Idaho State Standards for Social Studies — Grade 9


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9.E.1.4.1

Analyze the impact of events such as wars, industrialization, and technological developments on the business cycle.

9.E.2.4.1

Explain how the factors of production are distributed among geographic regions and how this influences economic growth.

9.E.3.1.1

Define scarcity and explain its implications in decision making

9.E.3.1.2

Identify ways in which the interaction of all buyers and sellers influence prices.

9.E.3.1.3

Identify how incentives determine what is produced and distributed in a competitive market system.

9.E.3.1.4

Describe the factors of production

9.E.3.1.5

Create and interpret graphs that model economic concepts.

9.E.3.2.1

Compare and contrast the characteristics of different economic systems and economic philosophies

9.E.3.2.2

Explain and illustrate the impact of economic policies and decisions made by governments, businesses, and individuals.

9.E.3.3.1

Explain the characteristics of various types of business and market structures.

9.E.3.3.2

Describe the elements of entrepreneurship and successful businesses.

9.E.3.3.3

Identify the role of the financial markets and institutions.

9.E.3.3.4

Explain the purposes of labor unions.

9.E.3.3.5

Explain the difference between monetary policy and fiscal policy.

9.E.3.3.6

Analyze the various parts of the business cycle and its effect on the economy.

9.E.3.4.1

Examine and apply the elements of responsible personal fiscal management, such as budgets, interest, investment, savings, credit, and debt

9.E.3.4.2

Identify and evaluate sources and examples of consumers responsibilities and rights

9.E.3.4.3

Discuss the impact of taxation as applied to personal finances

9.E.4.2.1

Explain the basic functions of government in a mixed economic system

9.E.4.2.2

Identify laws and policies adopted in the United States to regulate competition.

9.E.5.1.1

Describe the involvement of the United States in international economic organizations and treaties, such as GATT, IMF, and the WTO

9.E.5.1.2

Analyze global economic interdependence and competition.

9.E.5.1.3

Apply economic concepts to explain the role of imports/exports both nationally and internationally

9.G.1.1.1

Describe historical milestones that led to the creation of limited government in the United States, such as the Declaration of Independence (1776), Articles of Confederation (1781), state constitutions and charters, United States Constitution (1787), and the Bill of Rights (1791).

9.G.1.1.2

Analyze important events responsible for bringing about political changes in the United States.

9.G.2.5.1

Analyze the impact of geography on the American political system, such as electoral politics and congressional redistricting.

9.G.3.2.1

Analyze the economic impact of government policy.

9.G.4.1.1

Describe the origins of constitutional law in western civilization, including the natural rights philosophy, Magna Carta (1215), common law, and the Bill of Rights (1689) in England.

9.G.4.1.2

Analyze the essential ideals and objectives of the original organizing documents of the United States including the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution and Amendments.

9.G.4.1.3

Explain the central principles of the United States governmental system including written constitution, popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, majority rule with minority rights, and federalism.

9.G.4.2.1

Identify the three branches of federal government, their powers, and responsibilities.

9.G.4.2.2

Explain the functions, powers, interactions, and relationships among federal, state, local, and tribal governments.

9.G.4.2.3

Analyze and explain sovereignty and the treaty/trust relationship the United States has with American Indian tribes with emphasis on Idaho, such as hunting and fishing rights, and land leasing.

9.G.4.2.4

Analyze the role of political parties and other political organizations and their impact on the American system of government.

9.G.4.2.5

Explain the electoral process at each level of government.

9.G.4.2.6

Compare different forms of government, such as presidential with parliamentary, unitary with federal, democracy with dictatorship.

9.G.4.3.1

Explain the ways in which individuals become citizens and distinguish among obligations, responsibilities, and rights.

9.G.4.3.2

Explain the implications of dual citizenship with regard to American Indians.

9.G.4.3.3

Identify the ways in which citizens can participate in the political process at the local, state, and national level.

9.G.4.3.4

Analyze and evaluate decisions about rights of individuals in landmark cases of the United States Supreme Court, including Gideon v. Wainwright, Miranda v. Arizona.

9.G.4.4.1

Analyze the struggles for the extension of civil rights.

9.G.4.4.2

Analyze and evaluate states rights disputes past and present.

