History and Social Science Standards of Learning for Virginia — Grade 11


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CE.1

The student will develop the social studies skills responsible citizenship requires, including the ability to

CE.1.a

examine and interpret primary and secondary source documents;

CE.1.b

create and explain maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;

CE.1.c

analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media;

CE.1.d

distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information;

CE.1.e

review information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion;

CE.1.f

identify a problem, weigh the expected costs and benefits and possible consequences of proposed solutions, and recommend solutions, using a decision-making model;

CE.1.g

formulate an informed, carefully reasoned position on a community issue;

CE.1.h

select and defend positions in writing, discussion, and debate.

CE.10

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the judicial systems established by the Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of the United States by

CE.10.a

describing the organization of the United States judicial system as consisting of state and federal courts with original and appellate jurisdiction;

CE.10.b

describing the exercise of judicial review;

CE.10.c

comparing and contrasting civil and criminal cases;

CE.10.d

explaining how due process protections seek to ensure justice.

CE.11

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how economic decisions are made in the marketplace by

CE.11.a

applying the concepts of scarcity, resources, choice, opportunity cost, price, incentives, supply and demand, production, and consumption;

CE.11.b

comparing the differences among traditional, free market, command, and mixed economies;

CE.11.c

describing the characteristics of the United States economy, including limited government, private property, profit, and competition.

CE.12

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the structure and operation of the United States economy by

CE.12.a

describing the types of business organizations and the role of entrepreneurship;

CE.12.b

explaining the circular flow that shows how consumers (households), businesses (producers), and markets interact;

CE.12.c

explaining how financial institutions channel funds from savers to borrowers;

CE.12.d

examining the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy, with emphasis on the impact of technological innovations.

CE.13

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of government in the United States economy by

CE.13.a

examining competition in the marketplace;

CE.13.b

explaining how government provides certain goods and services;

CE.13.c

describing the impact of taxation, including an understanding of the reasons for the 16th Amendment, spending, and borrowing;

CE.13.d

explaining how the Federal Reserve System acts as the nations central bank;

CE.13.e

describing the protection of consumer rights and property rights;

CE.13.f

recognizing that government creates currency and coins and that there are additional forms of money.

CE.14

The student will demonstrate knowledge of personal finance and career opportunities by

CE.14.a

identifying talents, interests, and aspirations that influence career choice;

CE.14.b

identifying attitudes and behaviors that strengthen the individual work ethic and promote career success;

CE.14.c

identifying abilities, skills, and education and the changing supply and demand for them in the economy;

CE.14.d

examining the impact of technological change and globalization on career opportunities;

CE.14.e

describing the importance of education to lifelong personal finances;

CE.14.f

examining the financial responsibilities of citizenship, including evaluating common forms of credit, savings, investments, purchases, contractual agreements, warranties, and guarantees.

CE.2

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the foundations of American constitutional government by

CE.2.a

explaining the fundamental principles of consent of the governed, limited government, rule of law, democracy, and representative government;

CE.2.b

explaining the significance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London, the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and the Constitution of the United States, including the Bill of Rights;

CE.2.c

identifying the purposes for the Constitution of the United States as stated in its Preamble;

CE.2.d

identifying the procedures for amending the Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of the United States.

CE.3

The student will demonstrate knowledge of citizenship and the rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizens by

CE.3.a

describing the processes by which an individual becomes a citizen of the United States;

CE.3.b

describing the First Amendment freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition, and the rights guaranteed by due process and equal protection of the laws;

CE.3.c

describing the duties of citizenship, including obeying the laws, paying taxes, defending the nation, and serving in court;

CE.3.d

examining the responsibilities of citizenship, including registering and voting, communicating with government officials, participating in political campaigns, keeping informed about current issues, and respecting differing opinions in a diverse society;

CE.3.e

evaluating how civic and social duties address community needs and serve the public good.

CE.4

The student will demonstrate knowledge of personal character traits that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life by

CE.4.a

practicing trustworthiness and honesty;

CE.4.b

practicing courtesy and respect for the rights of others;

CE.4.c

practicing responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance;

CE.4.d

practicing respect for the law;

CE.4.e

practicing patriotism;

CE.4.f

practicing decision making;

CE.4.g

practicing service to the school and/or local community.

CE.5

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political process at the local, state, and national levels of government by

CE.5.a

describing the functions of political parties;

CE.5.b

comparing the similarities and differences of political parties;

CE.5.c

analyzing campaigns for elective office, with emphasis on the role of the media;

CE.5.d

examining the role of campaign contributions and costs;

CE.5.e

describing voter registration and participation;

CE.5.f

describing the role of the Electoral College in the election of the president and vice president;

CE.5.g

participating in simulated local, state, and/or national elections.

CE.6

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the American constitutional government at the national level by

CE.6.a

describing the structure and powers of the national government;

CE.6.b

explaining the principle of separation of powers and the operation of checks and balances;

CE.6.c

explaining and/or simulating the lawmaking process;

CE.6.d

describing the roles and powers of the executive branch.

CE.7

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the American constitutional government at the state level by

CE.7.a

describing the structure and powers of the state government;

CE.7.b

explaining the relationship of state governments to the national government in the federal system;

CE.7.c

explaining and/or simulating the lawmaking process;

CE.7.d

describing the roles and powers of the executive branch and regulatory boards.

CE.8

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the American constitutional government at the local level by

CE.8.a

describing the structure and powers of the local government;

CE.8.b

explaining the relationship of local government to the state government;

CE.8.c

explaining and/or simulating the lawmaking process.

CE.9

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how public policy is made at the local, state, and national levels of government by

CE.9.a

examining the impact of the media on public opinion and public policy;

CE.9.b

describing how individuals and interest groups influence public policy;

CE.9.c

describing the impact of international issues and events on local decision making.

GOVT.1

The student will demonstrate mastery of the social studies skills responsible citizenship requires, including the ability to

GOVT.1.a

analyze primary and secondary source documents;

GOVT.1.b

create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;

GOVT.1.c

analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media;

GOVT.1.d

distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information;

GOVT.1.e

evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion;

GOVT.1.f

identify a problem, weigh the expected costs and benefits and possible consequences of proposed solutions, and recommend solutions, using a decision-making model;

GOVT.1.g

select and defend positions in writing, discussion, and debate.

