Minnesota ELA Standards — Grade 11


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L.11.11.1.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.# Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.# Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Websters Dictionary of English Usage, Garners Modern American Usage) as needed.

L.11.11.2.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.# Observe hyphenation conventions.# Spell correctly.

L.11.11.3.3

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.# Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tuftes Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

L.11.11.4.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 1112 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.# Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a words position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.# Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).# Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.# Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

L.11.11.5.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.# Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.# Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

L.11.11.6.6

Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

L.9.11.1.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.# Use parallel structure.# Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

L.9.11.2.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.# Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.# Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.# Spell correctly.

L.9.11.3.3

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.# Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabians Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

L.9.11.4.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 910 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.# Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a words position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.# Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).# Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.# Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

L.9.11.5.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.# Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.# Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

L.9.11.6.6

Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

RI.11.5.1.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

RI.11.5.10.10

By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

RI.11.5.2.2

Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.

RI.11.5.3.3

Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

RI.11.5.4.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).

RI.11.5.5.5

Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

RI.11.5.6.6

Determine an authors point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.

RI.11.5.7.7

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

RI.11.5.8.8

Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).

RI.11.5.9.9

Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincolns Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.

RI.9.5.1.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

RI.9.5.10.10

By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 910 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

RI.9.5.2.2

Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

RI.9.5.3.3

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

RI.9.5.4.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

RI.9.5.5.5

Analyze in detail how an authors ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).

RI.9.5.6.6

Determine an authors point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

RI.9.5.7.7

Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a persons life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

RI.9.5.8.8

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

RI.9.5.9.9

Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washingtons Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelts Four Freedoms speech, Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail, and other documents such as those written by Sojourner Truth, Chief Seattle, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton), including how they address related themes and concepts

RL.11.4.1.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

RL.11.4.10.10

By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range# Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.# Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints.

RL.11.4.2.2

Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

RL.11.4.3.3

Analyze the impact of the authors choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

RL.11.4.4.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful.

RL.11.4.5.5

Analyze how an authors choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

RL.11.4.6.6

Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

RL.11.4.7.7

Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text.

RL.11.4.8.8

(Not applicable to literature)

RL.11.4.9.9

Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including American Indian and other diverse cultures texts and how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.

RL.9.4.1.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

RL.9.4.10.10

By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 910 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.# Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks# Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints

RL.9.4.2.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

RL.9.4.3.3

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

RL.9.4.4.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).

RL.9.4.5.5

Analyze how an authors choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

RL.9.4.6.6

Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

RL.9.4.7.7

Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Audens Muse des Beaux Arts and Breughels Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

RL.9.4.8.8

(Not applicable to literature)

RL.9.4.9.9

Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare or how a Minnesota American Indian author uses oral tradition to create works of literature).

SL.11.9.1.1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 1112 topics, texts, and issues, including those by and about Minnesota American Indians, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.# Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.# Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.# Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.# Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.

SL.11.9.2.2

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

SL.11.9.3.3

Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, intended audience, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

SL.11.9.4.4

While respecting intellectual property, present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks (e.g., persuasion, argumentation, debate).

SL.11.9.5.5

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

SL.11.9.6.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts, audiences, tasks, and feedback from self and others, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 1112 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 75 for specific expectations.)# Apply assessment criteria to evaluate oral presentations by self and others

SL.11.9.7.7

Understand, analyze, evaluate, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media.# Evaluate the aural, visual, and written images and other special effects used in mass media for their ability to inform, persuade, and entertain.# Examine the intersections and conflicts between visual (e.g., media images, painting, film, graphic arts) and verbal messages.# Recognize how visual techniques or design elements (e.g., special effects, camera angles) carry or influence messages in various media.# Recognize ethical standards and safe practices in social and personal media communications, and understand the consequences of personal choices.

SL.11.9.8.8

As an individual or in collaboration, create a multimedia work, a remix of original work and the work of others, or a piece of digital communication for a specific purpose (e.g., to connect literature to a culture or a literary period, to recast a piece of literature into a different time period or culture, to critique popular culture, to create a parody or satire).# Present, transform or remix content in an ethical manner, demonstrating an understanding of copyright, attribution, citation, the principles of Fair Use, and the different types of Creative Commons licenses.# Publish the work and share with an audience.

SL.9.9.1.1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 910 topics, texts, and issues, including those by and about Minnesota American Indians, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.# Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.# Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.# Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.# Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

SL.9.9.2.2

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

SL.9.9.3.3

Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, intended audience, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

SL.9.9.4.4

While respecting intellectual property, present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task (e.g., persuasion, argumentation, debate).

SL.9.9.5.5

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

SL.9.9.6.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts, audiences, tasks, and feedback from self and others, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 910 Language standards 1 and 3 on pages 75 for specific expectations.)# Apply assessment criteria to evaluate oral presentations by self and others.

SL.9.9.7.7

Understand, analyze, evaluate, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media.# Evaluate the content and effect of persuasive techniques used in different mass media.# Synthesize information and recognize categories, trends, and themes across multiple sources.# Demonstrate an understanding of ethics in mass communication and describe the characteristics of ethical and unethical behavior.# Recognize ethical standards and safe practices in social and personal media communications, and understand the consequences of personal choices.

SL.9.9.8.8

As an individual or in collaboration, create a multimedia work, a remix of original work and the work of others, or a piece of digital communication for a specific purpose (e.g., to interpret or respond to a piece of literature, to represent thematic similarities between two literary works, to interact or collaborate globally, to critique a current event or social issue.)# Present, transform, or remix content in an ethical manner, demonstrating an understanding of copyright, attribution, citation, the principles of Fair Use, and of the different types of Creative Commons licenses.# Publish the work and share with an audience.

W.11.7.1.1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.# Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.# Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audiences knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.# Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.# Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.# Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

W.11.7.10.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.# Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.

W.11.7.2.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.# Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.# Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audiences knowledge of the topic.# Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.# Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.# Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.# Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

W.11.7.3.3

Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.# Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.# Use literary and narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, rhythm, repetition, rhyme, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.# Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).# Use precise words and phrases, telling details, figurative and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters# Provide a conclusion (when appropriate to the genre) that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative or creative text.

W.11.7.4.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

W.11.7.5.5

Use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

W.11.7.6.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

W.11.7.7.7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

W.11.7.8.8

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

W.11.7.9.9

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.# Apply grades 1112 Reading standards to literature (e.g., Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics).# Apply grades 1112 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]).

W.9.7.1.1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.# Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.# Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audiences knowledge level and concerns.# Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.# Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.# Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

W.9.7.10.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.# Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.

W.9.7.2.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.# Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.# Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audiences knowledge of the topic.# Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.# Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.# Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.# Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

W.9.7.3.3

Write narratives and other creative texts develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences# Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.# Use literary and narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, rhythm, repetition, rhyme, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.# Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.# Use precise words and phrases, telling details, figurative and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.# Provide a conclusion (when appropriate to the genre) that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative or creative text.

W.9.7.4.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

W.9.7.5.5

Use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

W.9.7.6.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technologys capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

W.9.7.7.7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

W.9.7.8.8

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

W.9.7.9.9

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.# Apply grades 910 Reading standards to literature (e.g., Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]).# Apply grades 910 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning).