New Hampshire State Standards for Science — Grade 10


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S:ESS1:11:1.1

Explain how winds and ocean currents are created on the Earths surface.

S:ESS1:11:1.2

Explain how heat and energy transfer in and out of the atmosphere; and provide examples of how it is related to weather and climate.

S:ESS1:11:1.3

Describe how Earths atmospheric composition has changed from the formation of the Earth through current time.

S:ESS1:11:1.4

Explain how Earths features can affect wind and weather patterns by causing air to rise and increasing precipitation.

S:ESS1:11:2.1

Recognize that elements exist in fixed amounts and describe how they move through the solid Earth, oceans, atmosphere, and living things as part of geochemical cycles, such as the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles.

S:ESS1:11:2.2

Describe the conditions that enable the Earth to support life, such as the availability of water, the gravitational force, the electromagnetic field and the intensity of radiation from the Sun.

S:ESS1:11:2.3

Explain the theory of plate tectonics.

S:ESS1:11:2.4

Describe the movement of crustal plates and explain how the effects have altered the Earths features.

S:ESS1:11:3.1

Identify and describe the methods used to measure geologic time, such as fossil identification, radioactive dating, and rock sequences.

S:ESS1:11:3.2

Relate how geologic time is determined using various dating methods (e.g., radioactive decay, rock sequences, fossil records). [ESS1(9-11)INQ+POC+MAS-4]

S:ESS1:11:4.1

Provided with geologic data (including movement of plates) on a given locale, predict the likelihood for an earth event (e.g. volcanoes mountain ranges, islands, earthquakes, tides, tsunamis). [ESS1(9-11)INQ+POC-1]

S:ESS1:11:5.1

Explain that the Earth is composed of interactive layers, which have distinct compositions, physical properties and processes.

S:ESS1:11:5.2

Relate plate movement to earthquakes and volcanic activity, and explain how it results in tectonic uplift and mountain building.

S:ESS1:11:5.3

Identify and describe the major external and internal sources of energy on Earth.

S:ESS1:11:5.4

Provide supporting geologic/geographic evidence that supports the validity of the theory of plate tectonics. [ESS1(9-11)NOS-2]

S:ESS1:11:5.5

Trace the development of the theory of plate tectonics. [ESS1(9-11)NOS-2]

S:ESS1:11:5.6

Explain how internal and external sources of heat (energy) fuel geologic processes (e.g., rock cycle, plate tectonics, sea floor spreading). [ESS1(9-11)SAE+POC-3]

S:ESS1:11:6.1

Explain that throughout the rock cycle, the total amount of the material remains the same.

S:ESS1:11:7.1

Explain that water quality can be affected positively or negatively by outside sources

S:ESS1:12:1.1

Identify and describe the layers of the atmosphere

S:ESS1:12:1.2

Understand the effects of solar influences, such as flares and sunspots, on atmospheric conditions.

S:ESS1:12:6.1

Describe the processes that transform one type of rock into another, such as lithification, metamorphosis, and weathering on a chemical level.

S:ESS1:12:6.2

Describe the various types of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks found on Earth.

S:ESS2:11:1.1

Explain how the Earth, Moon and Sun were formed.

S:ESS2:11:2.1

Identify the Earths major external source of energy as solar energy.

S:ESS2:11:2.2

Explain how the inclination of incoming solar radiation can impact the amount of energy Earth receives on any given surface area.

S:ESS2:11:2.3

Explain how internal and external sources of heat (energy) fuel geologic processes (e.g., rock cycle, plate tectonics, sea floor spreading). [ESS1(9-11)SAE+POC-3]

S:ESS2:11:3.1

Explain how gravitational force influenced the formations of the planets and their moons; and describe how these objects move in patterns under its continued influence.

S:ESS2:11.3.2

Explain how the Solar System formed from a giant cloud of gas and debris about 5 billion years ago.

S:ESS2:11.3.3

Students should have regular access and use of data gathered by space based instruments

S:ESS2:12:1.1

Understand how the Nebular Hypothesis, fusion, and the process of differentiation contributes to the structure and organization of the universe.

S:ESS2:12:1.2

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:ESS2:12:1.3

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:ESS2:12:1.4

Students should have regular access and use of data gathered by space based instruments.

S:ESS3:11:1.1

Recognize electromagnetic waves can be used to locate objects in the universe, and track their movement.

S:ESS3:11:2.1

Identify and describe the characteristics common to most stars in the universe.

S:ESS3:11:2.2

Describe the ongoing processes involved in star formation, their life cycles and their destruction

S:ESS3:11:2.3

Explain the relationships between or among the energy produced from nuclear reactions, the origin of elements, and the life cycles of stars. [ESS3(9-11)POC+SAE-8]

S:ESS3:11:3.1

Explain that current scientific evidence supports the Big Bang Theory as a probable explanation of the origin of the universe, and describe the theory.