GOVT.10

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the operation of the federal judiciary by

GOVT.10.a

describing the organization, jurisdiction, and proceedings of federal courts;

GOVT.10.b

examining how John Marshall established the Supreme Court as an independent, co-equal branch of government through his opinion in Marbury v. Madison;

GOVT.10.c

describing how the Supreme Court decides cases;

GOVT.10.d

comparing the philosophies of judicial activism and judicial restraint;

GOVT.10.e

evaluating how the judiciary influences public policy by delineating the power of government and safeguarding the rights of the individual.

GOVT.11

The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights by

GOVT.11.a

examining the Bill of Rights, with emphasis on First Amendment freedoms;

GOVT.11.b

analyzing due process of law expressed in the 5th and 14th Amendments;

GOVT.11.c

explaining selective incorporation of the Bill of Rights;

GOVT.11.d

exploring the balance between individual liberties and the public interest;

GOVT.11.e

explaining every citizens right to be treated equally under the law.

GOVT.12

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of the United States in a changing world by

GOVT.12.a

describing the responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security;

GOVT.12.b

assessing the role played by national interest in shaping foreign policy and promoting world peace;

GOVT.12.c

examining the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy;

GOVT.12.d

examining recent foreign policy and international trade initiatives since 1980.

GOVT.13

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how governments and economies in Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the Peoples Republic of China compare with the government and the economy in the United States by

GOVT.13.a

describing the distribution of governmental power;

GOVT.13.b

explaining the relationship between the legislative and executive branches;

GOVT.13.c

comparing the extent of participation in the political process;

GOVT.13.d

comparing the degrees of government involvement in the economies.

GOVT.14

The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic systems by

GOVT.14.a

identifying the basic economic questions encountered by all economic systems;

GOVT.14.b

comparing the characteristics of traditional, free market, command, and mixed economies, as described by Adam Smith and Karl Marx;

GOVT.14.c

evaluating the impact of the governments role in the economy on individual economic freedoms;

GOVT.14.d

explaining the relationship between economic freedom and political freedom;

GOVT.14.e

examining productivity and the standard of living as measured by key economic indicators.

GOVT.15

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the United States market economy by

GOVT.15.a

assessing the importance of entrepreneurship, the profit motive, and economic independence to the promotion of economic growth;

GOVT.15.b

comparing types of business organizations;

GOVT.15.c

describing the factors of production;

GOVT.15.d

explaining the interaction of supply and demand;

GOVT.15.e

illustrating the circular flow of economic activity;

GOVT.15.f

analyzing global economic trends and the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy.

GOVT.16

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of government in the Virginia and United States economies by

GOVT.16.a

analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the economy;

GOVT.16.b

describing the creation of government-provided goods and services that are not readily produced by the market;

GOVT.16.c

examining environmental issues, property rights, contracts, consumer rights, labor management relations, and competition in the marketplace;

GOVT.16.d

understanding the types and purposes of taxation.

GOVT.17

The student will demonstrate knowledge of personal character traits that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life by

GOVT.17.a

practicing trustworthiness and honesty;

GOVT.17.b

practicing courtesy and respect for the rights of others;

GOVT.17.c

practicing responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance;

GOVT.17.d

practicing respect for the law;

GOVT.17.e

practicing patriotism;

GOVT.17.f

practicing financial responsibility.

GOVT.18

The student will understand that thoughtful and effective participation in civic life is characterized by

GOVT.18.a

obeying the law and paying taxes;

GOVT.18.c

participating in the political process;

GOVT.18.d

performing public service;

GOVT.18.e

keeping informed about current issues;

GOVT.18.f

respecting differing opinions in a diverse society;

GOVT.18.g

practicing personal and fiscal responsibility.

GOVT.19

The student will explain the meaning of citizenship in the United States and how it relates to American civic life by

GOVT.19.a

explaining how citizenship confers full membership in the American constitutional system;

GOVT.19.b

recognizing that American citizenship is defined by shared political and civic beliefs and values;

GOVT.19.c

describing how Americans are citizens of their locality, state, and nation;

GOVT.19.d

recognizing that non citizens can become citizens.

GOVT.2

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of Virginia and United States constitutional government by

GOVT.2.a

describing the development of Athenian democracy and the Roman republic;

GOVT.2.b

explaining the influence of the Magna Carta, the English Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights;

GOVT.2.c

examining the writings of Hobbes, Locke, and Montesquieu;

GOVT.2.d

explaining the guarantee of the rights of Englishmen set forth in the charters of the Virginia Company of London;

GOVT.2.e

analyzing the natural rights philosophies expressed in the Declaration of Independence;

GOVT.2.f

examining George Masons Virginia Declaration of Rights, Thomas Jeffersons Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and James Madisons leadership role in securing adoption of the Bill of Rights by the First Congress.

GOVT.3

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the concepts of democracy by

GOVT.3.a

recognizing the fundamental worth and dignity of the individual;

GOVT.3.b

recognizing the equality of all citizens under the law;

GOVT.3.c

recognizing majority rule and minority rights;

GOVT.3.d

recognizing the necessity of compromise;

GOVT.3.e

recognizing the freedom of the individual.

GOVT.4

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Constitution of the United States by

GOVT.4.a

examining the ratification debates and The Federalist;

GOVT.4.b

identifying the purposes for government stated in the Preamble;

GOVT.4.c

examining the fundamental principles upon which the Constitution of the United States is based, including the rule of law, consent of the governed, limited government, separation of powers, and federalism;

GOVT.4.d

illustrating the structure of the national government outlined in Article I, Article II, and Article III;

GOVT.4.e

describing the amendment process.

GOVT.5

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the federal system described in the Constitution of the United States by

GOVT.5.a

explaining the relationship of the state governments to the national government;

GOVT.5.b

describing the extent to which power is shared;

GOVT.5.c

identifying the powers denied state and national governments;

GOVT.5.d

examining the ongoing debate that focuses on the balance of power between state and national governments.

GOVT.6

The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections by

GOVT.6.a

describing the organization, role, and constituencies of political parties;

GOVT.6.b

describing the nomination and election process;

GOVT.6.c

examining campaign funding and spending;

GOVT.6.d

analyzing the influence of media coverage, campaign advertising, public opinion polls, and Internet-based communications on elections;

GOVT.6.e

examining the impact of reapportionment and redistricting on elections;

GOVT.6.f

identifying how amendments extend the right to vote;

GOVT.6.g

analyzing voter turnout;

GOVT.6.h

evaluating the degree to which interest groups influence political life;

GOVT.6.i

participating in simulations of local, state, and/or national elections.

