Montana State Standards for Science — Grade 11


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11.1.1

Generate a question, identify dependent and independent variables, formulate testable, multiple hypotheses, plan an investigation, predict its outcome, safely conduct the scientific investigations, and collect and analyze the data.

11.1.1.A

Identify the various applications of scientific investigations (explore new phenomena, check on previous results, to test how well a hypothesis predicts, and to compare hypotheses)

11.1.1.B

Identify a testable question

11.1.1.C

Identify, from a set of questions, which question can be analyzed using a given set of sample data

11.1.1.D

Distinguish the independent and dependent variables by examining a scientific experiment/investigation

11.1.1.E

Write a testable question

11.1.1.F

Generate a valid hypothesis

11.1.1.G

Discriminate between a testable question and a hypothesis

11.1.1.H

Compare and contrast a list of hypotheses to determine if they are testable.

11.1.1.I

Formulate a single or multiple hypotheses on any given experiment/investigation

11.1.1.J

Use the independent and dependent variable to determine the materials, tools and techniques needed for an investigation

11.1.1.K

Formulate a sequential plan for an investigation

11.1.1.L

Identify the appropriate safety practices for an investigation

11.1.1.M

See benchmark 2 for data collection and analysis ELEs

11.1.2

Select and use appropriate tools including technology to make measurements (in metric units), gather, process and analyze data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical analysis, error analysis, and graphical representation

11.1.2.A

Design data tables/setup and show an organizational strategy

11.1.2.B

Gather data (qualitative/quantitative) using appropriate measurements and methods

11.1.2.C

Apply the metric system by appropriate use of units and conversion factors

11.1.2.D

Apply appropriate mathematical analysis

11.1.2.E

Demonstrate graphing design (placement of dependent and independent variables/scaling/units/keys/titles/labels/graph types)

11.1.2.F

Identify possible sources of error

11.1.2.G

Identify and interpret trends in data using graphical analysis

11.1.3

Review evidence, communicate and defend results, and recognize that the results of a scientific investigation are always open to revision by further investigations. (e.g. through graphical representation or charts)

11.1.3.A

Identify techniques used to review evidence (summary, graphical organizers, models)

11.1.3.B

Identify relationship between data trends and scientific concepts

11.1.3.C

Determine appropriate communication techniques to commuicate and defend results

11.1.3.D

Communicate interpretations and conclusions using scientific concepts, mathematical relationships and technology

11.1.3.E

Justify and defend conclusions based on evidence

11.1.3.F

Explain why conclusions based on evidence are open to revision upon further investigation

11.1.4

Analyze observations and explain with scientific understanding to develop a plausible model (e.g., atom, expanding universe

11.1.4.A

Identify that various types of models (physical, mental, graphical, and mathematical) can be used to illustrate scientific concepts

11.1.4.B

Explain why models are used to express scientific concepts

11.1.4.C

Use models to investigate and represent scientific concepts

11.1.4.D

Generate a model based on evidence gathered in an investigation

11.1.5

Identify strengths, weaknesses, and assess the validity of the experimental design of an investigation through analysis and evaluation

11.1.5.A

Identify and assess the characteristics of a valid investigation

11.1.5.B

Identify experimental error and communicate suggestions for modified or redesigned experiment

11.1.5.C

Compare and contrast the validity of various experiments designed to measure the same outcome

11.1.6

Explain how observations of nature form an essential base of knowledge among the Montana American Indians

11.1.6.A

Explain how observations of nature form and essential base of knowledge

11.1.6.B

Describe an example of Montana American Indians using observation to develop cultural knowledge and practices

11.2.1

Describe the structure of atoms, including knowledge of (a) subatomic particles and their relative masses, charges, and locations within the atom, (b) the electrical and nuclear forces that hold the atom together, (c) fission and fusion, and (d) radioactive decay

11.2.1.A

Compare and contrast subatomic particles in relation to their relative masses, charges and location

11.2.1.B

Compare and contrast the number of subatomic particles in different elements and their isotopes

11.2.1.C

Recognize there is an electrical force of attraction/repulsion

11.2.1.D

Recognize there are strong nuclear forces that keeps the nucleus intact

11.2.1.E

Explain radioactive decay and provide examples

11.2.1.F

Explain nuclear fission and fusion and provide examples

11.2.2

Explain how the particulate level structure and properties of matter affect its macroscopic properties, including the effect of (a) valence electrons on the chemical properties of elements and the resulting periodic trends in these properties, (b) chemical bonding,(c) molecular geometry and intermolecular forces, (d) kinetic molecular theory on phases of matter, and (e) carbon-carbon atom bonding on biomolecules