S:ESS3:11:3.2

Explain the evidence that suggests the universe is expanding

S:ESS3:11:3.3

Provide scientific evidence that supports or refutes the Big Bang theory of how the universe was formed. [ESS3(9-11)NOS-6]

S:ESS3:11:3.4

Based on the nature of electromagnetic waves, explain the movement and location of objects in the universe or their composition (e.g., red shift, blue shift, line spectra). [ESS3(9-11)SAE-7]

S:ESS3:11:3.5

Explain how scientific theories about the structure of the universe have been advanced through the use of sophisticated technology (e.g., space probes and visual, radio and x-ray telescopes). [ESS3(9-11)NOS-5]

S:ESS3:11:3.6

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:ESS3:11:3.7

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:ESS3:11:3.8

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:ESS4:11:1.1

Describe ways in which technology has increased our understanding of the universe.

S:ESS4:11:1.2

Understand that technology is designed with a particular function in mind; and principles of Earth Space science are useful in creating technology for the Earth space sciences.

S:ESS4:11:2.1

Describe the use and benefits of land-based light telescopes, radio telescopes, spectrophotometers, satellites, manned exploration, probes, and robots to the study of Earth Space Science.

S:ESS4:11:2.2

Explain how scientists study the Earth using computer-generated models and observations from both landbased sites and satellites; and describe the value of using these tools in unison.

S:ESS4:11:3.1

Differentiate between and provide examples of renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy; and explain the advantages and limitations of each.

S:ESS4:11:3.2

Describe the means for transforming a natural material, such as iron ore, into useful products during different historical periods, such as the Stone Age, Iron Age, Renaissance, the Industrial Period and the current Age of Information.

S:ESS4:11:4.1

Explain the kinds of applications of knowledge and skills necessary for jobs/careers specific to Earth or space sciences.

S:ESS4:11.3.3

Explain how the use of technologies at a local level, such as burning of fossil fuels for transportation or power generation, may contribute to global environmental problems.

S:ESS4:12:1.1

Recognize the importance of technology as it relates to science, for purposes such as: access to space and other remote locations, sample collection and treatment, measurement, data collection, and storage, computation, and communication of information.

S:ESS4:12:1.2

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:ESS4:12:3.1

Explain the environmental effects of using both renewable and nonrenewable resources; and provide examples of how man is addressing these effects on the environment.

S:ESS4:12:3.2

Provide examples of how mans use of Earth materials has changed over time; and use those examples to explain how the relationship between science and technology has gradually grown closer in the past century.

S:ESS4:12:3.3

Research and evaluate a current environmental issue within the State of New Hampshire, such as a dispute regarding the conversion of a natural environment to human use; and construct a defense that supports environmental protection.

S:ESS4:12:4.1

Understand the various scientific fields that use scientific content and skills; and distinguish between professional and skilled science jobs/careers in Earth or space sciences.

S:LS1:11:1.1

Describe how organisms are classified into a hierarchy of groups and subgroups, which are based on similarities that reflect their evolutionary relationships.

S:LS1:11:1.2

Explain that organisms that possess similar DNA code are more closely related than those in which DNA varies greatly

S:LS1:11:1.3

Identify plants and animals according to binomial nomenclature.

S:LS1:11:1.4

Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells according to general structure and degrees of complexity

S:LS1:11:2.1

Identify the structures of different types of cell parts/organelles and explain the functions they perform.

S:LS1:11:2.2

Recognize how cell functions are regulated through changes in the activity of the functions performed by proteins, and through the selective expression of individual genes; and explain how this regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell growth and division

S:LS1:11:2.3

Recognize how an organisms organization and complexity accommodate its need for obtaining, transforming, transporting, releasing, and eliminating the matter and energy used to sustain it.

S:LS1:11:2.4

Explain how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are interrelated and contribute to biogeochemical cycles.

S:LS1:11:2.5

Describe the structures of proteins and their role in cell function.

S:LS1:11:2.6

Describe the chemical reactions involved in cell functions using examples from the nervous, immune and endocrine systems in multicellular animals.

S:LS1:11:2.7

Recognize that because all matter tends toward more disorganized states, living systems need a continuous input of energy to maintain their chemical and physical organizations.

S:LS1:11:2.8

Use data and observation to make connections between, to explain, or to justify how specific cell organelles produce/regulate what the cell needs or what a unicellular or multi-cellular organism needs for survival (e.g., protein synthesis, DNA transport, nerve cells). [LS1(9- 11)INQ+SAE+FAF-1]

S:LS1:11:3.1

Describe the chemical and structural properties of DNA and explain its role in identifying the characteristics of an organism.

