California English Language Arts Content Standards — Grade 4


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4.LS.1

Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.

4.LS.1.1

Ask thoughtful questions and respond to relevant questions with appropriate elaboration in oral settings.

4.LS.1.10

Evaluate the role of the media in focusing attention on events and in forming opinions on issues.

4.LS.1.2

Summarize major ideas and supporting evidence presented in spoken messages and formal presentations.

4.LS.1.3

Identify how language usages (e.g., sayings, expressions) reflect regions and cultures.

4.LS.1.4

Give precise directions and instructions.

4.LS.1.5

Present effective introductions and conclusions that guide and inform the listeners understanding of important ideas and evidence.

4.LS.1.6

Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., cause and effect, similarity and difference, posing and answering a question).

4.LS.1.7

Emphasize points in ways that help the listener or viewer to follow important ideas and concepts.

4.LS.1.8

Use details, examples, anecdotes, or experiences to explain or clarify information.

4.LS.1.9

Use volume, pitch, phrasing, pace, modulation, and gestures appropriately to enhance meaning.

4.LS.2

Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

4.LS.2.1

Make narrative presentations:

4.LS.2.1a

Relate ideas, observations, or recollections about an event or experience.

4.LS.2.1b

Provide a context that enables the listener to imagine the circumstances of the event or experience.

4.LS.2.1c

Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable.

4.LS.2.2

Make informational presentations:

4.LS.2.2a

Frame a key question.

4.LS.2.2b

Include facts and details that help listeners to focus.

4.LS.2.2c

Incorporate more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, television or radio reports).

4.LS.2.3

Deliver oral summaries of articles and books that contain the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.

4.LS.2.4

Recite brief poems (i.e., two or three stanzas), soliloquies, or dramatic dialogues, using clear diction, tempo, volume, and phrasing.

4.R.1

Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

4.R.1.1

Read narrative and expository text aloud with grade-appropriate fluency and accuracy and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.

4.R.1.2

Apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, synonyms, antonyms, and idioms to determine the meaning of words and phrases.

4.R.1.3

Use knowledge of root words to determine the meaning of unknown words within a passage.

4.R.1.4

Know common roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., international).

4.R.1.5

Use a thesaurus to determine related words and concepts.

4.R.1.6

Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meanings.

4.R.2

Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).

4.R.2.1

Identify structural patterns found in informational text (e.g., compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequential or chronological order, proposition and support) to strengthen comprehension.

4.R.2.2

Use appropriate strategies when reading for different purposes (e.g., full comprehension, location of information, personal enjoyment).

4.R.2.3

Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas presented in the text itself, including illustrations, titles, topic sentences, important words, and foreshadowing clues.

4.R.2.4

Evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information and ideas.

4.R.2.5

Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or articles.

4.R.2.6

Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in expository text.

4.R.2.7

Follow multiple-step instructions in a basic technical manual (e.g., how to use computer commands or video games).

4.R.3

Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of childrens literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

4.R.3.1

Describe the structural differences of various imaginative forms of literature, including fantasies, fables, myths, legends, and fairy tales.

4.R.3.2

Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influence of each event on future actions.

4.R.3.3

Use knowledge of the situation and setting and of a characters traits and motivations to determine the causes for that characters actions.

4.R.3.4

Compare and contrast tales from different cultures by tracing the exploits of one character type and develop theories to account for similar tales in diverse cultures (e.g., trickster tales).

4.R.3.5

Define figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification) and identify its use in literary works.

4.W.1

Students write clear, coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions).

4.W.1.1

Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view based upon purpose, audience, length, and format requirements.

4.W.1.10

Edit and revise selected drafts to improve coherence and progression by adding, deleting, consolidating, and rearranging text.

4.W.1.2

Create multiple-paragraph compositions:

4.W.1.2a

Provide an introductory paragraph.

4.W.1.2b

Establish and support a central idea with a topic sentence at or near the beginning of the first paragraph.

4.W.1.2c

Include supporting paragraphs with simple facts, details, and explanations.

4.W.1.2d

Conclude with a paragraph that summarizes the points.

4.W.1.2e

Use correct indention.

4.W.1.3

Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect, similarity and difference, posing and answering a question).

4.W.1.4

Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italic.

4.W.1.5

Quote or paraphrase information sources, citing them appropriately.

4.W.1.6

Locate information in reference texts by using organizational features (e.g., prefaces, appendixes).

4.W.1.7

Use various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, card catalog, encyclopedia, online information) as an aid to writing.

4.W.1.8

Understand the organization of almanacs, newspapers, and periodicals and how to use those print materials.

4.W.1.9

Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology (e.g., cursor, software, memory, disk drive, hard drive).

4.W.2

Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

4.W.2.1a

Relate ideas, observations, or recollections of an event or experience.

4.W.2.1b

Provide a context to enable the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience.

4.W.2.1c

Use concrete sensory details.

4.W.2.1d

Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable.

4.W.2.2

Write responses to literature:

4.W.2.2a

Demonstrate an understanding of the literary work.

4.W.2.2b

Support judgments through references to both the text and prior knowledge.

4.W.2.3

Write information reports:

4.W.2.3a

Frame a central question about an issue or situation.

4.W.2.3b

Include facts and details for focus.

4.W.2.3c

Draw from more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, other media sources).

4.W.2.4

Write summaries that contain the main ideas of the reading selection and the most significant details.

4.WO.1

Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.

4.WO.1.1

Use simple and compound sentences in writing and speaking.

4.WO.1.2

Combine short, related sentences with appositives, participial phrases, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases.

4.WO.1.3

Identify and use regular and irregular verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions in writing and speaking.

4.WO.1.4

Use parentheses, commas in direct quotations, and apostrophes in the possessive case of nouns and in contractions.

4.WO.1.5

Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to identify titles of documents.

4.WO.1.6

Capitalize names of magazines, newspapers, works of art, musical compositions, organizations, and the first word in quotations when appropriate.

4.WO.1.7

Spell correctly roots, inflections, suffixes and prefixes, and syllable constructions.