9.G.4.4.3

Provide and evaluate examples of the role of leadership in the changing relationship among the branches of American government.

9.G.4.4.4

Discuss how the interpretation and application of the United States Constitution has evolved.

9.G.5.1.1

Discuss the mutual impact of ideas, issues, and policies among nations, including environmental, economic, and humanitarian

9.G.5.1.2

Describe the characteristics of United States foreign policy and how it has been created and implemented over time

9.G.5.1.3

Identify and evaluate the role of the United States in international organizations and agreements, such as the United Nations, NAFTA, and humanitarian organizations

9.GEH.1.8.1

Describe major aspects of the civilizations of the Eastern Hemisphere prior to European contact.

9.GEH.1.8.2

Examine the impact of Europeans on indigenous cultures in the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.1.8.3

Compare various approaches to European colonization in the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.1.8.4

Explain how and why events may be interpreted differently according to the points of view of participants and observers.

9.GEH.1.8.5

Describe the historical origins, central beliefs, and spread of major religions, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

9.GEH.2.1.1

Explain and use the components of maps, compare different map projections, and explain the appropriate uses for each.

9.GEH.2.1.2

Apply latitude and longitude to locate places on Earth and describe the uses of technology, such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

9.GEH.2.1.3

Use mental maps to answer geographic questions.

9.GEH.2.1.4

Analyze visual and mathematical data presented in charts, tables, graphs, maps, and other graphic organizers to assist in interpreting a historical event.

9.GEH.2.2.1

Explain how Earth/sun relationships, ocean currents, and winds influence climate differences on Earth.

9.GEH.2.2.2

Locate, map, and describe the climate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere and their impact on human activity and living conditions

9.GEH.2.2.3

Identify major biomes and explain ways in which the natural environment of places in the Eastern Hemisphere relates to their climate.

9.GEH.2.2.4

Explain how physical processes have shaped Earths surface. Classify these processes according to those that have built up Earths surface (mountain-building and alluvial deposition) and those that wear away at Earths surface (erosion).

9.GEH.2.2.5

Analyze and give examples of the consequences of human impact on the physical environment and evaluate ways in which technology influences human capacity to modify the physical environment.

9.GEH.2.3.1

Identify the names and locations of countries and major cities in the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.2.3.2

Describe major physical characteristics of regions in the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.2.3.3

Identify patterns of population distribution and growth in the Eastern Hemisphere and explain changes in these patterns, which have occurred over time

9.GEH.2.4.1

Use maps, charts, and graphs to compare rural and urban populations in selected countries in the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.2.4.2

Compare and contrast cultural patterns in the Eastern Hemisphere, such as language, religion, and ethnicity.

9.GEH.2.4.3

Analyze the locations of the major manufacturing and agricultural regions of the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.2.5.1

Analyze the distribution of natural resources in the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.2.5.2

Give examples of how both natural and technological hazards have impacted the physical environment and human populations in specific areas of the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.2.5.3

Give examples of how land forms and water, climate, and natural vegetation have influenced historical trends and developments in the Eastern Hemisphere

9.GEH.2.5.4

Identify contrasting perspectives of environmental issues that affect the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.2.5.5

Explain how human-induced changes in the physical environment in one place can cause changes in another place, such as acid rain, air and water pollution, deforestation.

9.GEH.3.1.1

Define scarcity and its impact on decision making such as trade and settlement.

9.GEH.3.2.1

Describe how different economic systems in the Eastern Hemisphere answer the basic economic questions on what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.

9.GEH.3.2.2

Compare the standard of living of various countries of the Eastern Hemisphere today using Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita as an indicator.

9.GEH.3.2.3

Analyze current economic issues in the countries of the Eastern Hemisphere using a variety of information resources.

9.GEH.3.2.4

Identify economic connections between a local community and the countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.3.2.5

Identify specific areas of the Eastern Hemisphere with important natural resource deposits.

9.GEH.3.2.6

Investigate how physical geography, productive resources, specialization, and trade have influenced the way people earn income.

9.GEH.4.5.1

Identify the major forms of government in the Eastern Hemisphere and compare them with the United States.

9.GEH.4.5.2

Give examples of the different routes to independence from colonial rule taken by countries.

9.GEH.5.1

Build an understanding of multiple perspectives and global interdependence.

