California English Language Arts Content Standards — Grade 12


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12.LS.1

Students formulate adroit judgments about oral communication. They deliver focused and coherent presentations that convey clear and distinct perspectives and demonstrate solid reasoning. They use gestures, tone, and vocabulary tailored to the audience and purpose.

12.LS.1.1

Recognize strategies used by the media to inform, persuade, entertain, and transmit culture (e.g., advertisements; perpetuation of stereotypes; use of visual representations, special effects, language).

12.LS.1.10

Evaluate when to use different kinds of effects (e.g., visual, music, sound, graphics) to create effective productions.

12.LS.1.11

Critique a speakers diction and syntax in relation to the purpose of an oral communication and the impact the words may have on the audience.

12.LS.1.12

Identify logical fallacies used in oral addresses (e.g., attack ad hominem, false causality, red herring, overgeneralization, bandwagon effect).

12.LS.1.13

Analyze the four basic types of persuasive speech (i.e., propositions of fact, value, problem, or policy) and understand the similarities and differences in their patterns of organization and the use of persuasive language, reasoning, and proof.

12.LS.1.14

Analyze the techniques used in media messages for a particular audience and evaluate their effectiveness (e.g., Orson Welles radio broadcast War of the Worlds).

12.LS.1.2

Analyze the impact of the media on the democratic process (e.g., exerting influence on elections, creating images of leaders, shaping attitudes) at the local, state, and national levels.

12.LS.1.3

Interpret and evaluate the various ways in which events are presented and information is communicated by visual image makers (e.g., graphic artists, documentary filmmakers, illustrators, news photographers).

12.LS.1.4

Use rhetorical questions, parallel structure, concrete images, figurative language, characterization, irony, and dialogue to achieve clarity, force, and aesthetic effect.

12.LS.1.5

Distinguish between and use various forms of classical and contemporary logical arguments, including:

12.LS.1.5a

Inductive and deductive reasoning

12.LS.1.5b

Syllogisms and analogies

12.LS.1.6

Use logical, ethical, and emotional appeals that enhance a specific tone and purpose.

12.LS.1.7

Use appropriate rehearsal strategies to pay attention to performance details, achieve command of the text, and create skillful artistic staging.

12.LS.1.8

Use effective and interesting language, including:

12.LS.1.8a

Informal expressions for effect

12.LS.1.8b

Standard American English for clarity

12.LS.1.8c

Technical language for specificity

12.LS.1.9

Use research and analysis to justify strategies for gesture, movement, and vocalization, including dialect, pronunciation, and enunciation.

12.LS.2

Students deliver polished formal and extemporaneous presentations that combine traditional rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

12.LS.2.1

Deliver reflective presentations:

12.LS.2.1a

Explore the significance of personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns, using appropriate rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, description, exposition, persuasion).

12.LS.2.1b

Draw comparisons between the specific incident and broader themes that illustrate the speakers beliefs or generalizations about life.

12.LS.2.1c

Maintain a balance between describing the incident and relating it to more general, abstract ideas.

12.LS.2.2

Deliver oral reports on historical investigations:

12.LS.2.2a

Use exposition, narration, description, persuasion, or some combination of those to support the thesis.

12.LS.2.2b

Analyze several historical records of a single event, examining critical relationships between elements of the research topic.

12.LS.2.2c

Explain the perceived reason or reasons for the similarities and differences by using information derived from primary and secondary sources to support or enhance the presentation.

12.LS.2.2d

Include information on all relevant perspectives and consider the validity and reliability of sources.

12.LS.2.3

Deliver oral responses to literature:

12.LS.2.3a

Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas of literary works (e.g., make assertions about the text that are reasonable and supportable).

12.LS.2.3b

Analyze the imagery, language, universal themes, and unique aspects of the text through the use of rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, description, persuasion, exposition, a combination of those strategies).

12.LS.2.3c

Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works.

