Alabama Learning Standards for Social Studies — Grade 7

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Identify contemporary American issues since 2001, including the establishment of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the enactment of the Patriot Act of 2001, and the impact of media analysis.


Apply principles of money management to the preparation of a personal budget that addresses housing, transportation, food, clothing, medical expenses, insurance, checking and savings accounts, loans, investments, credit, and comparison shopping.


Determine how regions are used to describe the organization of Earths surface. I


Identifying physical and human features used as criteria for mapping formal, functional, and perceptual regions Examples: physicallandforms, climates, bodies of water, resources humanlanguage, religion, culture, economy, government


Interpreting processes and reasons for regional change, including land use, urban growth, population, natural disasters, and trade


Analyzing interactions among regions to show transnational relationships, including the flow of commodities and Internet connectivity Examples: winter produce to Alabama from Chile and California, poultry from Alabama to other countries


Comparing how culture and experience influence individual perceptions of places and regions Examples: cultural influenceslanguage, religion, ethnicity, iconography, symbology, stereotypes


Explaining globalization and its impact on people in all regions of the world Examples: quality and sustainability of life, international cooperation


Compare geographic patterns in the environment that result from processes within the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere of Earths physical systems.


Comparing Earth-Sun relationships regarding seasons, fall hurricanes, monsoon rainfalls, and tornadoes


Explaining processes that shape the physical environment, including long-range effects of extreme weather phenomena Examples: processesplate tectonics, glaciers, ocean and atmospheric circulation, El Nio long-range effectserosion on agricultural, typhoons on coastal ecosystems


Describing characteristics and physical processes that influence the spatial distribution of ecosystems and biomes on Earths surface


Comparing how ecosystems vary from place to place and over time Examples: place to placedifferences in soil, climate, and topography over timealteration or destruction of natural habitats due to effects of floods and forest fires, reduction of species diversity due to loss of natural habitats, reduction of wetlands due to replacement by farms, reduction of forest and farmland due to replacement by housing developments, reduction of previously cleared land due to reforestation efforts


Comparing geographic issues in different regions that result from human and natural processes Examples: humanincrease or decrease in population, landuse change in tropical forests naturalhurricanes, tsunamis, tornadoes, floods


Describe the world in spatial terms using maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies.


Explaining the use of map essentials, including type, projections, scale, legend, distance, direction, grid, and symbols Examples: typereference, thematic, planimetric, topographic, globe and map projections, aerial photographs, satellite images distancefractional, graphic, and verbal scales directionlines of latitude and longitude, cardinal and intermediate directions


Identifying geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective Examples: Google Earth, Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), satellite remote sensing, aerial photography


Utilizing maps to explain relationships and environments among people and places, including trade patterns, governmental alliances, and immigration patterns


Applying mental maps to answer geographic questions, including how experiences and cultures influence perceptions and decisions


Categorizing the geographic organization of people, places, and environments using spatial models Examples: urban land-use patterns, distribution and linkages of cities, migration patterns, population-density patterns, spread of culture traits, spread of contagious diseases through a population


Explain how human systems develop in response to physical environmental conditions. Example: farming practices in different regions, including slash-and burn agriculture, terrace farming, and center-pivot irrigation


Identifying types, locations, and characteristics of natural hazards, including earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and mudslides


Differentiating ways people prepare for and respond to natural hazards, including building storm shelters, conducting fire and tornado drills, and establishing building codes for construction


Explain the cultural concept of natural resources and changes in spatial distribution, quantity, and quality through time and by location.


Evaluating various cultural viewpoints regarding the use or value of natural resources Examples: salt and gold as valued commodities, petroleum product use and the invention of the internal combustion engine


Identifying issues regarding depletion of nonrenewable resources and the sustainability of renewable resources Examples: ocean shelf and Arctic exploration for petroleum, hybrid engines in cars, wind-powered generators, solar collection panels


Explain how cultural features, traits, and diffusion help define regions, including religious structures, agricultural patterns, ethnic enclaves, ethnic restaurants, and the spread of Islam.


Determine how people organize economic systems to address basic economic questions regarding which goods and services will be produced, how they will be distributed, and who will consume them.


Using economic concepts to explain historical and current developments and issues in global, national, state, or local contexts Example: increase in oil prices resulting from supply and demand


Analyzing agriculture, tourism, and urban growth in Alabama for their impact on economic development


Explain how human actions modify the physical environment within and between places, including how human-induced changes affect the environment. Examples: withinconstruction of dams and downstream water availability for human consumption, agriculture, and aquatic ecosystems betweenurban heat islands and global climate change, desertification and land degradation, pollution and ozone depletion


Explain ways geographic features and environmental issues have influenced historical events. Examples: geographic featuresfall line, Cumberland Gap, Westward Expansion in the United States, weather conditions at Valley Forge and the outcome of the American Revolution, role of ocean currents and winds during exploration by Christopher Columbus environmental issuesboundary disputes, ownership of ocean resources, revitalization of downtown areas


Identifying options for civic and community action Examples: investigating the feasibility of a specific solution to a traffic problem, developing a plan for construction of a subdivision, using maps to make and justify decisions about best locations for public facilities