GOVT.7

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the national government by

GOVT.7.a

examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;

GOVT.7.b

analyzing the relationships among the three branches in a system of checks and balances;

GOVT.7.c

examining the ways individuals and groups exert influence on the national government.

GOVT.8

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by

GOVT.8.a

examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;

GOVT.8.b

examining the structure and powers of local governments: county, city, and town;

GOVT.8.c

analyzing the relationship between state and local governments and the roles of regional authorities, governing boards, and commissions;

GOVT.8.d

examining the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and local governments;

GOVT.8.e

evaluating the effectiveness of citizen efforts to influence decisions of state and local governments by examining historical or contemporary events.

GOVT.9

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the process by which public policy is made by

GOVT.9.a

examining different perspectives on the role of government;

GOVT.9.b

describing how the national government influences the public agenda and shapes public policy;

GOVT.9.c

describing how the state and local governments influence the public agenda and shape public policy;

GOVT.9.d

describing the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level;

GOVT.9.e

analyzing how individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy;

GOVT.9.f

formulating and practicing a course of action to address local and/or state issues.

USI.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to

USI.1.a

identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1865;

USI.1.b

make connections between the past and the present;

USI.1.c

sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1865;

USI.1.d

interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;

USI.1.e

evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing;

USI.1.f

analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events;

USI.1.g

distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude;

USI.1.h

interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents;

USI.1.i

identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives.

USI.2

The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, or tables to

USI.2.a

locate the seven continents and five oceans;

USI.2.b

locate and describe the location of the geographic regions of North America: Coastal Plain, Appalachian Mountains, Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Basin and Range, and Coastal Range;

USI.2.c

locate and identify the water features important to the early history of the United States: Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Missouri River, Ohio River, Columbia River, Colorado River, Rio Grande, St. Lawrence River, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico;

USI.2.d

recognize key geographic features on maps, diagrams, and/or photographs.

USI.3

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in North America by

USI.3.a

describing how archaeologists have recovered material evidence of ancient settlements, including Cactus Hill in Virginia.

USI.3.b

locating where the American Indians lived, with emphasis on the Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plains (Lakota), Southwest (Pueblo), and Eastern Woodlands (Iroquois);

USI.3.c

describing how the American Indians used the resources in their environment.

USI.4

The student will demonstrate knowledge of European exploration in North America and West Africa by

USI.4.a

describing the motivations for, obstacles to, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English explorations;

USI.4.b

describing cultural and economic interactions between Europeans and American Indians that led to cooperation and conflict, with emphasis on the American Indian concept of land;

USI.4.c

identifying the location and describing the characteristics of West African societies (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai) and their interactions with traders.

USI.5

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by

USI.5.a

describing the religious and economic events and conditions that led to the colonization of America;

USI.5.b

describing life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies, with emphasis on how people interacted with their environment to produce goods and services, including examples of specialization and interdependence;

USI.5.c

describing colonial life in America from the perspectives of large landowners, farmers, artisans, women, free African Americans, indentured servants, and enslaved African Americans;

USI.5.d

identifying the political and economic relationships between the colonies and Great Britain.

USI.6

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes and results of the American Revolution by

USI.6.a

identifying the issues of dissatisfaction that led to the American Revolution;

USI.6.b

identifying how political ideas shaped the revolutionary movement in America and led to the Declaration of Independence;

USI.6.c

describing key events and the roles of key individuals in the American Revolution, with emphasis on George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry;

USI.6.d

explaining reasons why the colonies were able to defeat Great Britain.

USI.7

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the challenges faced by the new nation by

USI.7.a

identifying the weaknesses of the government established by the Articles of Confederation;

USI.7.b

describing the historical development of the Constitution of the United States;

USI.7.c

describing the major accomplishments of the first five presidents of the United States.

USI.8

The student will demonstrate knowledge of westward expansion and reform in America from 1801 to 1861 by

USI.8.a

describing territorial expansion and how it affected the political map of the United States, with emphasis on the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the acquisitions of Florida, Texas, Oregon, and California;

USI.8.b

identifying the geographic and economic factors that influenced the westward movement of settlers;

USI.8.c

describing the impact of inventions, including the cotton gin, the reaper, the steamboat, and the steam locomotive, on life in America;

USI.8.d

identifying the main ideas of the abolitionist and womens suffrage movements.

USI.9

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by

USI.9.a

describing the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues that divided the nation;

USI.9.b

explaining how the issues of states rights and slavery increased sectional tensions;

USI.9.c

identifying on a map the states that seceded from the Union and those that remained in the Union;

USI.9.d

describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Stonewall Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the war;

USI.9.e

using maps to explain critical developments in the war, including major battles;

USI.9.f

describing the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including African American soldiers), women, and enslaved African Americans.

USII.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to

USII.1.a

analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history from 1865 to the present;

USII.1.b

make connections between the past and the present;

USII.1.c

sequence events in United States history from 1865 to the present;

USII.1.d

interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;

USII.1.e

evaluate and debate issues orally and in writing;

USII.1.f

analyze and interpret maps that include major physical features;

USII.1.g

use parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude to describe hemispheric location;

USII.1.h

interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents;

USII.1.i

identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives.

USII.2

The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, or tables for

USII.2.a

explaining how physical features and climate influenced the movement of people westward;

USII.2.b

explaining relationships among natural resources, transportation, and industrial development after 1865;

USII.2.c

locating the 50 states and the cities most significant to the historical development of the United States.

USII.3

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of Reconstruction on American life by

USII.3.a

analyzing the impact of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States;

USII.3.b

describing the impact of Reconstruction policies on the South and North;

USII.3.c

describing the legacies of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.

USII.4

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how life changed after the Civil War by

USII.4.a

identifying the reasons for westward expansion, including its impact on American Indians;

USII.4.b

explaining the reasons for the increase in immigration, growth of cities, new inventions, and challenges arising from this expansion;

USII.4.c

describing racial segregation, the rise of Jim Crow, and other constraints faced by African Americans and other groups in the post-Reconstruction South;

USII.4.d

explaining the impact of new inventions, the rise of big business, the growth of industry, and life on American farms;

USII.4.e

describing the impact of the Progressive Movement on child labor, working conditions, the rise of organized labor, womens suffrage, and the temperance movement.

