# Montana State Standards for Science — Grade 12

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#### 12.1.1

Generate a question, identify dependent and independent variables, formulate testable, multiple hypotheses, plan an investigation, predict its outcome, safely conduct the scientific investigations, and collect and analyze the data.

#### 12.1.1.A

Identify the various applications of scientific investigations (explore new phenomena, check on previous results, to test how well a hypothesis predicts, and to compare hypotheses)

#### 12.1.1.B

Identify a testable question

#### 12.1.1.C

Identify, from a set of questions, which question can be analyzed using a given set of sample data

#### 12.1.1.D

Distinguish the independent and dependent variables by examining a scientific experiment/investigation

#### 12.1.1.E

Write a testable question

#### 12.1.1.F

Generate a valid hypothesis

#### 12.1.1.G

Discriminate between a testable question and a hypothesis

#### 12.1.1.H

Compare and contrast a list of hypotheses to determine if they are testable.

#### 12.1.1.I

Formulate a single or multiple hypotheses on any given experiment/investigation

#### 12.1.1.J

Use the independent and dependent variable to determine the materials, tools and techniques needed for an investigation

#### 12.1.1.K

Formulate a sequential plan for an investigation

#### 12.1.1.L

Identify the appropriate safety practices for an investigation

#### 12.1.1.M

See benchmark 2 for data collection and analysis ELEs

#### 12.1.2

Select and use appropriate tools including technology to make measurements (in metric units), gather, process and analyze data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical analysis, error analysis, and graphical representation

#### 12.1.2.A

Design data tables/setup and show an organizational strategy

#### 12.1.2.B

Gather data (qualitative/quantitative) using appropriate measurements and methods

#### 12.1.2.C

Apply the metric system by appropriate use of units and conversion factors

#### 12.1.2.D

Apply appropriate mathematical analysis

#### 12.1.2.E

Demonstrate graphing design (placement of dependent and independent variables/scaling/units/keys/titles/labels/graph types)

#### 12.1.2.F

Identify possible sources of error

#### 12.1.2.G

Identify and interpret trends in data using graphical analysis

#### 12.1.3

Review evidence, communicate and defend results, and recognize that the results of a scientific investigation are always open to revision by further investigations. (e.g. through graphical representation or charts)

#### 12.1.3.A

Identify techniques used to review evidence (summary, graphical organizers, models)

#### 12.1.3.B

Identify relationship between data trends and scientific concepts

#### 12.1.3.C

Determine appropriate communication techniques to commuicate and defend results

#### 12.1.3.D

Communicate interpretations and conclusions using scientific concepts, mathematical relationships and technology

#### 12.1.3.E

Justify and defend conclusions based on evidence

#### 12.1.3.F

Explain why conclusions based on evidence are open to revision upon further investigation

#### 12.1.4

Analyze observations and explain with scientific understanding to develop a plausible model (e.g., atom, expanding universe

#### 12.1.4.A

Identify that various types of models (physical, mental, graphical, and mathematical) can be used to illustrate scientific concepts

#### 12.1.4.B

Explain why models are used to express scientific concepts

#### 12.1.4.C

Use models to investigate and represent scientific concepts

#### 12.1.4.D

Generate a model based on evidence gathered in an investigation

#### 12.1.5

Identify strengths, weaknesses, and assess the validity of the experimental design of an investigation through analysis and evaluation

#### 12.1.5.A

Identify and assess the characteristics of a valid investigation

#### 12.1.5.B

Identify experimental error and communicate suggestions for modified or redesigned experiment

#### 12.1.5.C

Compare and contrast the validity of various experiments designed to measure the same outcome

#### 12.1.6

Explain how observations of nature form an essential base of knowledge among the Montana American Indians

#### 12.1.6.A

Explain how observations of nature form and essential base of knowledge

#### 12.1.6.B

Describe an example of Montana American Indians using observation to develop cultural knowledge and practices

#### 12.2.1

Describe the structure of atoms, including knowledge of (a) subatomic particles and their relative masses, charges, and locations within the atom, (b) the electrical and nuclear forces that hold the atom together, (c) fission and fusion, and (d) radioactive decay

#### 12.2.1.A

Compare and contrast subatomic particles in relation to their relative masses, charges and location

#### 12.2.1.B

Compare and contrast the number of subatomic particles in different elements and their isotopes

#### 12.2.1.C

Recognize there is an electrical force of attraction/repulsion

#### 12.2.1.D

Recognize there are strong nuclear forces that keeps the nucleus intact

#### 12.2.1.E

Explain radioactive decay and provide examples

#### 12.2.1.F

Explain nuclear fission and fusion and provide examples

#### 12.2.2

Explain how the particulate level structure and properties of matter affect its macroscopic properties, including the effect of (a) valence electrons on the chemical properties of elements and the resulting periodic trends in these properties, (b) chemical bonding,(c) molecular geometry and intermolecular forces, (d) kinetic molecular theory on phases of matter, and (e) carbon-carbon atom bonding on biomolecules

