Maryland Social Studies Standards — Grade 8


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SS.8.1.A.1.a

Compare the confederate form of government under the Articles of Confederation with the federal form under the Constitution

SS.8.1.A.1.b

Explain and summarize the principles of federalism, popular sovereignty, rule of law, consent of the governed, separation of powers, checks and balances, majority rule, limited government and how they protect individual rights and impact the functioning of government

SS.8.1.A.1.c

Compare how the powers and functions of the three branches of government are divided and how they are shared to protect popular sovereignty

SS.8.1.A.1.d

Explain and summarize how the supremacy of the national government was defined by events, such as Shay's Rebellion and early decisions of the Supreme Court, such as McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

SS.8.1.A.1.e

Evaluate the role and responsibility of a legislator in a representative democracy

SS.8.1.A.1.f

Analyze the impact of precedence in the office of the President, such as the establishment of a cabinet and foreign policy

SS.8.1.A.1.g

Summarize an individual's legal obligations to obey the law, pay taxes, serve on a jury and serve as a witness

SS.8.1.A.2.a

Evaluate the power and authority of the government on individuals

SS.8.1.A.2.b

Identify the principles in European historic documents and show their connections to the development of American political ideology such as Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights

SS.8.1.A.2.c

Explain how the philosophies of Hobbes, Locke and Montesquieu influenced the principles that shaped United States government

SS.8.1.A.2.d

Describe the significance of principles in the development of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Preamble, U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights

SS.8.1.A.2.e

Describe the major debates and compromises that occurred during the Constitutional Convention and interpret their effects on the ratification process

SS.8.1.A.2.f

Describe the development of political parties and their effects on elections and political life

SS.8.1.A.2.g

Evaluate the significance of the Civil War Amendments (13th, 14th and 15th) and how they protected individual rights

SS.8.1.A.3.a

Examine the effect that national interests have on shaping government policy, such as the abolitionist movement and slavery, states' rights, and regional commerce

SS.8.1.A.3.b

Evaluate regional and international perspectives regarding the formation and implementation of public policy, such as Washington's Farewell Address, Monroe Doctrine, westward expansion, sectionalism, plantation holders in the South v. the industrialists in the North

SS.8.1.B.1.a

Analyze the influence of the media on political life

SS.8.1.B.1.b

Evaluate ways the citizens should use, monitor and influence the formation and implementation of public policy

SS.8.1.B.1.c

Examine the roles and functions of political parties in the American system of government

SS.8.1.B.1.d

Explain how the media, interest groups, and public opinion affected elected officials and government policy prior to the Civil War

SS.8.1.B.2.a

Evaluate ways people can participate in the political process including voting, analyzing the media, petitioning elected officials, and volunteering

SS.8.1.B.2.b

Analyze the concept of citizenship and explain how the concept has changed from colonial times through Reconstruction

SS.8.1.B.2.c

Evaluate how various groups provide opportunities for individuals to participate in the political process

SS.8.1.C.1.a

Describe responsibilities associated with certain basic rights of citizens, such as freedom of speech, religion, and press, and explain why these responsibilities are important

SS.8.1.C.1.b

Explain how rules and laws protect individual rights and protect the common good

SS.8.1.C.1.c

Explain the significance of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison which established judicial review

SS.8.1.C.1.d

Describe the expansion of the powers of the national government in the decision of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland

SS.8.1.C.2.a

Describe significance and effects of the Emancipation Proclamation

SS.8.1.C.2.b

Describe methods that were used to deny civil rights to women, African Americans and Native Americans

SS.8.1.C.2.c

Examine the use of Presidential power in Lincoln's suspension of the writ of habeas corpus

SS.8.1.C.3.a

Identify how due process of law protects individuals

SS.8.1.C.3.b

Describe the due process protections in the Bill of Rights and the 14th Amendment

SS.8.2.A.1.a

Describe the influence of religious tolerance and intolerance in the colonies

SS.8.2.A.1.b

Describe how the colonies developed into diverse states reflecting various cultural elements

