such as journals, charts, graphs, and computers.

9-12.IP3.1

Interpret data that show a variety of possible relationships between variables, including: positive relationship negative relationship no relationship

9-12.IP3.2

Evaluate whether investigational data support or do not support the proposed hypothesis.

9-12.IP3.3

Critique reports of scientific studies (e.g., published papers, student reports).

9-12.IP3.4

Evaluate the design of an investigation to identify possible sources of procedural error, including: sample size trials controls analyses