#### 12.2.2.A

Recognize the Periodic Table is organized based on a series of repeating patterns

#### 12.2.2.B

Utilize the periodic Table to determine the number of valence electrons of an elemenT

#### 12.2.2.C

Utilize the Periodic Table to predict, from neutral atoms, the formation of ions with the number of electrons gained or lost

#### 12.2.2.D

Recognize that chemical properties of electrons change with the number of valence electrons

#### 12.2.2.E

Compare and contrast ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds

#### 12.2.2.F

Describe the significance of electrons in interactions between atoms and why they sometimes form bonds

#### 12.2.2.G

Explain how the chemical bonding of a molecule affects its macroscopic (physical) properties

#### 12.2.2.H

Explain how the molecular geometry of a molecule (e.g. water) affects polarity and cohesive/adhesive properties

#### 12.2.2.I

Describe the physical properties of each state of matter: solid, liquid, and gas

#### 12.2.2.J

Describe, using the kinetic molecular theory, the behavior of particles in each state of matter: solid, liquid, and gas

#### 12.2.2.K

Use a phase change diagram to describe changes energy and state

#### 12.2.2.L

Explain how electrons are shared in single, double, triple bonds

#### 12.2.2.M

Explain how the variety of carbon-carbon bonds leads to the diversity of biomolecules

#### 12.2.3

Describe the major features associated with chemical reactions, including (a) giving examples of reactions important to industry and living organisms, (b) energy changes associated with chemical changes, (c) classes of chemical reactions, (d) rates of reactions, and (e) the role of catalysts

#### 12.2.3.A

Provide evidence that a chemical change has occurred

#### 12.2.3.B

Illustrate a chemical reaction using chemical formulas

#### 12.2.3.C

Describe properties of chemical reaction classes (combustion, decompostion, synthesis, single-replacement, and double-replacement, etc.)

#### 12.2.3.D

Describe the energy changes in exothermic and endothermic reactions

#### 12.2.3.E

Describe factors that effect the rate of reactions

#### 12.2.3.F

Give examples of chemical reactions important to industry and living organisms

#### 12.2.4

Identify, measure, calculate, and analyze relationships associated with matter and energy transfer or transformations, and the associated conservation of mass

#### 12.2.4.A

Describe the law of conservation of mass

#### 12.2.4.B

Measure and/or calculate energy transfer for a sample set of data or experiment

#### 12.2.4.C

Analyze the relationship between energy transfer and physical properties of matter

#### 12.2.4.D

Explain the unique circumstances allowing mass to transform into energy, or energy into mass

#### 12.2.5

Explain the interactions between motions and forces, including (a) the laws of motion and (b) an understanding of the gravitational and electromagnetic forces

#### 12.2.5.A

Explain, given F = ma, the relationship between force and acceleration in uniform motion

#### 12.2.5.B

Solve simple kinematics problems using the kinematics equations for uniform acceleration: vavg=d/t, a=v/t, and d=1/2 at

#### 12.2.5.C

Distinguish between a scalar quantity and a vector quantity.

#### 12.2.5.D

List examples of different types of forces

#### 12.2.5.E

Describe the role of friction in motion

#### 12.2.5.F

Describe situations that illustrate Newton's three laws of motion

#### 12.2.5.G

Explain the relationship between mass and distance in relation to gravitational force

#### 12.2.5.H

Describe the relationship between magnetism and electricity and the resulting electromagnetic force

#### 12.2.6

Explain how energy is stored, transferred, and transformed, including (a) the conservation of energy, (b) kinetic and potential energy and energy contained by a field, (c) heat energy and atomic and molecular motion, and (d) energy tends to change from concentrated to diffus

#### 12.2.6.A

Describe the differences between kinetic energy and potential energy

#### 12.2.6.B

Explain the relationship between kinetic energy and potential energy in a system

#### 12.2.6.C

Discuss the conservation of energy

#### 12.2.6.D

Recognize heat as a form of energy transfeR

#### 12.2.6.E

Explain the relationship between temperature, heat and thermal energy

#### 12.2.6.F

Define the kinetic molecular theory and its relationship to heat (thermal energy transfer)

#### 12.2.6.G

Relate how energy tends to change from concentrated to diffuse states.

#### 12.2.7

Describe how energy and matter interact, including (a) waves, (b) the electromagnetic spectrum, (c) quantization of energy, and (d) insulators and conductors

#### 12.2.7.A

Identify and illustrate different types of waves

#### 12.2.7.B

Compare and contrast the similarities and differences between longitudinal and transverse mechanical waves

#### 12.2.7.C

Explain how waves interact with media

#### 12.2.7.D

Compare the various electromagnetic waves (gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radio waves) in terms of energy and wavelength

#### 12.2.7.E

Identify practical uses of various electromagnetic waves

#### 12.2.7.F

Compare the visible light colors in terms of energy and wavelength

#### 12.2.7.G

Recognize that atoms and molecules can gain or lose energy only in particular discrete amounts.