USII.5

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the changing role of the United States from the late nineteenth century through World War I by

USII.5.a

explaining the reasons for and results of the Spanish American War;

USII.5.b

describing Theodore Roosevelts impact on the foreign policy of the United States;

USII.5.c

explaining the reasons for the United States involvement in World War I and its international leadership role at the conclusion of the war.

USII.6

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by

USII.6.a

explaining how developments in factory and labor productivity, transportation (including the use of the automobile), communication, and rural electrification changed American life and standard of living;

USII.6.b

describing the social and economic changes that took place, including prohibition and the Great Migration north and west;

USII.6.c

examining art, literature, and music from the 1920s and 1930s, with emphasis on Langston Hughes, Duke Ellington, Georgia OKeeffe, and the Harlem Renaissance;

USII.6.d

identifying the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal.

USII.7

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major causes and effects of American involvement in World War II by

USII.7.a

identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the attack on Pearl Harbor;

USII.7.b

locating and describing the major events and turning points of the war in Europe and the Pacific;

USII.7.c

describing the impact of the war on the home front.

USII.8

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world between the end of World War II and the present by

USII.8.a

describing the rebuilding of Europe and Japan after World War II, the emergence of the United States as a superpower, and the establishment of the United Nations;

USII.8.b

describing the conversion from a wartime to a peacetime economy;

USII.8.c

identifying the role of Americas military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War, including the wars in Korea and Vietnam, the Cuban missile crisis, the collapse of communism in Europe, and the rise of new challenges;

USII.8.d

describing the changing patterns of society, including expanded educational and economic opportunities for military veterans, women, and minorities;

USII.8.e

describing how international trade and globalization have impacted American life.

USII.9

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the key domestic and international issues during the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries by

USII.9.a

examining the Civil Rights Movement and the changing role of women;

USII.9.b

describing the development of new technologies in communication, entertainment, and business and their impact on American life;

USII.9.c

identifying representative citizens from the time period who have influenced America scientifically, culturally, academically, and economically;

USII.9.d

examining American foreign policy, immigration, the global environment, and other emerging issues.

VS.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to

VS.1.a

identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history;

VS.1.b

determine cause-and-effect relationships;

VS.1.c

compare and contrast historical events;

VS.1.d

draw conclusions and make generalizations;

VS.1.e

make connections between past and present;

VS.1.f

sequence events in Virginia history;

VS.1.g

interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;

VS.1.h

evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing;

VS.1.i

analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events.

VS.10

The student will demonstrate knowledge of government, geography, and economics by

VS.10.a

identifying the three branches of Virginia government and the function of each;

VS.10.b

describing the major products and industries of Virginias five geographic regions;

VS.10.c

explaining how advances in transportation, communications, and technology have contributed to Virginias prosperity and role in the global economy.

VS.2

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the physical geography and native peoples, past and present, of Virginia by

VS.2.a

locating Virginia and its bordering states on maps of the United States;

VS.2.b

locating and describing Virginias Coastal Plain (Tidewater), Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and Ridge, and Appalachian Plateau;

VS.2.c

locating and identifying water features important to the early history of Virginia (Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake Bay, James River, York River, Potomac River, Rappahannock River, and Lake Drummond and the Dismal Swamp);

VS.2.d

locating three American Indian language groups (the Algonquian, the Siouan, and the Iroquoian) on a map of Virginia;

VS.2.e

describing how American Indians related to the climate and their environment to secure food, clothing, and shelter;

VS.2.f

describing how archaeologists have recovered new material evidence at sites including Werowocomoco and Jamestown;

VS.2.g

identifying and locating the current state-recognized tribes.

VS.3

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by

VS.3.a

explaining the reasons for English colonization;

VS.3.b

describing how geography influenced the decision to settle at Jamestown;

VS.3.c

identifying the importance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London in establishing the Jamestown settlement;

VS.3.d

identifying the importance of the General Assembly (1619) as the first representative legislative body in English America;

VS.3.e

identifying the importance of the arrival of Africans and English women to the Jamestown settlement;

VS.3.f

describing the hardships faced by settlers at Jamestown and the changes that took place to ensure survival;

VS.3.g

describing the interactions between the English settlers and the native peoples, including the contributions of Powhatan to the survival of the settlers.

VS.4

The student will demonstrate knowledge of life in the Virginia colony by

VS.4.a

explaining the importance of agriculture and its influence on the institution of slavery;

VS.4.b

describing how the culture of colonial Virginia reflected the origins of European (English, Scots-Irish, German) immigrants, Africans, and American Indians;

VS.4.c

explaining the reasons for the relocation of Virginias capital from Jamestown to Williamsburg to Richmond;

VS.4.d

describing how money, barter, and credit were used;

VS.4.e

describing everyday life in colonial Virginia.

VS.5

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the American Revolution by

VS.5.a

identifying the reasons why the colonies went to war with Great Britain, as expressed in the Declaration of Independence;

VS.5.b

identifying the various roles played by whites, enslaved African Americans, free African Americans, and American Indians in the Revolutionary War era, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and James Lafayette;

VS.5.c

identifying the importance of the Battle of Great Bridge, the ride of Jack Jouett, and the American victory at Yorktown.

VS.6

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the establishment of the new American nation by

VS.6.a

explaining why George Washington is called the Father of our Country and James Madison is called the Father of the Constitution;

VS.6.b

identifying the ideas of George Mason and Thomas Jefferson as expressed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom;

VS.6.c

explaining the influence of geography on the migration of Virginians into western territories.

VS.7

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by

VS.7.a

identifying the events and differences between northern and southern states that divided Virginians and led to secession, war, and the creation of West Virginia;

VS.7.b

describing Virginias role in the war, including identifying major battles that took place in Virginia;

VS.7.c

describing the roles played by whites, enslaved African Americans, free African Americans, and American Indians.

VS.8

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the reconstruction of Virginia following the Civil War by

VS.8.a

identifying the effects of Reconstruction on life in Virginia;

VS.8.b

identifying the effects of segregation and Jim Crow on life in Virginia for whites, African Americans, and American Indians;

VS.8.c

describing the importance of railroads, new industries, and the growth of cities to Virginias economic development.