9.GEH.5.1.1

Discuss how social institutions, including the family, religion, and education, influence behavior in different societies in the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.5.1.2

Give examples of how language, literature, and the arts shaped the development and transmission of culture in the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.5.1.3

Define ethnocentrism and give examples of how this attitude can lead to cultural misunderstandings.

9.GEH.5.1.4

Discuss present conflicts between cultural groups and nation-states in the Eastern Hemisphere.

9.GEH.5.1.5

Give examples of the benefits of global connections, such as developing opportunities for trade, cooperating in seeking solutions to mutual problems, learning for technological advances, acquiring new perspectives, and benefiting from developments in architecture, music, and the arts.

9.GEH.5.1.6

issues, such as the expansion of global markets, the urbanization of the developing world, the consumption of natural resources, and the extinction of species, and speculate possible responses by various individuals, groups, and nations.

9.Goal 1.1

Build an understanding of the cultural and social development of the United States.

9.Goal 1.2

Trace the role of migration and immigration of people in the development of the United States.

9.Goal 1.3

Identify the role of American Indians in the development of the United States.

9.Goal 1.4

Analyze the political, social, and economic responses to industrialization and technological innovations in the development of the United States.

9.Goal 1.5

Trace the role of exploration and expansion in the development of the United States.

9.Goal 1.6

Explain the rise of human civilization.

9.Goal 1.7

Trace how natural resources and technological advances have shaped human civilization.

9.Goal 1.8

Build an understanding of the cultural and social development of human civilization.

9.Goal 1.9

Identify the role of religion in the development of human civilization.

9.Goal 2.1

Analyze the spatial organizations of people, places, and environment on the earths surface.

9.Goal 2.2

Explain how human actions modify the physical environment and how physical systems affect human activity and living conditions.

9.Goal 2.3

Trace the migration and settlement of human populations on the earths surface.

9.Goal 2.4

Analyze the human and physical characteristics of different places and regions.

9.Goal 2.5

Explain how geography enables people to comprehend the relationships between people, places, and environments over time.

9.Goal 2.5:

Explain how geography enables people to comprehend the relationships between people, places, and environments over time.

9.Goal 3.1

Explain basic economic concepts.

9.Goal 3.2

Identify different influences on economic systems.

9.Goal 3.3

Analyze the different types of economic institutions.

9.Goal 3.4

Explain the concepts of good personal finance.

9.Goal 4.1

Build an understanding of the foundational principles of the American political system.

9.Goal 4.2

Build an understanding of the organization and formation of the American system of government.

9.Goal 4.3

Build an understanding that all people in the United States have rights and assume responsibilities.

9.Goal 4.4

Build an understanding of the evolution of democracy.

9.Goal 4.5

Build an understanding of comparative government.

9.Goal 5.1

Build an understanding of multiple perspectives and global interdependence.

9.GWH.1.8.1

Describe major aspects of the civilizations of the Western Hemisphere prior to European contact, such as Mesoamerica.

9.GWH.1.8.2

Examine the impact of Europeans on indigenous cultures in the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.1.8.3

Compare various approaches to European colonization in the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.1.8.4

Explain how and why events may be interpreted differently according to the points of view of participants and observers.

9.GWH.2.1.1

Explain and use the components of maps, compare different map projections, and explain the appropriate uses for each.

9.GWH.2.1.2

Apply latitude and longitude to locate places on Earth and describe the uses of technology, such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

9.GWH.2.1.3

Use mental maps to answer geographic questions.

9.GWH.2.1.4

Analyze visual and mathematical data presented in charts, tables, graphs, maps, and other graphic organizers to assist in interpreting a historical event.

9.GWH.2.2.1

Explain how Earth/sun relationships, ocean currents, and winds influence climate differences on Earth

9.GWH.2.2.2

Locate, map, and describe the climate regions of the Western Hemisphere and their impact on human activity and living conditions.

9.GWH.2.2.3

Identify major biomes and explain ways in which the natural environment of places in the Western Hemisphere relates to their climate.

9.GWH.2.2.4

Analyze and give examples of the consequences of human impact on the physical environment and evaluate ways in which technology influences human capacity to modify the physical environment.

