Missouri State Standards for Science — Grade 4

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Objects, and the materials they are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them


Describe and compare the masses (the amount of matter in an object) of objects to the nearest gram using balances


Describe and compare the volumes (the amount of space an object occupies) of objects using a graduated cylinder


Identify situations where no two objects can occupy the same space at the same time (e.g. water level rises when an object or substance such as a rock is placed in a quantity of water)


Classify types of materials (e.g., water, salt, sugar, iron filings, salt water) into like substances (materials that have specific physical properties) or mixtures of substances by using their characteristic properties


Properties of mixtures depend upon the concentrations, properties, and interactions of particles


Identify water as a solvent that dissolves materials (Do NOT assess the term solvent)


Observe and describe how mixtures are made by combining solids or liquids, or a combination of these


Distinguish between the components in a mixture/solution (e.g., trail mix, conglomerate rock, salad, soil, salt water)


Describe ways to separate the components of a mixture/solution by their properties (i.e., sorting, filtration, magnets, screening)


Mass is conserved during any physical or chemical change


Observe that the total mass of a material remains constant whether it is together, in parts, or in a different state


Forms of energy have a source, a means of transfer (work and heat), and a receiver


Construct and diagram a complete electric circuit by using a source (e.g., battery), means of transfer (e.g., wires), and receiver (e.g., resistance bulbs, motors, fans)


Observe and describe the evidence of energy transfer in a closed series circuit (e.g., lit bulb, moving motor, fan)


Classify materials as conductors or insulators of electricity when placed within a circuit (e.g., wood, pencil lead, plastic, glass, aluminum foil, lemon juice, air, water)


Energy can be transferred within a system as the total amount of energy remains constant (i.e., Law of Conservation of Energy)


Identify the evidence of energy transformations (temperature change, light, sound, motion, and magnetic effects) that occur in electrical circuits


The motion of an object is described as a change in position, direction, and speed relative to another object (frame of reference)


Classify different types of motion [straight line, curved, vibrating (back and forth)]


Describe an objects motion in terms of distance and time


Forces are classified as either contact (pushes, pulls, friction, buoyancy) or non-contact forces (gravity, magnetism), that can be described in terms of direction and magnitude


Identify the forces acting on the motion of objects traveling in a straight line (specify that forces should be acting in the same line as the motion, provide examples)


Describe and compare forces (measured by a spring scale in Newtons) applied to objects in a single line.


Observe and identify friction as a force that slows down or stops a moving object that is touching another object or surface


Compare the forces (measured by a spring scale in Newtons) required to overcome friction when an object moves over different surfaces (i.e., rough/smooth)


Every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object


Determine the gravitational pull of the Earth on an object (weight) using a spring scale


Newtons Laws of Motion explain the interaction of mass and forces, and are used to predict changes in motion


Observe that balanced forces do not affect an objects motion (need to clarify that balanced forces means no change in forces acting on an object)


Describe how unbalanced forces acting on an object changes its speed (faster/slower), direction of motion, or both (need to clarify that unbalanced forces means any change in forces acting on an object)


Predict how the change in speed of an object (i.e., faster/slower/remains the same) is affected by the amount of force applied to an object and the mass of the object


Predict the effects of an electrostatic force (static electricity) on the motion of objects (attract or repel)


All populations living together within a community interact with one another and with their environment in order to survive and maintain a balanced ecosystem


Identify the ways a specific organism may interact with other organisms or with the environment (e.g., pollination, shelter, seed dispersal, camouflage, migration, hibernation, defensive mechanism)


Identify and describe different environments (i.e. pond, forest, prairie) support the life of different types of plants and animals


The diversity of species within an ecosystem is affected by changes in the environment, which can be caused by other organisms or outside processes


Identify examples in Missouri where human activity has had a beneficial or harmful effect on other organisms (e.g., feeding birds, littering vs. picking up trash, hunting/conservation of species, paving/restoring green space)


As energy flows through the ecosystem, all organisms capture a portion of that energy and transform it to a form they can use


Classify populations of organisms as producers and consumers by the role they serve in the ecosystem


Differentiate between the types of consumers (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and detrivore/decomposer)


Categorize organisms as predator or prey in a given ecosystem


Evidence for the nature and rates of evolution can be found in anatomical and molecular characteristics of organisms and in the fossil record


Compare and contrast common fossils found in Missouri (i.e., trilobites, ferns, crinoids, gastropods, bivalves, fish, mastodons) to organisms present on Earth today


lection is the process of sorting individuals based on their ability to survive and reproduce within their ecosystem