Determining ways to participate in the political process Examples: voting, running for office, serving on a jury, writing letters, being involved in political parties and political campaigns


Evaluate spatial patterns and the demographic structure of population on Earths surface in terms of density, dispersion, growth and mortality rates, natural increase, and doubling time. Examples: spatial patternsmajor population clusters demographic structureage and sex distribution using population pyramids


Predicting reasons and consequences of migration, including push and pull factors Examples: pushpolitics, war, famine pullpotential jobs, family


Illustrate how primary, secondary, and tertiary economic activities have specific functions and spatial patterns. Examples: primaryforestry, agriculture, mining secondarymanufacturing furniture, grinding coffee beans, assembling automobiles tertiaryselling furniture, selling caff latte, selling automobiles


Comparing one location to another for production of goods and services Examples: fast food restaurants in highly accessible locations, medical offices near hospitals, legal offices near courthouses, industries near major transportation routes


Analyzing the impact of economic interdependence and globalization on places and their populations Examples: seed corn produced in Iowa and planted in South America, silicon chips manufactured in California and installed in a computer made in China that is purchased in Australia


Explaining why countries enter into global trade agreements, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), the European Union (EU), the Mercado Comn del Sur (MERCOSUR), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)


Classify spatial patterns of settlement in different regions of the world, including types and sizes of settlement patterns. Examples: typeslinear, clustered, grid sizeslarge urban, small urban, and rural areas


Explaining human activities that resulted in the development of settlements at particular locations due to trade, political importance, or natural resources Examples: Timbuktu near caravan routes; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Birmingham, Alabama, as manufacturing centers near coal and iron ore deposits; Singapore near a major ocean transportation corridor


Describing settlement patterns in association with the location of resources Examples: fall line settlements near waterfalls used as a source of energy for mills, European industrial settlements near coal seams, spatial arrangement of towns and cities in North American Corn Belt settlements


Describing ways in which urban areas interact and influence surrounding regions Examples: daily commuters from nearby regions; communication centers that service nearby and distant locations through television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet; regional specialization in services or production


Determine political, military, cultural, and economic forces that contribute to cooperation and conflict among people.


Identifying political boundaries based on physical and human systems Examples: physicalrivers as boundaries between counties humanstreets as boundaries between local government units


Identifying effects of cooperation among countries in controlling territories Examples: Great Lakes environmental management by United States and Canada, United Nations (UN) Heritage sites and host countries, Antarctic Treaty on scientific research


Describing the eruption of territorial conflicts over borders, resources, land use, and ethnic and nationalistic identity Examples: India and Pakistan conflict over Jammu and Kashmir, the West Bank, the Sudan, Somalia piracy, ocean fishing and mineral rights, local land-use disputes


Compare changes in social and economic conditions in the United States during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Examples: socialfamily values, peer pressure, education opportunities, women in the workplace economiccareer opportunities, disposable income, consumption of goods and services


Determining benefits of Alabamas role in world trade


Tracing the political and social impact of the modern Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to the present, including Alabamas role


Describe structures of state and local governments in the United States, including major Alabama offices and officeholders.


Describing how local and state governments are funded


Appraise the relationship between the consumer and the marketplace in the economy of the United States regarding scarcity, opportunity cost, trade-off decision making, and the stock market.


Describing effects of government policies on the free market


Identifying laws protecting rights of consumers and avenues of recourse when those rights are violated


Comparing economic systems, including market, command, and traditional


Compare duties and functions of members of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabamas local and state governments and of the national government.


Locating political and geographic districts of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabamas local and state governments and of the national government


Describing the organization and jurisdiction of courts at the local, state, and national levels within the judicial system of the United States


Explaining concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances among the three branches of state and national governments


Compare influences of ancient Greece, the Roman Republic, the Judeo Christian tradition, the Magna Carta, federalism, the Mayflower Compact, the English Bill of Rights, the House of Burgesses, and the Petition of Rights on the government of the United States.


Describe individual and civic responsibilities of citizens of the United States. Examples: individualrespect for rights of others, self discipline, negotiation, compromise, fiscal responsibility civicrespect for law, patriotism, participation in political process, fiscal responsibility


Differentiating rights, privileges, duties, and responsibilities between citizens and noncitizens


Explaining how United States citizenship is acquired by immigrants


Explaining character traits that are beneficial to individuals and society Examples: honesty, courage, compassion, civility, loyalty


Explain essential characteristics of the political system of the United States, including the organization and function of political parties and the process of selecting political leaders.


Describing the influence of John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Paine, Niccol Machiavelli, Charles de Montesquieu, and Franois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) on the political system of the United States


Compare the government of the United States with other governmental systems, including monarchy, limited monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, theocracy, and pure democracy.


Explain the importance of juvenile, adult, civil, and criminal laws within the judicial system of the United States.


Explaining rights of citizens as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights under the Constitution of the United States


Explaining what is meant by the term rule of law


Justifying consequences of committing a civil or criminal offense


Contrasting juvenile and adult laws at local, state, and federal levels