Hawaii Learning Standards for Social Studies — Grade 8

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SS. 8.3.11

Explain the sectionalism that emerged in the first half of the 19th century


Differentiate between primary and secondary sources, understanding the potential and limitations of each


Describe why different people may have different perspectives of the same historical event and multiple interpretations should be considered in order to avoid historical linearity and inevitability


Explain the problems of the national government under the Articles of Confederation that led to the Constitutional Convention of 1787


Examine how and why the United States became a continental nation through westward expansion


Explain how the key issues and events after the Mexican War relate to the outbreak of the Civil Wa


Explain the major factors that determined the outcome of the Civil War (including leaders, resources, and key battles)


Analyze the Reconstruction plan of President Lincoln and that of the congressional Republicans


Explain the impact of the Civil War on African Americans


Describe the controversies (including large states versus small states and slavery) and the compromises that resolved them (including the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise) at the Constitutional Convention


Describe the ideas and principles (including checks and balances, separation of powers, representative democracy) of the Constitution


Explain the controversies over the ratification of the Constitution


Explain how the Bill of Rights places limitations on thefederal government


Describe the emergence of the two party system (including Washingtons farewell address and the election of 1800)


Describe significant events and changes associated with Andrew Jacksons presidency (including Jacksons stance on Indian removal issues and Jacksonian democracy)


Examine the impact of the Seneca Falls Convention and major abolitionists, including Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison


Describe how the development of technology in the first half of the 19th century had an impact on American life


Describe the purpose and structures of the three branches of the federal government


Explain United States foreign policy as reflected in the Monroe Doctrine


Describe the influences of America on other nations and/or organizations and vice versa (including French and Spanish interests at the start of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and the impact of the Indian removals)


Explain the responsibilities of citizens in a representative democracy


Explain productivity in terms of output per worker, hour, machine, or unit of land, and its effects on standards of living in 18th and/or 19th century America


Describe the factors that influence production and consumption decisions in a market system