11.2.2.A

Recognize the Periodic Table is organized based on a series of repeating patterns

11.2.2.B

Utilize the periodic Table to determine the number of valence electrons of an elemenT

11.2.2.C

Utilize the Periodic Table to predict, from neutral atoms, the formation of ions with the number of electrons gained or lost

11.2.2.D

Recognize that chemical properties of electrons change with the number of valence electrons

11.2.2.E

Compare and contrast ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds

11.2.2.F

Describe the significance of electrons in interactions between atoms and why they sometimes form bonds

11.2.2.G

Explain how the chemical bonding of a molecule affects its macroscopic (physical) properties

11.2.2.H

Explain how the molecular geometry of a molecule (e.g. water) affects polarity and cohesive/adhesive properties

11.2.2.I

Describe the physical properties of each state of matter: solid, liquid, and gas

11.2.2.J

Describe, using the kinetic molecular theory, the behavior of particles in each state of matter: solid, liquid, and gas

11.2.2.K

Use a phase change diagram to describe changes energy and state

11.2.2.L

Explain how electrons are shared in single, double, triple bonds

11.2.2.M

Explain how the variety of carbon-carbon bonds leads to the diversity of biomolecules

11.2.3

Describe the major features associated with chemical reactions, including (a) giving examples of reactions important to industry and living organisms, (b) energy changes associated with chemical changes, (c) classes of chemical reactions, (d) rates of reactions, and (e) the role of catalysts

11.2.3.A

Provide evidence that a chemical change has occurred

11.2.3.B

Illustrate a chemical reaction using chemical formulas

11.2.3.C

Describe properties of chemical reaction classes (combustion, decompostion, synthesis, single-replacement, and double-replacement, etc.)

11.2.3.D

Describe the energy changes in exothermic and endothermic reactions

11.2.3.E

Describe factors that effect the rate of reactions

11.2.3.F

Give examples of chemical reactions important to industry and living organisms

11.2.4

Identify, measure, calculate, and analyze relationships associated with matter and energy transfer or transformations, and the associated conservation of mass

11.2.4.A

Describe the law of conservation of mass

11.2.4.B

Measure and/or calculate energy transfer for a sample set of data or experiment

11.2.4.C

Analyze the relationship between energy transfer and physical properties of matter

11.2.4.D

Explain the unique circumstances allowing mass to transform into energy, or energy into mass

11.2.5

Explain the interactions between motions and forces, including (a) the laws of motion and (b) an understanding of the gravitational and electromagnetic forces

11.2.5.A

Explain, given F = ma, the relationship between force and acceleration in uniform motion

11.2.5.B

Solve simple kinematics problems using the kinematics equations for uniform acceleration: vavg=d/t, a=v/t, and d=1/2 at

11.2.5.C

Distinguish between a scalar quantity and a vector quantity.

11.2.5.D

List examples of different types of forces

11.2.5.E

Describe the role of friction in motion

11.2.5.F

Describe situations that illustrate Newton's three laws of motion

11.2.5.G

Explain the relationship between mass and distance in relation to gravitational force

11.2.5.H

Describe the relationship between magnetism and electricity and the resulting electromagnetic force

11.2.6

Explain how energy is stored, transferred, and transformed, including (a) the conservation of energy, (b) kinetic and potential energy and energy contained by a field, (c) heat energy and atomic and molecular motion, and (d) energy tends to change from concentrated to diffus

11.2.6.A

Describe the differences between kinetic energy and potential energy

11.2.6.B

Explain the relationship between kinetic energy and potential energy in a system

11.2.6.C

Discuss the conservation of energy

11.2.6.D

Recognize heat as a form of energy transfeR

11.2.6.E

Explain the relationship between temperature, heat and thermal energy

11.2.6.F

Define the kinetic molecular theory and its relationship to heat (thermal energy transfer)

11.2.6.G

Relate how energy tends to change from concentrated to diffuse states.

11.2.7

Describe how energy and matter interact, including (a) waves, (b) the electromagnetic spectrum, (c) quantization of energy, and (d) insulators and conductors

11.2.7.A

Identify and illustrate different types of waves

11.2.7.B

Compare and contrast the similarities and differences between longitudinal and transverse mechanical waves

11.2.7.C

Explain how waves interact with media

11.2.7.D

Compare the various electromagnetic waves (gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radio waves) in terms of energy and wavelength

11.2.7.E

Identify practical uses of various electromagnetic waves

11.2.7.F

Compare the visible light colors in terms of energy and wavelength

11.2.7.G

Recognize that atoms and molecules can gain or lose energy only in particular discrete amounts.