VS.9

The student will demonstrate knowledge of twentieth- and twenty-first-century Virginia by

VS.9.a

describing the economic and social transition from a rural, agricultural society to a more urban, industrialized society, including the reasons people came to Virginia from other states and countries;

VS.9.b

identifying the impact of Virginians, such as Woodrow Wilson and George C. Marshall, on international events;

VS.9.c

identifying the social and political events in Virginia linked to desegregation and Massive Resistance and their relationship to national history;

VS.9.d

identifying the political, social, and/or economic contributions made by Maggie L. Walker; Harry F. Byrd, Sr.; Oliver W. Hill; Arthur R. Ashe, Jr.; A. Linwood Holton, Jr.; and L. Douglas Wilder.

VUS.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to

VUS.1.a

identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records, and data, including artifacts, diaries, letters, photographs, journals, newspapers, historical accounts, and art, to increase understanding of events and life in the United States;

VUS.1.b

evaluate the authenticity, authority, and credibility of sources;

VUS.1.c

formulate historical questions and defend findings, based on inquiry and interpretation;

VUS.1.d

develop perspectives of time and place, including the construction of maps and various timelines of events, periods, and personalities in American history;

VUS.1.e

communicate findings orally and in analytical essays or comprehensive papers;

VUS.1.f

develop skills in discussion, debate, and persuasive writing with respect to enduring issues and determine how divergent viewpoints have been addressed and reconciled;

VUS.1.g

apply geographic skills and reference sources to understand how relationships between humans and their environment have changed over time;

VUS.1.h

interpret the significance of excerpts from famous speeches and other documents;

VUS.1.i

identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives.

VUS.10

The student will demonstrate knowledge of key domestic events of the 1920s and 1930s by

VUS.10.a

analyzing how radio, movies, newspapers, and magazines created popular culture and challenged traditional values;

VUS.10.b

assessing the causes and consequences of the stock market crash of 1929;

VUS.10.c

explaining the causes of the Great Depression and its impact on the American people;

VUS.10.d

describing how Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal relief, recovery, and reform measures addressed the Great Depression and expanded the governments role in the economy.

VUS.11

The student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II by

VUS.11.a

analyzing the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including military assistance to the United Kingdom and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor;

VUS.11.b

describing and locating the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific, including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Trumans decision to use the atomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan;

VUS.11.c

describing the role of all-minority military units, including the Tuskegee Airmen and Nisei regiments;

VUS.11.d

examining the Geneva Convention and the treatment of prisoners of war during World War II;

VUS.11.e

analyzing the Holocaust (Hitlers final solution), its impact on Jews and other groups, and the postwar trials of war criminals.

VUS.12

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front by

VUS.12.a

explaining how the United States mobilized its economic, human, and military resources;

VUS.12.b

describing the contributions of women and minorities to the war effort;

VUS.12.c

explaining the internment of Japanese Americans during the war;

VUS.12.d

describing the role of media and communications in the war effort.

VUS.13

The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by

VUS.13.a

describing outcomes of World War II, including political boundary changes, the formation of the United Nations, and the Marshall Plan;

VUS.13.b

explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment of communism, the American role in wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Europe;

VUS.13.c

explaining the role of Americas military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War;

VUS.13.d

explaining the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War, including the role of Ronald Reagan in making foreign policy;

VUS.13.e

explaining the impact of presidents of the United States since 1988 on foreign policy.

VUS.14

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s by

VUS.14.a

identifying the importance of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the roles of Thurgood Marshall and Oliver Hill, and how Virginia responded;

VUS.14.b

describing the importance of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the 1963 March on Washington, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

VUS.15

The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic, social, cultural, and political developments in recent decades and today by

VUS.15.a

examining the role the United States Supreme Court has played in defining a constitutional right to privacy, affirming equal rights, and upholding the rule of law;

VUS.15.b

analyzing the changing patterns of immigration, the reasons new immigrants choose to come to this country, their contributions to contemporary America, and the debates over immigration policy;

VUS.15.c

explaining the media influence on contemporary American culture and how scientific and technological advances affect the workplace, health care, and education;

VUS.15.d

examining the impact of the Reagan Revolution on federalism, the role of government, and state and national elections since 1988;

VUS.15.e

assessing the role of government actions that impact the economy;

VUS.15.f

assessing the role of the United States in a world confronted by international terrorism.

VUS.2

The student will describe how early European exploration and colonization resulted in cultural interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians.

VUS.3

The student will describe how the values and institutions of European economic and political life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas.

VUS.4

The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by

VUS.4.a

analyzing how the political ideas of John Locke and those expressed in Common Sense helped shape the Declaration of Independence;

VUS.4.b

evaluating how key principles in the Declaration of Independence grew in importance to become unifying ideas of American democracy;

VUS.4.c

describing the political differences among the colonists concerning separation from Great Britain;

VUS.4.d

analyzing reasons for colonial victory in the Revolutionary War.

VUS.5

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it by

VUS.5.a

explaining the origins of the Constitution, including the Articles of Confederation;

VUS.5.b

identifying the major compromises necessary to produce the Constitution, and the roles of James Madison and George Washington;

VUS.5.c

examining the significance of the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in the framing of the Bill of Rights;

VUS.5.d

assessing the arguments of Federalists and Anti-Federalists during the ratification debates and their relevance to political debate today;

VUS.5.e

appraising how John Marshalls precedent-setting decisions established the Supreme Court as an independent and equal branch of the national government.

VUS.6

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events from the last decade of the eighteenth century through the first half of the nineteenth century by

VUS.6.a

explaining the principles and issues that prompted Thomas Jefferson to organize the first opposition political party;

VUS.6.b

identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on the American Indians;

VUS.6.c

examining the reasons why James Madison asked Congress to declare war on Great Britain in 1812 and how this divided the nation;

VUS.6.d

relating the changing character of American political life in the age of the common man (Jacksonian Era) to increasing popular participation in state and national politics;

VUS.6.e

describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including tariffs, slavery, the abolitionist and womens suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union.