Identify specialized structures and describe how they help plants survive in their environment (e.g., root, cactus needles, thorns, winged seed, waxy leaves)


Identify specialized structures and senses and describe how they help animals survive in their environment (e.g., antennae, body covering, teeth, beaks, whiskers, appendages)


Identify internal cues (e.g., hunger) and external cues (e.g., changes in the environment) that cause organisms to behave in certain ways (e.g., hunting, migration, hibernation)


Predict which plant or animal will be able to survive in a specific environment based on its special structures or behaviors


The Earths crust is composed of various materials, including soil, minerals, and rocks, with characteristic properties


Identify and describe the components of soil (e.g., plant roots and debris, bacteria, fungi, worms, types of rock) and its properties (e.g., odor, color, resistance to erosion, texture, fertility, relative grain size, absorption rate)


Compare the physical properties (i.e., size, shape, color, texture, layering, presence of fossils) of rocks (mixtures of different Earth materials, each with observable physical properties


The Earths materials and surface features are changed through a variety of external processes


Observe and describe the breakdown of plant and animal material into soil through decomposition processes (i.e., decay/rotting, composting, digestion)


Identify the major landforms/bodies of water on Earth (i.e., mountains, plains, river valleys, coastlines, canyons)


Describe how weathering agents (e.g., water, chemicals, temperature, wind, plants) cause surface changes that create and/or change Earths surface materials and/or landforms/ bodies of water


Describe how erosion processes (i.e., action of gravity, waves, wind, rivers, glaciers) cause surface changes that create and/or change Earths surface materials and/or landforms/ bodies of water


Relate the type of landform/water body to the process by which it was formed


Earths materials are limited natural resources affected by human activity


Identify the ways humans affect the erosion and deposition of Earths materials (e.g., clearing of land, planting vegetation, paving land construction of new buildings)


Propose ways to solve simple environmental problems (e.g., recycling, composting, ways to decrease soil erosion) that result from human activity


Scientific inquiry includes the ability of students to formulate a testable question and explanation, and to select appropriate investigative methods in order to obtain evidence relevant to the explanation


Formulate testable questions and explanations (hypotheses)


Recognize the characteristics of a fair and unbiased test


Conduct a fair test to answer a question


Scientific inquiry relies upon gathering evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations


Make qualitative observations using the five senses


Make observations using simple tools and equipment (e.g., hand lenses, magnets, thermometers, metric rulers, balances, graduated cylinders, spring scale)


Measure length to the nearest centimeter, mass using grams, temperature using degrees Celsius, volume to the nearest milliliter, force/weight to the nearest Newton


Compare amounts/measurements


Judge whether measurements and computation of quantities are reasonable


quiry includes evaluation of explanations (laws/ principles, theories /models) in light of evidence (data) and scientific principles (understandings ) See CLEs: This concept became C, as the previous concept was eliminated and the GLEs were moved to this concept, and redundancy was eliminated


Use quantitative and qualitative data as support for reasonable explanations


Use data as support for observed patterns and relationships, and to make predictions to be tested


Evaluate the reasonableness of an explanation


Analyze whether evidence supports proposed explanations


The nature of science relies upon communication of results and justification of explanations See CLEs: This concept became D, as the original C concept was eliminated


Communicate the procedures and results of investigations and explanations through: oral presentations drawings and maps data tables graphs (bar, single line, pictograph) writings


Designed objects are used to do things better or more easily and to do some things that could not otherwise be done at all


Design and construct an electrical device, using materials and/or existing objects, that can be used to perform a task (Assess Locally)


Advances in technology often result in improved data collection and an increase in scientific information


Describe how new technologies have helped scientists make better observations and measurements for investigations (e.g., telescopes, magnifiers, balances, microscopes, computers, stethoscopes, thermometers)


Technological solutions to problems often have drawbacks as well as benefits


Identify how the effects of inventions or technological advances (e.g., different types of light bulbs, semiconductors/integrated circuits and electronics, satellite imagery, robotics, communication, transportation, generation of energy, renewable materials) may be helpful, harmful, or both (Assess Locally)


People of different gender and ethnicity have contributed to scientific discoveries and the invention of technological innovations


Research biographical information about various scientists and inventors from different gender and ethnic backgrounds, and describe how their work contributed to science and technology (Assess Locally)


People, alone or in groups, are always making discoveries about nature and inventing new ways to solve problems and get work done


Identify a question that was asked, or could be asked, or a problem that needed to be solved when given a brief scenario (fiction or nonfiction of people working alone or in groups solving everyday problems or learning through discovery)


Work with a group to solve a problem, giving due credit to the ideas and contributions of each group member (Assess Locally)