Colorado Science Standards — Grade 9


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HS.1.1a

Gather, analyze and interpret data and create graphs regarding position, velocity and acceleration of moving objects (DOK 1-3)

HS.1.1b

Develop, communicate and justify an evidence-based analysis of the forces acting on an object and the resultant acceleration produced by a net force (DOK 1-3)

HS.1.1c

Develop, communicate and justify an evidence-based scientific prediction regarding the effects of the actionreaction force pairs on the motion of two interacting objects (DOK 1-3)

HS.1.1d

Examine the effect of changing masses and distance when applying Newton's law of universal gravitation to a system of two bodies (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.1e

Identify the limitations of Newtons laws in extreme situations (DOK 1)

HS.1.2a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation supporting the current model of an atom (DOK 1-3)

HS.1.2b

Gather, analyze and interpret data on chemical and physical properties of elements such as density, melting point, boiling point, and conductivity (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.2c

Use characteristic physical and chemical properties to develop predictions and supporting claims about elements positions on the periodic table (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.2d

Develop a model that differentiates atoms and molecules, elements and compounds, and pure substances and mixtures (DOK 2-3)

HS.1.3a

Recognize, analyze, interpret, and balance chemical equations (synthesis, decomposition, combustion, and replacement) or nuclear equations (fusion and fission) (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.3b

Predict reactants and products for different types of chemical and nuclear reactions (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.3c

Predict and calculate the amount of products produced in a chemical reaction based on the amount of reactants (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.3d

Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media to investigate the conservation of mass and energy (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.4a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation supporting the current models of chemical bonding (DOK 1-3)

HS.1.4b

Gather, analyze, and interpret data on chemical and physical properties of different compounds such as density, melting point, boiling point, pH, and conductivity (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.4c

Use characteristic physical and chemical properties to develop predictions and supporting claims about compounds classification as ionic, polar or covalent (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.4d

Describe the role electrons play in atomic bonding (DOK 1)

HS.1.4e

Predict the type of bonding that will occur among elements based on their position in the periodic table (DOK 1- 2)

HS.1.5a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation regarding the potential and kinetic nature of mechanical energy (DOK 1- 3)

HS.1.5b

Use appropriate measurements, equations and graphs to gather, analyze, and interpret data on the quantity of energy in a system or an object (DOK 1-3)

HS.1.5c

Use direct and indirect evidence to develop predictions of the types of energy associated with objects (DOK 2-3)

HS.1.5d

Identify different energy forms, and calculate their amounts by measuring their defining characteristics (DOK 1- 2)

HS.1.6a

Use direct and indirect evidence to develop and support claims about the conservation of energy in a variety of systems, including transformations to heat (DOK 1-3)

HS.1.6b

Evaluate the energy conversion efficiency of a variety of energy transformations (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.6c

Describe energy transformations both quantitatively and qualitatively (DOK 1-2)

HS.1.6d

Differentiate among the characteristics of mechanical and electromagnetic waves that determine their energy (DOK 2)

HS.1.6e

Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media to investigate energy conservation and loss (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.1a

Analyze how energy flows through trophic levels (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.1b

Evaluate the potential ecological impacts of a plant-based or meatbased diet (DOK 2)

HS.2.1c

Analyze and interpret data from experiments on ecosystems where matter such as fertilizer has been added or withdrawn such as through drought (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.1d

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation showing how ecosystems follow the laws of conservation of matter and energy (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.1e

Define and distinguish between matter and energy, and how they are cycled or lost through life processes (DOK 1- 2)

HS.2.1f

Describe how carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water cycles work (DOK 1)

HS.2.1g

Use computer simulations to analyze how energy flows through trophic levels (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.2a

Analyze and interpret data about the impact of removing keystone species from an ecosystem or introducing non-native species into an ecosystem (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.2b

Describe or evaluate communities in terms of primary and secondary succession as they progress over time (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.2c

Evaluate data and assumptions regarding different scenarios for future human population growth and their projected consequences

HS.2.2d

Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media to investigate ecosystem interactions (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.3a

Identify biomolecules and their precursors/building blocks (DOK 1)

HS.2.3b

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based explanation that biomolecules follow the same rules of chemistry as any other molecule

HS.2.3c

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based explanation regarding the optimal conditions required for enzyme activity (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.3d

Infer the consequences to organisms of suboptimal enzyme function such as altered blood pH or high fever using direct and indirect evidence (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.3e

Analyze and interpret data on the bodys utilization of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.4a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation the optimal environment for photosynthetic activity (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.4b

Discuss the interdependence of autotrophic and heterotrophic life forms such as depicting the flow of a carbon atom from the atmosphere, to a leaf, through the food chain, and back to the atmosphere (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.4c

Explain how carbon compounds are gradually oxidized to provide energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which drives many chemical reactions in the cell (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.5a

Analyze and interpret data to determine the energy requirements and/or rates of substance transport across cell membranes (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.5b

Compare organisms that live in freshwater and marine environments, and identify the challenges of osmotic regulation for these organisms (DOK 2)

HS.2.5c

Diagram the cell membrane schematically, and highlight receptor proteins as targets of hormones, neurotransmitters, or drugs that serve as active links between intra and extracellular environments (DOK 1)

HS.2.5d

Use tools to gather, view, analyze, and interpret data produced during scientific investigations that involve passive and active transport (DOK 1- 2)

HS.2.5e

Use computer simulations and models to analyze cell transport mechanisms (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.6a

Discuss how two or more body systems interact to promote health for the whole organism (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.6b