VUS.7

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and their importance as major turning points in American history by

VUS.7.a

evaluating the multiple causes of the Civil War, including the role of the institution of slavery as a principal cause of the conflict;

VUS.7.b

identifying the major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War Era, with emphasis on Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass;

VUS.7.c

analyzing the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principles outlined in Lincolns Gettysburg Address;

VUS.7.d

examining the political and economic impact of the war and Reconstruction, including the adoption of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States;

VUS.7.e

examining the social impact of the war on African Americans, the common soldier, and the home front, with emphasis on Virginia;

VUS.7.f

explaining postwar contributions of key leaders of the Civil War.

VUS.8

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by

VUS.8.a

explaining the relationship among territorial expansion, westward movement of the population, new immigration, growth of cities, the role of the railroads, and the admission of new states to the United States;

VUS.8.b

describing the transformation of the American economy from a primarily agrarian to a modern industrial economy and identifying major inventions that improved life in the United States;

VUS.8.c

analyzing prejudice and discrimination during this time period, with emphasis on Jim Crow and the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois;

VUS.8.d

identifying the causes and impact of the Progressive Movement, including the excesses of the Gilded Age, child labor and antitrust laws, the rise of labor unions, and the success of the womens suffrage movement.

VUS.9

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs by

VUS.9.a

explaining the changing policies of the United States toward Latin America and Asia and the growing influence of the United States in foreign markets;

VUS.9.b

evaluating United States involvement in World War I, including Wilsons Fourteen Points, the Treaty of Versailles, and the national debate over treaty ratification and the League of Nations.

WG.1

The student will use maps, globes, satellite images, photographs, or diagrams to

WG.1.a

obtain geographical information about the worlds countries, cities, and environments;

WG.1.b

apply the concepts of location, scale, map projection, or orientation;

WG.1.c

develop and refine mental maps of world regions;

WG.1.d

create and compare political, physical, and thematic maps;

WG.1.e

analyze and explain how different cultures use maps and other visual images to reflect their own interests and ambitions.

WG.10

The student will analyze how the forces of conflict and cooperation affect the division and control of the Earths surface by

WG.10.a

explaining and analyzing reasons for the creation of different political divisions;

WG.10.b

analyzing ways cooperation among political jurisdictions is used to solve problems and settle disputes.

WG.11

The student will analyze the patterns of urban development by

WG.11.a

applying the concepts of site and situation to major cities in each region;

WG.11.b

explaining how the functions of towns and cities have changed over time;

WG.11.c

describing the unique influence of urban areas and some challenges they face.

WG.12

The student will apply geography to interpret the past, understand the present, and plan for the future by

WG.12.a

using geographic knowledge, skills, and perspectives to analyze problems and make decisions;

WG.12.b

relating current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.

WG.2

The student will analyze how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earths surface by

WG.2.a

identifying regional climatic patterns and weather phenomena and their effects on people and places;

WG.2.b

describing how humans influence the environment and are influenced by it;

WG.2.c

explaining how technology affects ones ability to modify the environment and adapt to it.

WG.3

The student will apply the concept of a region by

WG.3.a

explaining how characteristics of regions have led to regional labels;

WG.3.b

explaining how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants;

WG.3.c

analyzing how cultural characteristics, including the worlds major languages, ethnicities, and religions, link or divide regions.

WG.4

The student will locate and analyze physical, economic, and cultural characteristics of world regions: Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe, United States and Canada, North Africa and Southwest Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Russia and Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands, and Antarctica.

WG.5

The student will compare and contrast the distribution, growth rates, and characteristics of human population in terms of settlement patterns and the location of natural and capital resources.

WG.6

The student will analyze past and present trends in human migration and cultural interaction as they are influenced by social, economic, political, and environmental factors.

WG.7

The student will identify types of natural, human, and capital resources and explain their significance by

WG.7.a

showing their influence on patterns of economic activity and land use;

WG.7.b

evaluating perspectives and consequences regarding the use of resources.

WG.8

The student will distinguish between developed and developing countries and relate the level of economic development to the standard of living and quality of life.

WG.9

The student will analyze the global patterns and networks of economic interdependence by

WG.9.a

identifying factors, including comparative advantage, that influence economic activities and trade;

WG.9.b

describing ways that economic and social interactions have changed over time;

WG.9.c

mapping, describing, and evaluating the formation of economic unions.

WHI.1

The student will improve skills in historical research and geographical analysis by

WHI.1.

analyzing the impact of economic forces, including taxation, government spending, trade, resources, and monetary systems, on events to 1500 A.D. (C.E.).

WHI.1.a

identifying, analyzing, and interpreting primary and secondary sources to make generalizations about events and life in world history to 1500 A.D. (C.E.);

WHI.1.b

using maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and interpret the past to 1500 A.D. (C.E.);

WHI.1.c

identifying major geographic features important to the study of world history to 1500 A.D. (C.E.);

WHI.1.d

identifying and comparing political boundaries with the locations of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms from 4000 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 1500 A.D. (C.E.);

WHI.1.e

analyzing trends in human migration and cultural interaction from prehistory to 1500 A.D. (C.E.);

WHI.10

The student will demonstrate knowledge of civilizations and empires of the Eastern Hemisphere and their interactions through regional trade patterns by

WHI.10.a

locating major trade routes;

WHI.10.b

identifying technological advances and transfers, networks of economic interdependence, and cultural interactions;

WHI.10.c

describing Japan, with emphasis on the impact of Shinto and Buddhist traditions and the influence of Chinese culture;

WHI.10.d

describing east African kingdoms of Axum and Zimbabwe and west African civilizations of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in terms of geography, society, economy, and religion.

WHI.11

The student will demonstrate knowledge of major civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, including the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan, by

WHI.11.a

describing geographic relationships, with emphasis on patterns of development in terms of climate and physical features;

WHI.11.b

describing cultural patterns and political and economic structures.

WHI.12

The student will demonstrate knowledge of social, economic, and political changes and cultural achievements in the late medieval period by

WHI.12.a

describing the emergence of nation-states (England, France, Spain, and Russia) and distinctive political developments in each;

WHI.12.b

explaining conflicts among Eurasian powers, including the Crusades, the Mongol conquests, and the fall of Constantinople;

WHI.12.c

identifying patterns of crisis and recovery related to the Black Death (Bubonic plague);

WHI.12.d

explaining the preservation and transfer to Western Europe of Greek, Roman, and Arabic philosophy, medicine, and science.