9.GWH.2.3.1

Identify the names and locations of countries and major cities in the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.2.3.2

Describe major physical characteristics of regions in the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.2.3.3

Identify patterns of population distribution and growth in the Western Hemisphere and explain changes in these patterns which have occurred over time.

9.GWH.2.4.1

Describe major cultural characteristics of regions in the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.2.4.2

Compare and contrast cultural patterns in the Western Hemisphere, such as language, religion, and ethnicity.

9.GWH.2.4.3

Analyze the locations of the major manufacturing and agricultural regions of the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.2.5.1

Analyze the distribution of natural resources in the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.2.5.2

Give examples of how both natural and technological hazards have impacted the physical environment and human populations in specific areas of the Western Hemisphere

9.GWH.2.5.3

Give examples of how land forms and water, climate, and natural vegetation have influenced historical trends and developments in the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.2.5.4

Identify contrasting perspectives of environmental issues that affect the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.2.5.5

Explain how human-induced changes in the physical environment in one place can cause changes in another place such as acid rain, deforestation, air and water pollution

9.GWH.3.1.1

Define scarcity and its impact on decision making such as trade and settlement.

9.GWH.3.2.1

Describe how different economic systems in the Western Hemisphere answer the basic economic questions on what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.

9.GWH.3.2.2

Compare the standard of living of various countries of the Western Hemisphere today using Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita as an indicator.

9.GWH.3.2.3

Analyze current economic issues in the countries of the Western Hemisphere using a variety of information resources.

9.GWH.3.2.4

Identify economic connections between a local community and the countries of the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.4.5.1

Identify the major forms of government in the Western Hemisphere and compare them with the United States.

9.GWH.5.1.1

Discuss how social institutions, including family, religion, and education, influence behavior in different societies in the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.5.1.2

Give examples of how language, literature, and the arts shaped the development and transmission of culture in the Western Hemisphere.

9.GWH.5.1.3

Define ethnocentrism and give examples of how this attitude can lead to cultural misunderstandings.

9.GWH.5.1.4

Discuss present conflicts between cultural groups and nationstates in the Western Hemisphere.

9.USH1.1.1.1

Compare and contrast the different cultural and social influences that emerged in the North American colonies.

9.USH1.1.1.2

Describe the experiences of culturally, ethnically, and racially different groups existing as part of American society prior to the Civil War.

9.USH1.1.1.3

Analyze the common traits, beliefs, and characteristics that unite the United States as a nation and a society.

9.USH1.1.1.4

Discuss the causes and effects of various compromises and conflicts in American history such as the American Revolution, Civil War and Reconstruction

9.USH1.1.1.5

Compare and contrast early cultures and settlements that existed in North America prior to European contact.

9.USH1.1.2.1

Analyze the religious, political, and economic motives of European immigrants who came to North America.

9.USH1.1.2.2

Explain the motives and consequences for slavery and other forms of involuntary immigration to North America

9.USH1.1.2.3

Analyze the concept of Manifest Destiny and its impact on American Indians and the development of the United States.

9.USH1.1.3.1

Trace federal policies and treaties such as removal, reservations, and allotment throughout history that have impacted contemporary American Indians.

9.USH1.1.3.2

Explain how and why events may be interpreted differently according to the points of view of participants and observers.

9.USH1.1.3.3

Discuss the resistance of American Indians to assimilation

9.USH1.1.4.1

Explain the consequences of scientific and technological inventions and changes on the social and economic lives of the people in the development the United States.

9.USH1.1.4.2

Explain how the development of various modes of transportation increased economic prosperity and promoted national unity

9.USH1.1.5.1

Examine the development of diverse cultures in what is now the United States.

9.USH1.1.5.2

Identify significant countries and their roles and motives in the European exploration of the Americas.

9.USH1.1.5.3

Describe and analyze the interactions between native peoples and the European explorers

9.USH1.1.5.4

Summarize the major events in the European settlement of North America from Jamestown to the end of the 18th century.

9.USH1.1.5.5

Identify the United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861 and explain internal and external conflicts.

9.USH1.2.1.1

Develop and interpret different kinds of maps, globes, graphs, charts, databases and models.

9.USH1.2.2.1

Analyze ways in which the physical environment affected political and economic development

9.USH1.2.3.1

Describe Pre-Colombian migration to the Americas.