11.2.7.H

Recognize that every substance emits and absorbs certain wavelengths

11.2.7.I

Explain how electromagnetic waves are superposed, bent, reflected, refracted, and absorbed.

11.2.7.J

Describe the difference between an electrical conductor and an electrical insulator

11.2.7.K

Describe the difference between a heat conductor and a heat insulator(

11.2.7.L

Explain how electricity is involved in the transfer of energy

11.3.1

Investigate and use appropriate technology to demonstrate that cells have common features including differences that determine function and that they are composed of common building blocks (e.g., proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids)

11.3.1.A

Demonstrate appropriate microscopic techniques

11.3.1.B

Recognize that a variety of microscopes exist

11.3.1.C

Identify common features among all cells

11.3.1.D

Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes

11.3.1.E

Compare and contrast the structure, function and relationship of key cellular components

11.3.1.F

Identify key differences between plant and animal cells

11.3.1.G

Explain how concentration of substances affects diffusion and osmosis

11.3.1.H

Explain the role of key biologically important macromolecules

11.3.2

Describe and explain the complex processes involved in energy use in cell maintenance, growth, repair and development

11.3.2.A

Explain and give examples of the importance of a constant internal environment

11.3.2.B

Identify processes that maintain homeostasis

11.3.2.C

Classify, compare and contrast various organisms as a heterotroph or autotroph

11.3.2.D

Describe the role of ATP in the body

11.3.2.E

Identify the key components involved in the chemical reaction of cellular respiration

11.3.2.F

Describe and model the conversion of stored energy in organic molecules into usable cellular energy (ATP)

11.3.2.G

Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration

11.3.2.H

Summarize the conversion of light energy to chemical energy by photosynthetic organisms

11.3.2.I

Explain the relationship between the products and reactants of photosynthesis and cellular respiration

11.3.2.J

Explain the purpose of the cell cycle

11.3.2.K

Describe the stages of mitosis in plants and animals

11.3.2.L

Identify the major events that occur in meiosis

11.3.2.M

Differentiate between haploid and diploid chromosome numbers

11.3.2.N

Compare and contrast the process and purpose of mitosis and meiosis

11.3.3

Model the structure of DNA and protein synthesis, discuss the molecular basis of heredity, and explain how it contributes to the diversity of life

11.3.3.A

Explain the functions of DNA and RNA

11.3.3.B

Compare and contrast the structure of DNA and RNA

11.3.3.C

Identify complementary base pairs

11.3.3.D

Explain the purpose and process of DNA replication

11.3.3.E

Explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation

11.3.3.F

Explain the relationship between DNA and heredity (Central Dogma) (

11.3.3.G

Summarize the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment

11.3.3.H

Summarize how the process of meiosis produces genetic recombination

11.3.3.I

Explain the difference between dominant and recessive alleles

11.3.3.J

Distinguish between genotype and phenotype

11.3.3.K

Use the law of probability and Punnett squares to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios

11.3.3.L

Identify and explain the different ways in which alleles interatct to determine the expression of traits

11.3.3.M

Distinguish between sex chromosomes and autostomes

11.3.3.N

Explain how sex linked inheritance influences some genetic traits

11.3.3.O

Define genetic mutations

11.3.3.P

Identify some of the major causes of mutations

11.3.3.Q

Explain how mutations influence genetic expression

11.3.3.R

Explain the results of nondisjunction

11.3.4

Predict and model the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors that affect populations through natural selection, and explain how this contributes to the evolution of species over time

11.3.4.A

Differentiate between biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems

11.3.4.B

Discuss how abiotic and biotic factors influence biomes

11.3.4.C

Explain biogeochemical cycles

11.3.4.D

Recognize that the sun is the ultimate source of energy in MOST ecosystems

11.3.4.E

Explain the difference between a food chain and food web

11.3.4.F

Explain trophic levels and pyramids in terms of energy transfer, biomass and number of individuals

11.3.4.G

Identify and predict density dependent and density independent factors that impact a population

11.3.4.H

Describe predator-prey dynamics

11.3.4.I

Compare and contrast the symbiotic relationships that exist between species

11.3.4.J

Describe how communities progress through a series of changes (succession)

11.3.4.K

Recognize that evolution involves a change in allele frequencies in a population across successive generations