WHI.13

The student will demonstrate knowledge of developments leading to the Renaissance in Europe in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

WHI.13.a

identifying the economic foundations of the Italian Renaissance;

WHI.13.b

sequencing events related to the rise of Italian city-states and their political development, including Machiavellis theory of governing as described in The Prince;

WHI.13.c

citing artistic, literary, and philosophical creativity, as contrasted with the medieval period, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Petrarch;

WHI.13.d

comparing the Italian and the Northern Renaissance, and citing the contributions of writers.

WHI.2

The student will demonstrate knowledge of early development of humankind from the Paleolithic Era to the agricultural revolution by

WHI.2.a

explaining the impact of geographic environment on hunter-gatherer societies;

WHI.2.b

listing characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies, including their use of tools and fire;

WHI.2.c

describing technological and social advancements that gave rise to stable communities;

WHI.2.d

explaining how archaeological discoveries are changing present-day knowledge of early peoples.

WHI.3

The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient river valley civilizations, including those of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus River Valley, and China and the civilizations of the Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Nubians, by

WHI.3.a

locating these civilizations in time and place;

WHI.3.b

describing the development of social, political, and economic patterns, including slavery;

WHI.3.c

explaining the development of religious traditions;

WHI.3.d

describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Judaism;

WHI.3.e

explaining the development of language and writing.

WHI.4

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the civilizations of Persia, India, and China in terms of chronology, geography, social structures, government, economy, religion, and contributions to later civilizations by

WHI.4.a

describing Persia, including Zoroastrianism and the development of an imperial bureaucracy;

WHI.4.b

describing India, with emphasis on the Aryan migrations and the caste system;

WHI.4.c

describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Hinduism;

WHI.4.d

describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Buddhism;

WHI.4.e

describing China, with emphasis on the development of an empire and the construction of the Great Wall;

WHI.4.f

describing the impact of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism.

WHI.5

The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

WHI.5.a

assessing the influence of geography on Greek economic, social, and political development, including the impact of Greek commerce and colonies;

WHI.5.b

describing Greek mythology and religion;

WHI.5.c

identifying the social structure and role of slavery, explaining the significance of citizenship and the development of democracy, and comparing the city-states of Athens and Sparta;

WHI.5.d

evaluating the significance of the Persian and Peloponnesian wars;

WHI.5.e

characterizing life in Athens during the Golden Age of Pericles;

WHI.5.f

citing contributions in drama, poetry, history, sculpture, architecture, science, mathematics, and philosophy, with emphasis on Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle;

WHI.5.g

explaining the conquest of Greece by Macedonia and the formation and spread of Hellenistic culture by Alexander the Great.

WHI.6

The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

WHI.6.a

assessing the influence of geography on Roman economic, social, and political development;

WHI.6.b

describing Roman mythology and religion;

WHI.6.c

explaining the social structure and role of slavery, significance of citizenship, and the development of democratic features in the government of the Roman Republic;

WHI.6.d

sequencing events leading to Roman military domination of the Mediterranean basin and Western Europe and the spread of Roman culture in these areas;

WHI.6.e

assessing the impact of military conquests on the army, economy, and social structure of Rome;

WHI.6.f

assessing the roles of Julius and Augustus Caesar in the collapse of the Republic and the rise of imperial monarchs;

WHI.6.g

explaining the economic, social, and political impact of the Pax Romana;

WHI.6.h

describing the origin, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Christianity;

WHI.6.i

explaining the development and significance of the Church in the late Roman Empire;

WHI.6.j

listing contributions in art and architecture, technology and science, medicine, literature and history, language, religious institutions, and law;

WHI.6.k

citing the reasons for the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire.

WHI.7

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by

WHI.7.a

explaining the establishment of Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire;

WHI.7.b

identifying Justinian and his contributions, including the codification of Roman law, and describing the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and economy;

WHI.7.c

characterizing Byzantine art and architecture and the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions;

WHI.7.d

explaining disputes that led to the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church;

WHI.7.e

mapping and assessing the impact of Byzantine influence and trade on Russia and Eastern Europe.

WHI.8

The student will demonstrate knowledge of Islamic civilization from about 600 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by

WHI.8.a

describing the origin, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Islam;

WHI.8.b

assessing the influence of geography on Islamic economic, social, and political development, including the impact of conquest and trade;

WHI.8.c

identifying historical turning points that affected the spread and influence of Islamic civilization, with emphasis on the Sunni-Shia division and the Battle of Tours;

WHI.8.d

citing cultural and scientific contributions and achievements of Islamic civilization.

WHI.9

The student will demonstrate knowledge of Western Europe during the Middle Ages from about 500 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

WHI.9.a

sequencing events related to the spread and influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church throughout Europe;

WHI.9.b

explaining the structure of feudal society and its economic, social, and political effects;

WHI.9.c

explaining the rise of Frankish kings, the Age of Charlemagne, and the revival of the idea of the Roman Empire;

WHI.9.d

sequencing events related to the invasions, settlements, and influence of migratory groups, including Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings.

WHII.1

The student will improve skills in historical research and geographical analysis by

WHII.1.a

identifying, analyzing, and interpreting primary and secondary sources to make generalizations about events and life in world history since 1500 A.D. (C.E.);

WHII.1.b

using maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and to interpret the past since 1500 A.D. (C.E.);

WHII.1.c

identifying geographic features important to the study of world history since 1500 A.D. (C.E.);

WHII.1.d

identifying and comparing political boundaries with the locations of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms from 1500 A.D. (C.E.) to the present;

WHII.1.e

analyzing trends in human migration and cultural interaction from 1500 A.D. (C.E.) to the present;

WHII.1.f

analyzing the impact of economic forces, including taxation, government spending, trade, resources, and monetary systems, on events since 1500 A.D. (C.E.).

WHII.10

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the worldwide impact of World War I by

WHII.10.a

explaining economic causes, political causes, and major events and identifying major leaders of the war, with emphasis on Woodrow Wilson and Kaiser Wilhelm II;

WHII.10.b

explaining the outcomes and global effect of the war and the Treaty of Versailles;

WHII.10.c

citing causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution.

WHII.11

The student will demonstrate knowledge of political, economic, social, and cultural developments during the Interwar Period by

WHII.11.a

describing the League of Nations and the mandate system;

WHII.11.b

citing causes and assessing the impact of worldwide depression in the 1930s;

WHII.11.c

examining events related to the rise, aggression, and human costs of dictatorial regimes in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, and Japan, and identifying their major leaders, i.e., Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Hirohito, and Hideki Tojo.