S:LS1:11:3.2

Recognize that new heritable characteristics can only result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in an organisms sex cells; and explain why other changes in an organism cannot be passed on.

S:LS1:11:3.3

Describe the alternation of generations, life cycles with haploid and diploid phases in living organisms, such as bacteria, plants and animals.

S:LS1:11:3.4

Explain or justify with evidence how the alteration of the DNA sequence may produce new gene combinations that make little difference, enhance capabilities, or can be harmful to the organism (e.g., selective breeding, genetic engineering, mutations). [LS1(9-11)FAF+POC-2]

S:LS1:12:1.1

Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at the biochemical level, using cell wall composition, DNA structure, and other biochemical pathways.

S:LS1:12:1.2

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:LS1:12:2.1

Compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis, including disruptions to the cycles, such as disease or cancer

S:LS1:12:2.2

Explain the process of cell differentiation, using stem cells as an example.

S:LS1:12:2.3

chools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:LS1:12:3.1

Compare and contrast the alternation of generations life cycles; and understand the variations of the haploid and diploid phases that produce diplontic, haplontic, and isomorphic alternation of generations in living organisms.

S:LS2:11:1.1

Explain how the amount of life an environment can sustain is restricted by the availability of matter and energy, and the ability of the ecosystem to recycle materials.

S:LS2:11:1.2

Describe how the interrelationships and interdependencies among organisms generate stable ecosystems that fluctuate around a state of rough equilibrium for hundreds or thousands of years.

S:LS2:11:1.3

Identify the factors in an ecosystem that can affect its carrying capacity.

S:LS2:11:1.4

Analyze and describe how environmental disturbances, such as climate changes, natural events, human activity and the introduction of invasive species, can affect the flow of energy or matter in an ecosystem.

S:LS2:11:1.5

Using data from a specific ecosystem, explain relationships or make predictions about how environmental disturbance (human impact or natural events) affects the flow of energy or cycling of matter in an ecosystem. [LS2(9-11)INQ+SAE-3]

S:LS2:11:1.6

Explain or evaluate potential bias in how evidence is interpreted in reports concerning a particular environmental factor that impacts the biology of humans. [LS2(9-11)NOS-5]

S:LS2:11:2.1

Use examples from local ecosystems to describe the relationships among organisms at the different trophic levels.

S:LS2:11:3.1

Explain that as matter and energy flow through different levels of organization in living systems and between living systems and the environment, elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, are recombined in different ways.

S:LS2:11:3.2

Trace the cycling of matter (e.g., carbon cycle) and the flow of energy in a living system from its source through its transformation in cellular, biochemical processes (e.g., photosynthesis, cellular respiration, fermentation). [LS2(9-11)POC+SAE-4]

S:LS2:11:3.3

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:LS2:11:3.4

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:LS2:11:3.5

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses

S:LS3:11:1.1

Identify ways humans can impact and alter the stability of ecosystems, such as habitat destruction, pollution, and consumption of resources; and describe the potentially irreversible effects these changes can cause.

S:LS3:11:1.2

Identify ways of detecting, and limiting or reversing environmental damage.

S:LS3:11:1.3

Analyze the aspects of environmental protection, such as ecosystem protection, habitat management, species conservation and environmental agencies and regulations; and evaluate and justify the need for public policy in guiding the use and management of the environment.

S:LS3:11:2.1

Explain the currently accepted theory for the development of life on Earth, including the history of its origin and the evolutionary process.

S:LS3:11:2.2

Recognize that the abilities and behaviors an organism has, and likelihood of its survival strongly depend on its heritable characteristics, which can be biochemical and anatomical.

S:LS3:11:2.3

Explain the contributions of Darwin, Malthus, Wallace and Russell to the advancement of life science.

S:LS3:11:2.4

Explain evolution in terms of how the Earths present-day life forms evolved from earlier, distinctly different species as a consequence of the interactions of (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection.

S:LS3:11:2.5

Explain how evidence from technological advances supports or refutes the genetic relationships among groups of organisms (e.g., DNA analysis, protein analysis). [LS3(9-11)NOS-6]

S:LS3:11:2.6

Given information about living or extinct organisms, cite evidence to explain the frequency of inherited characteristics of organisms in a population; or explain the evolution of varied structures (with defined functions) that affected the organisms survival in a specific environment (e.g., giraffe, wind pollination of flowers). [LS3(9-11)INQ+FAF+POC-8]

S:LS3:11:3.1

Explain the concept of natural selection.

S:LS3:11:3.10

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:LS3:11:3.11

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:LS3:11:3.12

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:LS3:11:3.2

Explain the diversity and unity of past and present life forms on Earth using currently accepted theories.