11.3.4.L

Model and explain how natural selection can change a population

11.3.4.M

Describe the major factors that influence speciation

11.3.4.N

Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection

11.3.4.O

Explain the multiple lines of supporting scientific evidence of biological evolution

11.3.5

Generate and apply biological classification schemes to infer and discuss the degree of divergence between ecosystems

11.3.5.A

List and explain the characteristics of the three domains

11.3.5.B

Compare and contrast the key characteristics of each kingdom

11.3.5.C

Explain how similarities and differences in the key characteristics of each kingdom indicate the degree of divergence between them

11.3.5.D

Explain the classification of living organisms from the domain to species level

11.3.5.E

Explain the importance of binomial nomenclature

11.3.5.F

Generate and use a dichotomous key

11.3.5.G

Differentiate between vascular and nonvascular plants

11.3.5.H

Explain the difference between anigosperms and gymnosperms

11.3.5.I

Compare and contrast major animal phyla

11.3.5.J

Compare and contrast body systems between major animal phyla

11.4.1

Understand the theory of plate tectonics and how it explains the interrelationship between earthquakes, volcanoes, and sea floor spreading

11.4.1.A

Describe the independent movement of Earth's crustal plates

11.4.1.B

Describe the observations and evidence that led to the formation of the theory of plate tectonics

11.4.1.C

Model the interaction of heat-driven convection and the movement of the plates

11.4.1.D

Identify the types of plate boundaries

11.4.1.E

Model ways plates interact at plate boundaries

11.4.1.F

Contrast the different types of plate boundaries and the products of these plate interactions

11.4.1.G

Identify the causes of earthquakes

11.4.1.H

Explain volcanic processes

11.4.1.I

Relate earthquakes and volcanic activity to plate boundaries and other geologic settings

11.4.2

Identify and classify rocks and minerals based on physical and chemical properties and the utilization by humans (e.g., natural resources, building materials)

11.4.2.B

Describe the physical and chemical properties and equipment used to identify minerals

11.4.2.C

Classify minerals using observable properties, tools, and reference materials

11.4.2.D

Describe environments and processes that lead to the formation of various minerals

11.4.2.F

Summarize the rock cycle and its process

11.4.2.G

Describe the physical and chemical properties and equipment used to identify rocks

11.4.2.H

Classify rocks into rock types using observable properties, tools, and reference materials

11.4.2.I

Identify various mineral and rock resources, their value, their uses, and their importance to humans

11.4.2.J

Explain how various mineral and rock resources are obtained

11.4.3

Explain scientific theories about how fossils are used as evidence of changes over time

11.4.3.A

Explain the concept of scientific theory

11.4.3.B

Explain how various fossils show evidence of past life

11.4.3.C

Model the scale of geologic time

11.4.3.D

Interpret rock layers using principles of relative and absolute age dating

11.4.3.E

Give examples of major biologic, climactic, and geologic changes in Earth's history and provide supporting rock and fossil evidence of these changes

11.4.3.F

Relate major changes to the divisions of geologic time

11.4.4

Collect and analyze local and regional weather data to make inferences and predictions about weather patterns; explain factors influencing global weather patterns and climate; and describe the impact on earth of fluctuations in weather and climate (e.g., drought, surface and ground water, glacial instability

11.4.4.A

Identify measurable weather-related variables commonly used in forecasting (

11.4.4.B

Identify the instruments and technology used to collect weather data

11.4.4.C

Collect weather data and observe weather conditions

11.4.4.D

Summarize how cloud formation and precipitation are affected by changes in atmospheric conditions

11.4.4.E

Discuss the role of energy transfer in the atmosphere and its effects on weather changes

11.4.4.F

Describe the impacts of fronts, air masses, and pressure systems on local and regional weather

11.4.4.G

Analyze the effect of local geographic factors on weather

11.4.4.H

Use data to infer and predict weather patterns

11.4.4.I

Identify the geographic factors that influence climate

11.4.4.J

Determine which geographic factors result in specific local and regional climate

11.4.4.K

Examine the importance of the structure and composition of the atmosphere as influencing factors on Earth's weather and climate

11.4.4.L

Describe how global wind patterns influence weather and climate

11.4.4.M

Explain the relationship between ocean currents, weather, and climate

11.4.4.N

Compare the conditions that generate various types of severe weather

11.4.4.O

Discuss the impacts of various types of severe weather

11.4.5

Explain the impact of terrestrial, solar, oceanic, and atmosphere conditions on global climatic patterns