WHII.12

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the worldwide impact of World War II by

WHII.12.a

explaining economic and political causes, describing major events, and identifying leaders of the war, with emphasis on Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George C. Marshall, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Hideki Tojo, and Hirohito;

WHII.12.b

examining the Holocaust and other examples of genocide in the twentieth century;

WHII.12.c

explaining the terms of the peace, the war crimes trials, the division of Europe, plans to rebuild Germany and Japan, and the creation of international cooperative organizations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

WHII.13

The student will demonstrate knowledge of major events in the second half of the twentieth century by

WHII.13.a

explaining key events of the Cold War, including the competition between the American and Soviet economic and political systems and the causes of the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe;

WHII.13.b

assessing the impact of nuclear weaponry on patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945;

WHII.13.c

describing conflicts and revolutionary movements in eastern Asia, including those in China and Vietnam, and their major leaders, i.e., Mao Tse-tung (Zedong), Chiang Kai-shek, and Ho Chi Minh;

WHII.13.d

describing major contributions of selected world leaders in the second half of the twentieth century, including Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Deng Xiaoping.

WHII.14

The student will demonstrate knowledge of political, economic, social, and cultural aspects of independence movements and development efforts by

WHII.14.a

describing the struggles for self-rule, including Gandhis leadership in India and the development of Indias democracy;

WHII.14.b

describing Africas achievement of independence, including Jomo Kenyattas leadership of Kenya and Nelson Mandelas role in South Africa;

WHII.14.c

describing the end of the mandate system and the creation of states in the Middle East, including the roles of Golda Meir and Gamal Abdul Nasser.

WHII.15

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the influence of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism in the contemporary world by

WHII.15.a

describing their beliefs, sacred writings, traditions, and customs;

WHII.15.b

locating the geographic distribution of religions in the contemporary world.

WHII.16

The student will demonstrate knowledge of cultural, economic, and social conditions in developed and developing nations of the contemporary world by

WHII.16.a

identifying contemporary political issues, with emphasis on migrations of refugees and others, ethnic/religious conflicts, and the impact of technology, including chemical and biological technologies;

WHII.16.b

assessing the impact of economic development and global population growth on the environment and society, including an understanding of the links between economic and political freedom;

WHII.16.c

describing economic interdependence, including the rise of multinational corporations, international organizations, and trade agreements;

WHII.16.d

analyzing the increasing impact of terrorism.

WHII.2

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the political, cultural, geographic, and economic conditions in the world about 1500 A.D. (C.E.) by

WHII.2.a

locating major states and empires;

WHII.2.b

describing artistic, literary, and intellectual ideas of the Renaissance;

WHII.2.c

describing the distribution of major religions;

WHII.2.d

analyzing major trade patterns;

WHII.2.e

citing major technological and scientific exchanges in the Eastern Hemisphere.

WHII.3

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Reformation in terms of its impact on Western civilization by

WHII.3.a

explaining the effects of the theological, political, and economic differences that emerged, including the views and actions of Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII, and Elizabeth I;

WHII.3.b

describing the impact of religious conflicts, the Inquisition, and the Catholic Reformation on society and government actions;

WHII.3.c

describing changing cultural values, traditions, and philosophies, and assessing the role of the printing press.

WHII.4

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the impact of the European Age of Discovery and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia by

WHII.4.a

explaining the roles and economic motivations of explorers and conquistadors;

WHII.4.b

describing the influence of religion;

WHII.4.c

explaining migration, settlement patterns, cultural diffusion, and social classes in the colonized areas;

WHII.4.d

describing the Columbian Exchange, including its impact on native populations;

WHII.4.e

mapping and explaining the triangular trade;

WHII.4.f

describing the impact of precious metal exports from the Americas.

WHII.5

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the status and impact of global trade on regional civilizations of the world after 1500 A.D. (C.E.) by

WHII.5.a

describing the location and development of the Ottoman Empire;

WHII.5.b

describing India, including the Mughal Empire and coastal trade;

WHII.5.c

describing East Asia, including China and the Japanese shogunate;

WHII.5.d

describing Africa and its increasing involvement in global trade;

WHII.5.e

describing the growth of European nations, including the Commercial Revolution and mercantilism.

WHII.6

The student will demonstrate knowledge of scientific, political, economic, and religious changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries by

WHII.6.a

describing the Scientific Revolution and its effects;

WHII.6.b

describing the Age of Absolutism, including the monarchies of Louis XIV and Peter the Great;

WHII.6.c

assessing the impacts of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution on democracy;

WHII.6.d

explaining the political, religious, and social ideas of the Enlightenment and the ways in which they influenced the founders of the United States;

WHII.6.e

describing the French Revolution;

WHII.6.f

describing the expansion of the arts, philosophy, literature, and new technology.

WHII.7

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Latin American revolutions of the nineteenth century by

WHII.7.a

describing the colonial system as it existed by 1800;

WHII.7.b

identifying the impact of the American and French Revolutions on Latin America;

WHII.7.c

explaining the contributions of Toussaint LOuverture and Simn Bolvar;

WHII.7.d

assessing the impact of the Monroe Doctrine.

WHII.8

The student will demonstrate knowledge of political and philosophical developments in Europe during the nineteenth century by

WHII.8.a

assessing the impact of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, including changes in political boundaries in Europe after 1815;

WHII.8.b

describing unsuccessful revolutions on the continent and political reform in the United Kingdom;

WHII.8.c

explaining events related to the unification of Italy and the role of Italian nationalists;

WHII.8.d

explaining events related to the unification of Germany and the role of Bismarck.

WHII.9

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of the Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century by

WHII.9.a

citing scientific, technological, and industrial developments and explaining how they brought about urbanization and social and environmental changes;

WHII.9.b

explaining the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern, and the subsequent development of socialism and communism;

WHII.9.c

describing the evolution of the nature of work and the labor force, including its effects on families, the status of women and children, the slave trade, and the labor union movement;

WHII.9.d

explaining the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and nationalism;

WHII.9.e

assessing the impact of European economic and military power on Asia and Africa, with emphasis on the competition for resources and the responses of colonized peoples.