Analyze and interpret data on homeostatic mechanisms using direct and indirect evidence to develop and support claims about the effectiveness of feedback loops to maintain homeostasis (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.6c

Distinguish between causation and correlation in epidemiological data, such as examining scientifically valid evidence regarding disrupted homeostasis in particular diseases (DOK 2)

HS.2.6d

Use computer simulations and models of homeostatic mechanisms (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.7a

Analyze and interpret data that genes are expressed portions of DNA. (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.7b

Analyze and interpret data on the processes of DNA replication, transcription, translation, and gene regulation, and show how these processes are the same in all organisms (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.7c

Recognize that proteins carry out most cell activities and mediate the effect of genes on physical and behavioral traits in an organism (DOK 1)

HS.2.7d

Evaluate data showing that offspring are not clones of their parents or siblings due to the meiotic processes of independent assortment of chromosomes, crossing over, and mutations (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.7e

Explain using examples how genetic mutations can benefit, harm, or have neutral effects on an organism (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.8a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation of how cells form specialized tissues due to the expression of some genes and not others (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.8b

Analyze and interpret data that show most eukaryotic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) does not actively code for proteins within cells (DOK 1-2)

HS.2.8c

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation for how a whole organism can be cloned from a differentiated or adult cell (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.8d

Analyze and interpret data on medical problems using direct and indirect evidence in developing and supporting claims that genetic mutations and cancer are brought about by exposure to environmental toxins, radiation, or smoking

HS.2.9a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation for how Earths diverse life forms today evolved from common ancestors (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.9b

Analyze and interpret multiple lines of evidence supporting the idea that all species are related by common ancestry such as molecular studies, comparative anatomy, biogeography, fossil record and embryology

HS.2.9c

Analyze and interpret data suggesting that over geologic time, discrete bursts of rapid genetic changes and gradual changes have resulted in speciation (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.9d

Analyze and interpret data on how evolution can be driven by three key components of natural selection heritability, genetic variation, and differential survival and reproduction (DOK 1-3)

HS.2.9e

Generate a model an evolutionary tree showing how a group of organisms is most likely diverged from common ancestry (DOK 2-3)

HS.3.1a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation addressing questions about Earths history (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.1b

Analyze and interpret data regarding Earths history using direct and indirect evidence (DOK 1-2)

HS.3.1c

Analyze and interpret data regarding the history of the universe using direct and indirect evidence (DOK 1-2)

HS.3.1d

Seek, evaluate, and use a variety of specialized resources available from libraries, the Internet, and the community to find scientific information on Earths history (DOK 1- 2)

HS.3.1e

Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media to investigate the history of the universe, solar system and Earth (DOK 1-2)

HS.3.2a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation addressing questions around the extraterrestrial forces and energies that influence Earth (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.2b

Analyze and interpret data regarding extraterrestrial forces and energies (DOK 1-2)

HS.3.2c

Clearly identify assumptions behind conclusions regarding extraterrestrial forces and energies and provide feedback on the validity of alternative explanations (DOK 2-3)

HS.3.2d

Use specific equipment, technology, and resources such as satellite imagery, global positioning systems (GPS), global information systems (GIS), telescopes, video and image libraries, and computers to explore the universe )

HS.3.3a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation about the theory of plate tectonics and how it can be used to understand geological, physical, and geographical features of Earth

HS.3.3b

Analyze and interpret data on plate tectonics and the geological, physical, and geographical features of Earth (DOK 1-2)

HS.3.3c

Understand the role plate tectonics has had with respect to long-term global changes in Earths systems such as continental buildup, glaciations, sea-level fluctuations, and climate change (DOK 1-2)

HS.3.3d

Investigate and explain how new conceptual interpretations of data and innovative geophysical technologies led to the current theory of plate tectonics (DOK 2-3)

HS.3.4a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation that shows climate is a result of energy transfer among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.4b

Analyze and interpret data on Earths climate (DOK 1-2)

HS.3.4c

Explain how a combination of factors such as Earths tilt, seasons, geophysical location, proximity to oceans, landmass location, latitude, and elevation determine a locations climate (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.4d

Identify mechanisms in the past and present that have changed Earths climate (DOK 1)

HS.3.4e

Analyze the evidence and assumptions regarding climate change (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.4f

Interpret evidence from weather stations, buoys, satellites, radars, ice and ocean sediment cores, tree rings, cave deposits, native knowledge, and other sources in relation to climate change (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.5a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation regarding the costs and benefits of exploration, development, and consumption of renewable and nonrenewable resources (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.5b

Evaluate positive and negative impacts on the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere in regards to resource use (DOK 2-3)

HS.3.5c

Create a plan to reduce environmental impacts due to resource consumption (DOK 2-4)

HS.3.5d

Analyze and interpret data about the effect of resource consumption and development on resource reserves to draw conclusions about sustainable use (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.6a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation addressing questions regarding the interaction of Earths surface with water, air, gravity, and biological activity (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.6b

Analyze and interpret data, maps, and models concerning the direct and indirect evidence produced by physical and chemical changes that water, air, gravity, and biological activity create (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.6c

Evaluate negative and positive consequences of physical and chemical changes on the geosphere (DOK 2-3)

HS.3.6d

Use remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) data to interpret landforms and landform impact on human activity (DOK 1-2)

HS.3.7a

Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation regarding natural hazards, and explain their potential local and global impacts (DOK 1-3)

HS.3.7b

Analyze and interpret data about natural hazards using direct and indirect evidence (DOK 1-2)

HS.3.7c

Make predictions and draw conclusions about the impact of natural hazards on human activity locally and globally (DOK 2-3)