S:LS3:11:3.3

Recognize how a species chance of survival increases with each variation of an organism within the species; and explain how, in the event of a major global change, the greater the diversity of species on Earth, the greater the chance for survival of life.

S:LS3:11:3.4

Analyze present day data and research in areas, including antibiotic resistance in bacteria, changes in viral genomes, such as bird flu, and DNA sequencing; and relate it to the concepts of natural selection.

S:LS3:11:3.5

Identify and describe ways genes may be changed and combined to create genetic variation within a species.

S:LS3:11:3.6

Explain that gene mutations and new combinations may have a variety of effects on the organism, including positive and negative ones, or none at all.

S:LS3:11:3.7

Explain the concepts of Mendelian genetics.

S:LS3:11:3.8

Use pedigree charts and Punnet Squares to determine patterns of inheritance.

S:LS3:11:3.9

Given a scenario, provide evidence that demonstrates how sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations and contributes to natural selection (e.g., Darwins finches, isolation of a species, Tay Sachs disease). [LS3(9-11)INQ+POC-7]

S:LS3:12:3.1

Understand the types of mutations that cause changes in DNA and cause the appearance of new alleles, such as frameshift and point mutations, and the chromosomal mutations of insertion, deletion, translocation, and duplication.

S:LS4:11:1.1

Recognize that the immune system, endocrine system, and nervous system can affect the homeostasis of an organism.

S:LS4:11:1.2

Describe how the functions of all the human body systems are interrelated at a chemical level and how they maintain homeostasis.

S:LS4:11:2.1

Explain that disease in organisms can be caused by intrinsic failures of the system or infection by other organisms, and describe as well as provide examples of how some diseases are caused by: the breakdown in cellular function, congenital conditions, genetic disorders, malnutrition, and emotional health, including stress.

S:LS4:11:2.2

Explain that vaccines were developed to reduce or eliminate diseases; and provide examples of how these medical advances have proven to be successful.

S:LS4:11:2.3

Describe and provide examples of how new medical techniques, efficient health care delivery systems, improved sanitation, and a more complete understanding of the nature of disease provides todays humans a better chance of staying healthier than their forebears.

S:LS4:11:2.4

Describe how some drugs mimic or block the molecules involved in transmitting nerve or hormone signals and explain how this disturbs the normal operations of the brain and body.

S:LS4:11:2.5

Explain that gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled division, which is called cancer; and describe how exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increase mutation, and thus the chance for cancer

S:LS4:11:2.6

Use evidence to make and support conclusions about the ways that humans or other organisms are affected by environmental factors or heredity (e.g., pathogens, diseases, medical advances, pollution, mutations). [LS4(9-11)INQ+NOS-9]

S:LS4:11:3.1

Describe how the length and quality of human life are influenced by many factors, including sanitation, diet, medical care, gender, genes, and environmental conditions and personal health behaviors.

S:LS4:11:3.2

Explain how the immune system functions to prevent and fight disease.

S:LS4:11:3.3

Explain how the immune system, endocrine system, or nervous system works and draw conclusions about how systems interact to maintain homeostasis in the human body. [LS4(9-11)SAE+FAF-10]

S:LS4:11:3.4

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:LS4:11:3.5

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:LS4:11:3.6

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:LS5:11:1.1

Describe ways in which technology has increased our understanding of the life sciences.

S:LS5:11:1.2

Understand that technology is designed with a particular function in mind, and principles of life science are useful in creating technology for the life sciences.

S:LS5:11:2.1

Describe the use and benefits of equipment such as light microscopes, transmission electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopes, spectrophotometers, probes, and robotics to the study of the life sciences.

S:LS5:11:3.1

Describe ways technology can support and improve our understanding of environmental issues.

S:LS5:11:3.2

Describe aspects of the medical system available to help people in New Hampshire, including: prevention programs, vaccines and pharmaceuticals, hospitals and rehabilitation facilities.

S:LS5:11:3.3

Recognize that biotechnology is used in many areas, such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, the environment, and genetic engineering; and understand that it requires extensive knowledge of the systems being changed.

S:LS5:11:3.4

Explain how advances in agriculture made using biotechnology have directly affected the food production over the past 100 years; and that this change has profoundly affected societies all over the globe, making larger populations and urban centers a possibility.

S:LS5:11:4.1

Explain the kinds of applications of knowledge and skills necessary for jobs/careers specific to the life sciences.

S:LS5:12:1.1

Recognize the importance of technology as it relates to science, for purposes such as: access to information about living systems, medical diagnosis, sample collection and treatment, measurement, data collection, and storage, computation, and communication of information.

S:LS5:12:1.2

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:LS5:12:3.1

Explain how genetic engineering is used to modify the DNA structure of an organism; and describe how this process is used to research and develop medically useful products, such as insulin.