9.USH1.2.3.2

Illustrate westward migration across North America.

9.USH1.3.1.1

Describe the economic characteristics of mercantilism.

9.USH1.3.1.2

Compare the economic development of the North with the South.

9.USH1.3.2.1

Describe the emergence and evolution of a market economy.

9.USH1.3.2.2

Analyze the role of government policy in the early economic development of the United States

9.USH1.3.3.1

Evaluate the role of financial institutions in the economic development of the United States.

9.USH1.4.1.1

Trace the development of constitutional democracy in the United States, such as the Mayflower Compact, colonial assemblies, Bacons Rebellion

9.USH1.4.1.2

Identify fundamental values and principles as expressed in basic documents such as the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution.

9.USH1.4.1.3

Evaluate issues in which fundamental values and principles are in conflict, such as between liberty and equality, individual interests and the common good, and majority rule and minority protections.

9.USH1.4.2.1

Explain how the executive, legislative, and judicial powers are distributed and shared among the three branches of national government.

9.USH1.4.2.2

Explain how and why powers are distributed and shared between national and state governments in a federal system.

9.USH1.4.3.1

Provide and evaluate examples of social and political leadership in early American history

9.USH1.4.3.2

Describe ways in which citizens participated in early American public life.

9.USH1.4.4.1

Describe the role of gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and national origin on the development of individual/political rights.

9.USH1.5.1.1

Explain the significance of principle policies and events in the United States relations with the world, such as the War of 1812, Monroe Doctrine, and Mexican and Spanish American Wars.

9.USH1.5.1.2

Evaluate the major foreign policy positions that have characterized the United States relations with the world, such as isolationism and imperialism.

9.USH1.5.1.3

Analyze how national interest shapes foreign policy.

9.USH2.1.1.1

Analyze ways in which language, literature, the arts, traditions, beliefs, values and behavior patterns of diverse cultures have enriched American society.

9.USH2.1.1.2

Discuss the causes and effects of various compromises and conflicts in American history.

9.USH2.1.1.3

Analyze significant movements for social change.

9.USH2.1.2.1

Identify motives for continued immigration to the United States.

9.USH2.1.2.2

Analyze the changes in the political, social, and economic conditions of immigrant groups

9.USH2.1.2.3

Discuss the causes and effects of 20 century migration and settlement patterns.

9.USH2.1.3.1

Trace federal policies such as Indian citizenship, Indian Reorganization Act, Termination, AIM, and self determination throughout history that have impacted contemporary American Indians

9.USH2.1.3.2

Discuss the resistance of American Indians to assimilation.

9.USH2.1.3.3

Explain the influences of American Indians to the history and culture of the United States.

9.USH2.1.4.1

Explain the factors that contributed to the rise of industrialization in the 19 century.

9.USH2.1.4.2

Describe the economic responses to industrialization and the emergence of the American labor movement.

9.USH2.1.4.3

Analyze the political and social responses to industrialization.

9.USH2.1.4.4

Identify and analyze the causes of the Great Depression and its effects upon American society.

9.USH2.1.4.5

Account for and define the shift from the industrial society at the beginning of the 20th century to the technological society at the end of the 20th century

9.USH2.1.5.1

Describe the factors that contributed to the expansion of the United States.

9.USH2.2.1.1

Develop and interpret different kinds of maps, globes, graphs, charts, databases and models.

9.USH2.2.2.1

Analyze ways in which the physical environment affected political and economic development.

9.USH2.3.1.1

Describe the emergence of the modern corporation.

9.USH2.3.1.2

Describe the development of a consumer economy.

9.USH2.3.1.3

Analyze the role of the modern United States in the global economy.

9.USH2.3.2.1

Analyze the role of government policy in the economic development of the modern United States.

9.USH2.3.3.1

Evaluate the role of financial institutions in the economic development of the United States.

9.USH2.3.4.1

Analyze how economic conditions affect personal finance.

9.USH2.4.2.1

Analyze the relationship between the three federal branches of government.

9.USH2.4.3.1

Identify the impact of landmark United States Supreme Court cases, including Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

9.USH2.4.3.2

Provide and evaluate examples of social and political leadership in American history.

9.USH2.4.4.1

Trace the development and expansion of political, civil, and economic rights.