SS.8.2.A.1.c

Explain the interaction of cultures in Antebellum America

SS.8.2.B.1.a

Describe the effects of cultural exchange and interactions among Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans on the development of the United States

SS.8.2.B.1.b

Examine how the diversity of the United States represents a blending of cultures and ideas from around the world

SS.8.2.B.2.a

Describe how the increased diversity of American culture resulted from immigration, settlement, and economic development in the United States

SS.8.2.C.1.a

Examine examples of conflict and compromise among different ethnic, religious, and gender groups

SS.8.2.C.1.b

Describe how cultural, economic and political differences contributed to sectionalism

SS.8.2.C.1.c

Describe various reform movements, such as abolition, women's rights, and education

SS.8.2.C.1.d

Describe the effects of early industrialization on individuals and families

SS.8.3.A.1.a

Use thematic maps to locate places and describe the human and physical characteristics, such as settlement patterns, migration, population density, transportation, and communication networks

SS.8.3.A.1.b

Explain interrelationships among physical and human characteristics that shaped the nation

SS.8.3.A.1.c

Analyze thematic maps to determine demographic and economic information about a region

SS.8.3.B.1.a

Analyze how geographic characteristics influenced the location and development of economic activities, such as farming, lumbering, fur trading, whaling and the rise of industry in the early national period

SS.8.3.B.1.b

Describe how changes in transportation systems, such as roads, canals and railroads affected the expansion of trade and settlement

SS.8.3.B.1.c

Analyze how geographic characteristics stimulated regional growth, such as the purchase of the Louisiana Territory

SS.8.3.C.1.a

Explain why Americans migrated west, such as fertile soil, minerals, and economic opportunity, and the impact on that region

SS.8.3.C.1.b

Describe the effects of the influx of immigrants on the United States

SS.8.3.C.1.c

Explain how the regional demographic factors of constituents, such as race, ethnicity, education, occupation, and wealth affect public policy and voting issues

SS.8.3.D.1.a

Analyze the trade offs of using resources to pursue economic opportunities v. preserving the environment, such as westward movement

SS.8.3.D.1.b

Explain the consequences of modifying the natural environment, such as soil erosion, loss of soil fertility and over-fishing

SS.8.3.D.1.c

Identify and explain land use issues that illustrate the conflict between economic growth and using the environment

SS.8.3.D.1.d

Analyze how land use was managed by the federal government such as the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787

SS.8.4.A.1.a

Describe the opportunity cost of economic decisions by individuals, businesses, and governments in the U.S. through 1877, such as the decision about territorial acquisition

SS.8.4.A.2.a

Compare how scarce resources affected the decisions of consumers and producers in different regions of the United States

SS.8.4.A.2.b

Describe the importance of economic freedom and economic equity on growth in the North and South prior to 1860

SS.8.4.A.2.c

Evaluate socio-economic goals in the North and South after to the Civil War

SS.8.4.A.3.a

Describe the effects of new technology and resource use on economic growth, such as factories, machinery, roads and the telegraph

SS.8.4.A.3.b

Examine why and how technology and production in the industrial North influenced the outcome of the Civil War

SS.8.4.A.4.a

Describe how differences between the agrarian South and the industrial North heightened tensions

SS.8.4.A.4.b

Examine the importance of population growth, specialization and trade to economic development prior to the Civil War

SS.8.4.A.4.c

Describe the economic opportunities and obstacles faced by different individuals and groups of people before and after the Civil War

SS.8.4.B.1.a

Analyze how 19th century societies answered the basic question of what, how, and for whom to produce

SS.8.4.B.1.b

Analyze how the characteristics of a market economy affected the economic development of the 19th century such as the role of entrepreneurs, markets, and competition

SS.8.4.B.2.a

Give examples of how government spending and taxation influenced the U.S economy's ability to grow and provide jobs, such as the expansion of the railroad system

SS.8.4.B.2.b

Explain how the protection of private property rights, regulation of trade, imposition of taxes, and creation of a monetary system are included in the Constitution