S:LS5:12:3.2

Summarize arguments on both sides of a medical research controversy, such as stem cell research, cloning, or zootransplanation

S:LS5:12:3.3

Analyze and evaluate a biotechnology system in New Hampshire that focuses on a specific goal, such as pharmaceutical development; and describe all elements of the system, identifying the costs and the benefits.

S:LS5:12:4.1

Understand the various scientific fields that use scientific content and skills; and distinguish between professional and skilled science jobs/careers in the life sciences.

S:PS1:11:1.1

Recognize and describe the structure of an atom and explain how the major components interact with one another.

S:PS1:11:1.2

Recognize how elements are arranged in the periodic table; and explain how this arrangement illustrates the repeating patterns among elements with similar properties, such as the relationship between atomic number and atomic mass.

S:PS1:11:1.3

Explain that neutrons and protons are made up of even smaller constituents.

S:PS1:11:1.4

Define isotopes; recognize that most elements have two or more isotopes; and explain that although the number of neutrons has little affect on how the atom interacts with others, they do affect the mass and stability of the nucleus.

S:PS1:11:1.5

Scientific thought about atoms has changed over time. Using information (narratives or models of atoms) provided, cite evidence that changed our understanding of the atom and the development of atomic theory. [PS1(9-11)MAS+NOS-2]

S:PS1:11:1.6

Model and explain the structure of an atom or explain how an atoms electron configuration, particularly the outermost electron(s), determines how that atom can interact with other atoms. [PS1(9-11)MAS+FAF-4]

S:PS1:11:2.1

Explain that the physical properties of a compound are determined by its molecular structure and the interactions among the molecules.

S:PS1:11:2.2

Determine whether an atom is either electrically neutral or an ion by referring to its number of electrons.

S:PS1:11:2.3

Explain how the chemical properties of an element are governed by the electron configuration of atoms, and describe how atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing the outermost electrons.

S:PS1:11:2.4

Explain that radioactive materials are unstable and undergo spontaneous nuclear reactions, which emit particles and/or wavelike radiation.

S:PS1:11:2.5

Explain that states of matter rely on the arrangement and motion of molecules; and differentiate between the structures of solids, liquids, and gases.

S:PS1:11:2.6

Use physical and chemical properties as determined through an investigation to identify a substance. [PS1(9-11)INQ-1]

S:PS1:11:2.7

Explain how properties of elements and the location of elements on the periodic table are related. [PS1(9-11)POC-3]

S:PS1:11:2.8

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:PS1:12:1.1

Understand the basic building blocks of matter are quarks and leptons.

S:PS1:12:1.2

Understand the basic building blocks of matter are quarks and leptons.

S:PS1:12:1.3

Identify the sub-orbital shapes and geometric orientations of the orbitals electrons can occupy in atoms.

S:PS2:11:1.1

Recognize and explain that atoms may be bonded together into molecules or formula units (crystalline solids).

S:PS2:11:1.2

Recognize that atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing electrons that are furthest from the nucleus; and explain that the outer electrons govern the chemical properties of an element.

S:PS2:11:1.3

Explain that compounds are formed through both ionic and covalent bonding.

S:PS2:11:1.4

Recognize that the rates of chemical reactions can vary greatly; and identify the factors that influence these reaction rates, such as how often the reacting atoms and molecules encounter one another, the temperature, and the properties of the reacting species, including shape.

S:PS2:11:1.5

Explain relationships between and among electric charges, magnetic fields, electromagnetic forces, and atomic particles. [PS2(9-11)SAE-7]

S:PS2:11:2.1

Explain that chemical reactions either release or consume energy.

S:PS2:11:2.2

Explain that chemical reactions can be accelerated by catalysts, such as enzymes.

S:PS2:11:2.3

Recognize that a large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons or hydrogen ions between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms.

S:PS2:11:2.4

Identify the variety of structures that may be formed from the bonding of carbon atoms, and describe their roles in various chemical reactions, including those required for life processes.

S:PS2:11:2.5

Demonstrate how transformations of energy produce some energy in the form of heat and therefore the efficiency of the system is reduced (chemical, biological, and physical systems). [PS2(9-11)POC+SAE-5]

S:PS2:11:3.1

Explain that all energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy, potential energy, or energy contained by a field.

S:PS2:11:3.10

Using information provided about chemical changes, draw conclusions about the energy flow in a given chemical reaction (e.g., exothermic reactions, endothermic reactions). [PS2(9-11)INQ+SAE-6]

S:PS2:11:3.11

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:PS2:11:3.2

Provide examples of how kinetic and potential energy can be transformed from one to the other.

S:PS2:11:3.3

Describe how the energy associated with individual atoms and molecules can be used to identify the substances they comprise; and explain that each kind of atom or molecule can gain or lose energy only in particular discrete amounts, absorbing and emitting light only at wavelengths corresponding to these amounts.