9.USH2.5.1.1

Compare competing belief systems of the 20th century, including communism, totalitarianism, isolationism, and internationalism.

9.USH2.5.1.2

Trace the major foreign policy positions that have characterized the United States relations with the world in the 20th century.

9.USH2.5.1.3

Explain the significance of principal events in the United States relations with the world, such as World Wars I and II, formation of the United Nations, Marshall Plan, NATO, Korean and Vietnam Wars, end of the Cold War, and interventions in Latin America and the Middle East.

9.USH2.5.1.4

Explain how and why the United States assumed the role of world leader after World War II and analyze its leadership role in the world today.

9.WHC.1.6.1

Describe types of evidence used by anthropologists, archaeologists, and other scholars to reconstruct early human and cultural development.

9.WHC.1.6.2

Describe the characteristics of early hunter-gatherer communities.

9.WHC.1.6.3

Analyze the characteristics of early civilizations.

9.WHC.1.7.1

Explain how man adapted the environment for civilization to develop.

9.WHC.1.7.2

Identify the technological advances developed by Ancient, Greco Roman, Middle Ages, Early-Modern, and Modern European societies and civilizations.

9.WHC.1.8.1

Find examples of how writing, art, architecture, mathematics, and science have evolved in western civilization over time

9.WHC.1.8.2

Identify the origins and characteristics of different social classes.

9.WHC.1.8.3

Describe how the structure of family changes in relation to socioeconomic conditions.

9.WHC.1.9.1

Explain the relationship between religion and the peoples understanding of the natural world.

9.WHC.1.9.2

Explain how religion shaped the development of western civilization.

9.WHC.1.9.3

Discuss how religion influenced social behavior and created social order

9.WHC.1.9.4

Describe why different religious beliefs were sources of conflict.

9.WHC.2.1.1

Develop and interpret different kinds of maps, globes, graphs, charts, databases and models.

9.WHC.2.3.1 I

Identify main reasons for major migrations of people.

9.WHC.2.3.2

Explain how climate affects human migration and settlement.

9.WHC.2.3.3

Describe how physical features such as mountain ranges, fertile plains, and rivers led to the development of cultural regions.

9.WHC.2.3.4

Explain how transportation routes stimulate growth of cities and the exchange of goods, knowledge, and technology.

9.WHC.2.4.1

Explain the impact of waterways on civilizations.

9.WHC.2.5.1

Explain how the resources of an area can be the source of conflict between competing groups.

9.WHC.2.5.2

Illustrate how the population growth rate impacts a nation's resources.

9.WHC.2.5.3

Explain how rapid growth of cities can lead to economic, social, and political problems

9.WHC.2.5.4

Describe how the conservation of resources is necessary to maintain a healthy environment.

9.WHC.3.1.1

Explain how historically people have relied on their natural resources to meet their needs.

9.WHC.3.1.2

List examples that show how economic opportunity and a higher standard of living are important factors in the migration of people.

9.WHC.3.1.3

Analyze the role of money as a means of exchange.

9.WHC.3.1.4

Describe alternative means of exchange.

9.WHC.3.2.1

Analyze the impact of economic growth on European society.

9.WHC.3.2.2

Trace the evolution of hunting-gathering, agrarian, industrial and technological economic systems.

9.WHC.3.2.3

Identify influential economic thinkers and the impact of their philosophies.

9.WHC.3.2.4

Identify important economic organizations that have influenced economic growth.

9.WHC.4.4.1

Describe the role of government in population movements throughout western civilization.

9.WHC.4.4.2

Analyze the various political influences which shaped western civilization including the City-State, Monarchy, Republic, Nation-State, and Democracy.

9.WHC.4.4.3

Analyze and evaluate the global expansion of liberty and democracy through revolution and reform movements in challenging authoritarian or despotic regimes.

9.WHC.5.1.1

Explain common reasons and consequences for the breakdown of order among nation-states, such as conflicts about national interests, ethnicity, and religion; competition for resources and territory; the absence of effective means to enforce international law.

9.WHC.5.1.2

Explain the global consequences of major conflicts in the 20th century, such as World War I; World War II, including the Holocaust; and the Cold War.

9.WHC.5.1.3

Evaluate why peoples unite for political, economic, and humanitarian reasons.