12.LS.2.3d

Demonstrate an awareness of the authors use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.

12.LS.2.3e

Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.

12.LS.2.4

Deliver multimedia presentations:

12.LS.2.4a

Combine text, images, and sound by incorporating information from a wide range of media, including films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, online information, television, videos, and electronic media-generated images.

12.LS.2.4b

Select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation.

12.LS.2.4c

Use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for quality.

12.LS.2.4d

Test the audiences response and revise the presentation accordingly.

12.LS.2.5

Recite poems, selections from speeches, or dramatic soliloquies with attention to performance details to achieve clarity, force, and aesthetic effect and to demonstrate an understanding of the meaning (e.g., Hamlets soliloquy To Be or Not to Be).

12.R.1

Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accurately.

12.R.1.1

Trace the etymology of significant terms used in political science and history.

12.R.1.2

Apply knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to draw inferences concerning the meaning of scientific and mathematical terminology.

12.R.1.3

Discern the meaning of analogies encountered, analyzing specific comparisons as well as relationships and inferences.

12.R.2

Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They analyze the organizational patterns, arguments, and positions advanced. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade twelve, students read two million words annually on their own, including a wide variety of classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, and online information.

12.R.2.1

Analyze both the features and the rhetorical devices of different types of public documents (e.g., policy statements, speeches, debates, platforms) and the way in which authors use those features and devices.

12.R.2.2

Analyze the way in which clarity of meaning is affected by the patterns of organization, hierarchical structures, repetition of the main ideas, syntax, and word choice in the text.

12.R.2.3

Verify and clarify facts presented in other types of expository texts by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.

12.R.2.4

Make warranted and reasonable assertions about the authors arguments by using elements of the text to defend and clarify interpretations.

12.R.2.5

Analyze an authors implicit and explicit philosophical assumptions and beliefs about a subject.

12.R.2.6

Critique the power, validity, and truthfulness of arguments set forth in public documents; their appeal to both friendly and hostile audiences; and the extent to which the arguments anticipate and address reader concerns and counterclaims (e.g., appeal to reason, to authority, to pathos and emotion).

12.R.3

Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They conduct indepth analyses of recurrent themes. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

12.R.3.1

Analyze characteristics of subgenres (e.g., satire, parody, allegory, pastoral) that are used in poetry, prose, plays, novels, short stories, essays, and other basic genres.

12.R.3.2

Analyze the way in which the theme or meaning of a selection represents a view or comment on life, using textual evidence to support the claim.

12.R.3.3

Analyze the ways in which irony, tone, mood, the authors style, and the sound of language achieve specific rhetorical or aesthetic purposes or both.

12.R.3.4

Analyze ways in which poets use imagery, personification, figures of speech, and sounds to evoke readers emotions.

12.R.3.5

Analyze recognized works of American literature representing a variety of genres and traditions:

12.R.3.5a

Trace the development of American literature from the colonial period forward.

12.R.3.5b

Contrast the major periods, themes, styles, and trends and describe how works by members of different cultures relate to one another in each period.

12.R.3.5c

Evaluate the philosophical, political, religious, ethical, and social influences of the historical period that shaped the characters, plots, and settings.

12.R.3.6

Analyze the way in which authors through the centuries have used archetypes drawn from myth and tradition in literature, film, political speeches, and religious writings (e.g., how the archetypes of banishment from an ideal world may be used to interpret Shakespeares tragedy Macbeth).

12.R.3.7

Analyze recognized works of world literature from a variety of authors:

12.R.3.7a

Contrast the major literary forms, techniques, and characteristics of the major literary periods (e.g., Homeric Greece, medieval, romantic, neoclassic, modern).

12.R.3.7b

Relate literary works and authors to the major themes and issues of their eras.

12.R.3.7c

Evaluate the philosophical, political, religious, ethical, and social influences of the historical period that shaped the characters, plots, and settings.