S:PS2:11:3.4

Explain the range of the electromagnetic spectrum as it relates to both wavelength and energy; and provide examples of practical applications of the different wavelengths in the spectrum

S:PS2:11:3.5

Recognize that the human eye can only see a narrow range of wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum; and explain how the variations of wavelength within that range of visible light are perceived as differences in color.

S:PS2:11:3.6

Describe the relationship between heat and temperature, explaining that heat energy consists of the random motion and vibrations of atoms, molecules, and ions; and that the higher the temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion.

S:PS2:11:3.7

Explain that waves, such as light, seismic, sound waves, have energy and can transfer energy when they interact with matter.

S:PS2:11:3.8

Explain that nuclear reactions convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy and release much greater amounts of energy than atomic interactions.

S:PS2:11:3.9

Describe how electrons flow easily in some materials, such as metals, whereas in insulating materials, such as glass, they can hardly flow at all.

S:PS2:12:1.1

Explain the complete mole concept and identify ways in which it can be used, such as to differentiate between actual and relative mass

S:PS2:12:1.2

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:PS2:12:1.3

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:PS2:12:3.1

Explain the concept of entropy.

S:PS2:12:3.2

Understand that activation energy is required to make a chemical reaction proceed, whether or not it is exothermic or endothermic.

S:PS3:11:1.1

Explain that magnetic forces are related to the action of electrons and can be thought of as different aspects of a single electromagnetic force; and describe how the interplay of these forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, radio, television, and many other modern technologies.

S:PS3:11:1.2

Recognize that the strength of the electric force between two charged objects is proportional to the charges and, as with gravitation, is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

S:PS3:11:1.3

Recognize that the strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

S:PS3:11:1.4

Compare the strength of nuclear, electromagnetic and gravitational forces; and explain that the strength of nuclear forces account for the great amounts of energy released from the nuclear reactions in atomic or hydrogen bombs, and in the Sun and other stars.

S:PS3:11:1.5

Recognize that electromagnetic forces exist within and between atoms.

S:PS3:11:1.6

Recognize that different kinds of materials respond to electric forces in various ways; and differentiate between insulators, semiconductors, conductors and superconductors.

S:PS3:11:1.7

Describe the difference between materials that contain equal proportions of positive and negative charges and those that have a very small excess or deficit of negative charges.

S:PS3:11:1.8

Given information (e.g., graphs, data, diagrams), use the relationships between or among force, mass, velocity, momentum, and acceleration to predict and explain the motion of objects. [PS3(9-11)INQ+POC-8]

S:PS3:11:2.1

Interpret and apply the laws of motion to determine the effects of forces on the motion of objects.

S:PS3:11:2.2

Recognize that apparent changes in wavelength can provide information about changes in motion; explain that the observed wavelength of a wave depends upon the relative motion of the source and the observer; and relate these to the differences between shorter and longer wavelengths.

S:PS3:11:2.3

Apply the concepts of inertia, motion, and momentum to predict and explain situations involving forces and motion, including stationary objects and collisions. [PS3(9-11)POC-9]

S:PS3:11:2.4

Explain the effects on wavelength and frequency as electromagnetic waves interact with matter (e.g., light diffraction, blue sky). [PS3(9-11)SAE-10]

S:PS3:11:2.5

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:PS3:12:1.1

Understand the four fundamental forces found in nature: gravitation, electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force.

S:PS3:12:1.2

Describe the gauge particles that are exchanged by each of the fundamental forces.

S:PS3:12:1.3

Understand the basic principles of unified field theories.

S:PS3:12:2

Schools should include expectations and competencies from Advanced Science Courses and Science-related Career and Technical Education Courses.

S:PS3:12:2.1

Explain general concepts related to the theory of special relativity: time dilation, length contraction, and mass expansion.

S:PS3:12:2.2

Understand the basic idea behind the theory of general relativity.

S:PS3:12:2.3

Describe the predictions made by the theory of general relativity, and the evidence that supports it.

S:PS4:11:1.1

Recognize that the basic principles of energy, work and power are related to design technology.

S:PS4:11:2.1

Identify tools, such as thermostats and thermal sensors, and explain their use in environmental control systems.

S:PS4:11:3.1

Explain that power systems have a source of energy, a process, loads, and some have a feedback system.

S:PS4:11:3.2

Demonstrate and explain how an engine converts chemical energy in the form of fuel, into mechanical energy in the form of motion.

S:PS4:11:3.3

Calculate the efficiency of an engine, and explain why a perfectly efficient engine is impossible.

S:PS4:11:3.4

Explain the relationship between energy and power.