11.4.5.A

Identify examples of natural phenomena (terrestrial, atmospheric, oceanic, and astronomical) that impact global climate patterns

11.4.5.B

Explain the short and long term-effects of these natural phenomena on global climate patterns

11.4.5.C

Examine the geologic, astronomical, and human factors that contibute to global climate change

11.4.5.D

Describe socioeconomic and environmental implications of climate change

11.4.6

Describe the origin, location, and evolution of stars and their planetary systems in respect to the solar system, the Milky Way, the local galactic group, and the universe

11.4.6.A

Describe the Big Bang Theory

11.4.6.B

Summarize evidence supporting the Big Bang Theory

11.4.6.C

Summarize the evolution of stars from birth to death

11.4.6.D

Identify the importance of fusion in a star's evolutionary cycle

11.4.6.E

Explain the relationship between stars and planets in a solar system

11.4.6.F

Compare and contrast the characteristics of planets and stars

11.4.6.G

Explain current theories of the formation of a solar system

11.4.6.H

Explain how the formation and evolution of a solar system influences the composition and placement of objects within it

11.4.6.J

Describe the shape of the Milky Way Galaxy and our place in it (

11.4.6.K

Illustrate the hierachy of stars, planets, solar systems, galaxies and galactic group in the universe

11.4.7

Relate how evidence from advanced technology applied to scientific investigations (e.g., large telescopes and spaceborne observatories), has dramatically impacted our understanding of the origin, size, and volution of the universe

11.4.7.A

Discuss how various types of technology are used to study space

11.4.7.B

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of various tools used to study space

11.4.7.C

Assess how our understanding of the universe changes as technology advances

11.5.1

Predict how key factors (e.g., technology, competitiveness, and world events) affect the development and acceptance of scientific thought

11.5.1.A

Identify an example of scientific thought that has been or is affected by key factors such as technology, competitiveness (industrial, political, religious, etc.), world events, etc

11.5.1.B

Analyze how the development and/or acceptance of this example was influenced by various factors

11.5.1.C

Justify the analysis using cited peer reviewed sources

11.5.1.D

Predict and discuss how key factors could impact the development and acceptance of scientific though

11.5.2

Give examples of scientific innovation challenging commonly held perceptions

11.5.2.A

Identify and discuss examples of commonly held perceptions or ideas being challenged by science (i.e. heliocentrism, flat earth, spontaneous generation)

11.5.3

Evaluate the ongoing, collaborative scientific process by gathering and critiquing information

11.5.3.A

Identify and discuss the practices employed by scientists to collaborate, share, and critique scientific information

11.5.3.B

Summarize the peer review process scientists use to critique and publish scientific research

11.5.3.C

Compare and contrast the formal and informal methods by which scientists communicate with each other and the public

11.5.4

Analyze benefits, limitations, costs, consequences, and ethics involved in using scientific and technological innovations (e.g., biotechnology, environmental issues)

11.5.4.A

Identify various scientific and technological innovations

11.5.4.B

Compare and contrast the benefits and limitations of the various innovations

11.5.4.C

Examine the ethical issues involved with the innovations

11.5.5

Explain how the knowledge of science and technology applies to contemporary Montana American Indian communities (e.g., natural resources development, management and conservation)

11.5.5.A

Identify current practices by Montana American Indian tribes that are influenced by knowlege of science and technology

11.5.5.B

Explain how tribal sovereignty affects the use of science and technology within Montana American Indian communities

11.6.1

Analyze and illustrate the historical impact of scientific and technological advances, including Montana American Indian examples

11.6.1.A

Identify important historical events in science and technology

11.6.1.B

analyze the positive and negative impacts of past, present, and future science and technological advances

11.6.2

Trace developments that demonstrate scientific knowledge is subject to change as new evidence becomes available

11.6.2.A

Identify examples of scientific knowledge that have changed over time

11.6.2.B

Discuss the developments that contributed to the progression of the scientific knowledge

11.6.2.C

. Analyze the impact of each development on the scientific knowledge

11.6.2.D

Summarize the process of the advancement of scientific knowledge

11.6.3

Describe, explain, and analyze science as a human endeavor and an ongoing process

11.6.3.A

Discuss the purpose of science (

11.6.3.B

Summarize the parameters that guide the process of science

11.6.3.C

Examine the role of human reasoning in the process of science

11.6.3.D

Analyze how human interpretation of evidence affects the process of science

11.6.3.E

Describe how science is an ongoing process