SS.8.4.B.2.c

Examine ways in which the government influenced the economy such as spending, taxing and acquisition of territories

SS.8.4.B.3.a

Explain the effects of the boom and bust cycles on economic growth and stability

SS.8.4.B.3.b

Describe the effects of the absence of a national banking system on economic stability, such as the effects of the Panic of 1837

SS.8.5.B.1.a

Explain the political and economic impact of the Louisiana Purchase on the United States

SS.8.5.B.1.b

Evaluate Manifest Destiny and its impact on territorial expansion of the nation

SS.8.5.B.2.a

Explain how the philosophies and policies of the Jacksonian Era represented a move towards greater democratization

SS.8.5.B.2.b

Analyze how tariff policy and issues of states' rights influenced the development of political parties and prompted sectional differences

SS.8.5.B.3.a

Explain the political, economic, and social factors that motivated people to move west

SS.8.5.B.3.b

Describe the government strategies used to acquire territory

SS.8.5.B.3.c

Analyze the impact of westward movement on relations with Native Americans, such as treaty relations, land acquisition and the policy of Indian Removal

SS.8.5.B.4.a

Identify the push and pull factors responsible for immigration to the United States, such as the forced migration of Africans and Western European migration

SS.8.5.B.4.b

Analyze the consequences of the rapid settlement of California and Oregon

SS.8.5.B.5.a

Explain the goals and policies of the various Reconstruction plans

SS.8.5.B.5.b

Explain how the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments addressed the issue of civil rights through abolition, the granting of citizenship, and the right to vote

SS.8.5.B.5.c

Identify the legal and illegal actions used to deny African-Americans civil rights

SS.8.5.B.5.d

Evaluate the social and economic impact of sharecropping, tenant farming and the Freedman's Bureau in the post Civil War South

SS.8.5.C.1.a

Analyze the political effects of the American Revolution on American society and culture

SS.8.5.C.1.b

Describe the evolution of the American system of government from a confederal to a federal system of government

SS.8.5.C.1.c

Describe how unresolved social, economic, and political issues impacted disenfranchised groups

SS.8.5.C.2.a

Explain why the United States adopted a policy of neutrality prior to the War of 1812

SS.8.5.C.2.b

Explain how the continuing conflict between Great Britain and France influenced the domestic and foreign policy of the United States

SS.8.5.C.2.c

Evaluate the origins and provisions of the Monroe Doctrine and explain how it influenced foreign affairs

SS.8.5.C.2.d

Explain causes and effects of the Mexican-American War

SS.8.5.C.3.a

Describe changes in land and water transportation, including the expanding network of roads, canals, and railroads, and their impact on the economy and settlement patterns

SS.8.5.C.3.b

Explain how the cotton gin and the opening of new lands in the South and West impacted the institution of slavery

SS.8.5.C.3.c

Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of early industrialization on the economy and society

SS.8.5.C.4.a

Describe pro-slavery and anti-slavery positions and explain how debates over slavery influenced politics and sectionalism

SS.8.5.C.4.b

Analyze the experiences of African-American slaves, and free blacks

SS.8.5.C.4.c

Compare the relationship of abolitionists to the other reform movements

SS.8.5.C.5.a

Analyze government policies regarding slavery, such as the three-fifths clause, the Missouri Compromise (1820) and the Compromise of 1850

SS.8.5.C.5.b

Analyze the ideological breakdown that resulted from different events and issues, such as Virginia-Kentucky resolutions, the Hartford Convention, nullification/states' rights, political party division, the Dred Scott decision, John Brown raids

SS.8.5.C.5.c

Explain why the 1860 election led to the secession of the southern states

SS.8.5.C.5.d

Identify the goals, resources and strategies of the North and the South

SS.8.5.C.5.e

Describe the political impact of Lincoln's decisions regarding the deployment of black regiments

SS.8.6

Students shall use reading, writing, and thinking processes and skills to gain knowledge and understanding of political, historical, and current events using disciplinary and inquiry literacies.