S:PS4:11:3.5

Explain the benefits of standardization of parts.

S:PS4:11:4.1

Explain the kinds of applications of knowledge and skills necessary for jobs/careers specific to the physical sciences.

S:PS4:12:1.1

Relate the transfer of energy through conduction, convection and radiation to design technologies.

S:PS4:12:2.1

Demonstrate the appropriate use of a variety of input devices, such as scanners, voice/sound recorders, and digital cameras.

S:PS4:12:3.1

Compare two different energy systems that are used to produce large amounts of electrical power for New Hampshire residents, and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each system.

S:PS4:12:3.2

Design a transportation system that meets most humans need for reliable and affordable transportation, while having a minimal impact on the environment.

S:PS4:12:3.3

Describe the various types of manufacturing systems, such as customized production, batch production, and continuous production, and explain that manufacturing results in two types of good, durable and non-durable goods.

S:PS4:12:3.4

Understand that a manufacturing system includes design of the product and methods of obtaining raw materials, as well as actual production, marketing, sales, maintenance, servicing, repair, and final disposal of the remains of the product.

S:PS4:12:4.1

Understand the various scientific fields that use scientific content and skills and distinguish between professional and skilled science jobs/careers in the physical sciences.

S:SPS1:11:1.1

Ask questions about relationships among variables that can be observed directly as well as those that cannot.

S:SPS1:11:1.2

Use complex classification criteria and keys to identify items/organisms.

S:SPS1:11:1.3

Evaluate complex methods of classification for a specific purpose

S:SPS1:11:1.4

Identify limitations of a given classification system and identify alternative ways of classifying to accommodate anomalies.

S:SPS1:11:2.1

Apply scientific theories and laws to new situations to generate hypotheses.

S:SPS1:11:2.2

State a hypothesis and prediction based on available evidence and background information.

S:SPS1:11:3.1

Select and use apparatus and material safely.

S:SPS1:11:3.2

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data.

S:SPS1:11:3.3

Compile and organize data, using appropriate units.

S:SPS1:11:4.1

Compile and display data, evidence and information by hand and computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs and scatter plots.

S:SPS1:11:5.1

Explain how data support or refute the hypothesis or prediction.

S:SPS1:11:5.2

Provide a statement that addresses and answers the question investigated in light of the evidence generated in the investigation.

S:SPS2:11:1.1

Explore new phenomena through investigations conducted for different reasons, or to check on previous results.

S:SPS2:11:1.2

Test how well a theory predicts a phenomena.

S:SPS2:11:1.3

Recognize that sometimes scientists can control conditions in order to focus on the effect of a single variable; when that is not possible for practical or ethical reasons, they try to observe as wide a range of natural occurrences as possible to be able to discern patterns.

S:SPS2:11:1.4

Show how hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available).

S:SPS2:11:1.5

Understand that in the long run, theories are judged by how they fit with other theories, the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how effective they are in predicting new findings.

S:SPS2:11:1.6

Show how the usefulness of a model can be tested by comparing its predictions to actual observations in the real world; but a close match does not mean that the model is the only true model or the one that would work.

S:SPS2:11:1.7

Realize that in science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends; this ongoing process leads to an increasingly better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth.

S:SPS2:11:2.1

Realize that systems may be so closely related that there is no way to draw boundaries that separate all parts of one from all parts of the others.

S:SPS2:11:2.2

Give examples to show that a system usually has some properties that are different from those of its parts, but appear because of the interaction of those parts.

S:SPS2:11:2.3

Demonstrate that even in some very simple systems, it may not always be possible to predict accurately the result of changing some part or connection.

S:SPS2:11:3.1

Understand that the basic idea of mathematical modeling is to find a mathematical relationship that behaves in the same way as the objects or processes under investigation; a mathematical model may give insight about how something really works or may fit observations very well without any intuitive meaning.

S:SPS2:11:4.1

Recognize that things can change in detail, but remain the same in general (e.g., the players change but the team remains, the cells are replaced but the organism remains); sometimes counterbalancing changes are necessary for a thing to retain its essential constancy in the presence of changing conditions.

S:SPS2:11:4.2

Describe how graphs and equations are useful (and often equivalent) ways for depicting and analyzing patterns of change.

S:SPS2:11:4.3

Give examples of how a system in equilibrium may return to the same state of equilibrium if the disturbances it experiences are small; but large disturbances may cause it to escape that equilibrium and eventually settle into some other state of equilibrium.

S:SPS2:11:4.4

Describe how in evolutionary change, the present arises from the materials and forms of the past, more or less gradually, and in ways that can be explained.

S:SPS2:11:5.1

Explore how the movement of ocean floor plates under continental plates or two continental plates moving against each other can deform the earths surface

S:SPS2:11:5.2

Provide data and evidence on how folding in crustal plates can cause mountain ranges.