12.R.3.8

Analyze the clarity and consistency of political assumptions in a selection of literary works or essays on a topic (e.g., suffrage, womens role in organized labor). (Political approach)

12.R.3.9

Analyze the philosophical arguments presented in literary works to determine whether the authors positions have contributed to the quality of each work and the credibility of the characters. (Philosophical approach)

12.W.1

Students write coherent and focused texts that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students awareness of the audience and purpose and progression through the stages of the writing process.

12.W.1.1

Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments.

12.W.1.2

Use point of view, characterization, style (e.g., use of irony), and related elements for specific rhetorical and aesthetic purposes.

12.W.1.3

Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and relevant examples.

12.W.1.4

Enhance meaning by employing rhetorical devices, including the extended use of parallelism, repetition, and analogy; the incorporation of visual aids (e.g., graphs, tables, pictures); and the issuance of a call for action.

12.W.1.5

Use language in natural, fresh, and vivid ways to establish a specific tone.

12.W.1.6

Develop presentations by using clear research questions and creative and critical research strategies (e.g., field studies, oral histories, interviews, experiments, electronic sources).

12.W.1.7

Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies).

12.W.1.8

Integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents.

12.W.1.9

Revise text to highlight the individual voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and genre.

12.W.2

Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce texts of at least 1,500 words each. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

12.W.2.1

Write fictional, autobiographical, or biographical narratives:

12.W.2.1a

Narrate a sequence of events and communicate their significance to the audience.

12.W.2.1b

Locate scenes and incidents in specific places.

12.W.2.1c

Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interior monologue to depict the characters feelings.

12.W.2.1d

Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate temporal, spatial, and dramatic mood changes.

12.W.2.1e

Make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details.

12.W.2.2

Write responses to literature:

12.W.2.2a

Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas in works or passages.

12.W.2.2b

Analyze the use of imagery, language, universal themes, and unique aspects of the text.

12.W.2.2c

Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text and to other works.

12.W.2.2d

Demonstrate an understanding of the authors use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.

12.W.2.2e

Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.

12.W.2.3

Write reflective compositions:

12.W.2.3a

Explore the significance of personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns by using rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, description, exposition, persuasion).

12.W.2.3b

Draw comparisons between specific incidents and broader themes that illustrate the writers important beliefs or generalizations about life.

12.W.2.3c

Maintain a balance in describing individual incidents and relate those incidents to more general and abstract ideas.

12.W.2.4

Write historical investigation reports:

12.W.2.4a

Use exposition, narration, description, argumentation, or some combination of rhetorical strategies to support the main proposition.

12.W.2.4b

Analyze several historical records of a single event, examining critical relationships between elements of the research topic.

12.W.2.4c

Explain the perceived reason or reasons for the similarities and differences in historical records with information derived from primary and secondary sources to support or enhance the presentation.

12.W.2.4d

Include information from all relevant perspectives and take into consideration the validity and reliability of sources.

12.W.2.4e

Include a formal bibliography.

12.W.2.5

Write job applications and rsums:

12.W.2.5a

Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience appropriately.

12.W.2.5b

Use varied levels, patterns, and types of language to achieve intended effects and aid comprehension.

12.W.2.5c

Modify the tone to fit the purpose and audience.

12.W.2.5d

Follow the conventional style for that type of document (e.g., rsum, memorandum) and use page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to the readability and impact of the document.

12.W.2.6

Deliver multimedia presentations:

12.W.2.6a

Combine text, images, and sound and draw information from many sources (e.g., television broadcasts, videos, films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, the Internet, electronic media-generated images).

12.W.2.6b

Select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation.

12.W.2.6c

Use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for quality.

12.W.2.6d

Test the audiences response and revise the presentation accordingly

12.WO.1

Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions.

12.WO.1.1

Demonstrate control of grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure and an understanding of English usage.

12.WO.1.2

Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct punctuation and capitalization.

12.WO.1.3

Reflect appropriate manuscript requirements in writing.