S:SPS2:11:5.3

Understand that an atoms electron configuration determines how the atom can interact with other atoms.

S:SPS2:11:5.4

Provide examples of how configuration of atoms in a molecule determines a molecules properties.

S:SPS2:11:5.5

Discover how the shape of large molecules affects the interaction with other molecules

S:SPS2:11:5.6

Demonstrate that a variety of biological, chemical and physical phenomena can be explained by changes in the arrangement and motion of atoms and molecules.

S:SPS3:11:1.1

Collaborate with existing research efforts

S:SPS3:11:1.2

Identify global researchers in a field of interest.

S:SPS3:11:2.1

Develop, modify, clarify and explain questions that guide environmental investigations of various types.

S:SPS3:11:2.2

Design investigations to answer particular questions about the environment.

S:SPS3:11:2.3

Locate and collect reliable information for environmental investigations of many types.

S:SPS3:11:2.4

Apply basic logic and reasoning skills to evaluate completeness and reliability in a variety of information sources.

S:SPS3:11:2.5

Organize and display information in ways appropriate to different types of environmental investigations and purposes.

S:SPS3:11:2.6

Create, use and evaluate models to understand environmental phenomena.

S:SPS3:11:2.7

Use to evidence and logic in developing proposed explanations that address their initial questions and hypotheses.

S:SPS3:11:2.8

Analyze global, social, cultural, political, economic and environmental linkages

S:SPS3:11:2.9

Evaluate presentations of environmental issues for accuracy.

S:SPS3:11:3.1

Analyze environmental issues such as water quality, air quality, hazardous waste, and depletion of natural resources.

S:SPS3:11:3.2

Evaluate status of a local community system (transportation, water, communication, food resources or electrical) in partnership with local officials.

S:SPS3:11:3.3

Analyze technical writing, graphs, charts, and diagrams.

S:SPS4:12:1.1

Select and analyze information from various sources (including electronic resources, print resources, community resources) and personally collected data to answer questions being investigated.

S:SPS4:12:1.2

Collect and use qualitative and quantitative data and information, seek evidence and sources of information to identify flaws such as errors and bias, and explain how the evidence supports or refutes an initial hypothesis.

S:SPS4:12:1.3

Analyze data and information gathered to clarify problems or issues identifying costs and benefits from a social, cultural, and/or environmental perspective; predict the consequences of action or inaction; and propose possible solutions.

S:SPS4:12:2.1

Select and use appropriate scientific vocabulary to orally share and communicate scientific ideas, plans, results, and conclusions resulting from investigations.

S:SPS4:12:2.2

Create written reports and journals to share and communicate scientific ideas, plans, results, and conclusions resulting from observations and investigations.

S:SPS4:12:2.3

Create a multimedia presentation incorporating numeric symbolic and/or graphic modes of representation to share scientific ideas, plans, results, and conclusions.

S:SPS4:12:3.1

Pursue scientific inquiry such as observation, measurement, hypothesis formation and analysis, and value habits of mind such as persistence, accuracy, and collaboration.

S:SPS4:12:3.2

Generate solutions to scientific questions and challenges through developing, modeling and revising investigations.

S:SPS4:12:3.3

Apply scientific knowledge and skills to make reasoned decisions about the use of science and scientific innovations.

S:SPS4:12:4.1

Formulate scientific questions about an issue and define experimental procedures for finding answers.

S:SPS4:12:4.2

Plan and conduct practical tests to solve problems or answer a question, collect and analyze data using appropriate instruments and techniques safely and accurately.

S:SPS4:12:4.3

Develop models and explanations to fit evidence obtained through investigations.

S:SPS4:12:5.1

Prepare multimedia presentations to share results of investigations, demonstrating a clear sense of audience and purpose.

S:SPS4:12:5.2

Use electronic networks to share information.

S:SPS4:12:5.3

Model solutions to a range of problems in science and technology using computer simulation software.

S:SPS4:12:6.1

Create a culminating team project that demonstrates content knowledge and conceptual understanding and shows connections between science content and real-world settings.

S:SPS4:12:6.2

Collect, synthesize, and report information from a variety of points of view.

S:SPS4:12:7.1

Use key ideas of science to document and explain through an investigation the relationship between science and concepts.

S:SPS4:12:7.2

Self-assess progress toward a predetermined outcome and decide what needs to be done to meet the goal.

S:SPS4:12:8.1

Identify the reputable and appropriate communities of learners to whom research findings should be reported, compare data, and adapt as needed.

S:SPS4:12:8.2

Use science learned to create a personal action plan on a community issue.

S:SPS4:12:9.1

Collaborate with interested learners using appropriate web resources and publication media such as journals (print and electronic).