#### 12.2.7.H

Recognize that every substance emits and absorbs certain wavelengths

#### 12.2.7.I

Explain how electromagnetic waves are superposed, bent, reflected, refracted, and absorbed.

#### 12.2.7.J

Describe the difference between an electrical conductor and an electrical insulator

#### 12.2.7.K

Describe the difference between a heat conductor and a heat insulator(

#### 12.2.7.L

Explain how electricity is involved in the transfer of energy

#### 12.3.1

Investigate and use appropriate technology to demonstrate that cells have common features including differences that determine function and that they are composed of common building blocks (e.g., proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids)

#### 12.3.1.A

Demonstrate appropriate microscopic techniques

#### 12.3.1.B

Recognize that a variety of microscopes exist

#### 12.3.1.C

Identify common features among all cells

#### 12.3.1.D

Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes

#### 12.3.1.E

Compare and contrast the structure, function and relationship of key cellular components

#### 12.3.1.F

Identify key differences between plant and animal cells

#### 12.3.1.G

Explain how concentration of substances affects diffusion and osmosis

#### 12.3.1.H

Explain the role of key biologically important macromolecules

#### 12.3.2

Describe and explain the complex processes involved in energy use in cell maintenance, growth, repair and development

#### 12.3.2.A

Explain and give examples of the importance of a constant internal environment

#### 12.3.2.B

Identify processes that maintain homeostasis

#### 12.3.2.C

Classify, compare and contrast various organisms as a heterotroph or autotroph

#### 12.3.2.D

Describe the role of ATP in the body

#### 12.3.2.E

Identify the key components involved in the chemical reaction of cellular respiration

#### 12.3.2.F

Describe and model the conversion of stored energy in organic molecules into usable cellular energy (ATP)

#### 12.3.2.G

Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration

#### 12.3.2.H

Summarize the conversion of light energy to chemical energy by photosynthetic organisms

#### 12.3.2.I

Explain the relationship between the products and reactants of photosynthesis and cellular respiration

#### 12.3.2.J

Explain the purpose of the cell cycle

#### 12.3.2.K

Describe the stages of mitosis in plants and animals

#### 12.3.2.L

Identify the major events that occur in meiosis

#### 12.3.2.M

Differentiate between haploid and diploid chromosome numbers

#### 12.3.2.N

Compare and contrast the process and purpose of mitosis and meiosis

#### 12.3.3

Model the structure of DNA and protein synthesis, discuss the molecular basis of heredity, and explain how it contributes to the diversity of life

#### 12.3.3.

Define genetic mutations

#### 12.3.3.A

Explain the functions of DNA and RNA

#### 12.3.3.B

Compare and contrast the structure of DNA and RNA

#### 12.3.3.C

Identify complementary base pairs

#### 12.3.3.D

Explain the purpose and process of DNA replication

#### 12.3.3.E

Explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation

#### 12.3.3.F

Explain the relationship between DNA and heredity (Central Dogma) (

#### 12.3.3.G

Summarize the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment

#### 12.3.3.H

Summarize how the process of meiosis produces genetic recombination

#### 12.3.3.I

Explain the difference between dominant and recessive alleles

#### 12.3.3.J

Distinguish between genotype and phenotype

#### 12.3.3.K

Use the law of probability and Punnett squares to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios

#### 12.3.3.L

Identify and explain the different ways in which alleles interatct to determine the expression of traits

#### 12.3.3.M

Distinguish between sex chromosomes and autostomes

#### 12.3.3.N

Explain how sex linked inheritance influences some genetic traits

#### 12.3.3.P

Identify some of the major causes of mutations

#### 12.3.3.Q

Explain how mutations influence genetic expression

#### 12.3.3.R

Explain the results of nondisjunction

#### 12.3.4

Predict and model the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors that affect populations through natural selection, and explain how this contributes to the evolution of species over time

#### 12.3.4.A

Differentiate between biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems

#### 12.3.4.B

Discuss how abiotic and biotic factors influence biomes

#### 12.3.4.C

Explain biogeochemical cycles

#### 12.3.4.D

Recognize that the sun is the ultimate source of energy in MOST ecosystems

#### 12.3.4.E

Explain the difference between a food chain and food web

#### 12.3.4.F

Explain trophic levels and pyramids in terms of energy transfer, biomass and number of individuals

#### 12.3.4.G

Identify and predict density dependent and density independent factors that impact a population

#### 12.3.4.H

Describe predator-prey dynamics

#### 12.3.4.I

Compare and contrast the symbiotic relationships that exist between species

#### 12.3.4.J

Describe how communities progress through a series of changes (succession)

#### 12.3.4.K

Recognize that evolution involves a change in allele frequencies in a population across successive generations

#### 12.3.4.L

Model and explain how natural selection can change a population

#### 12.3.4.M

Describe the major factors that influence speciation

#### 12.3.4.N

Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection

#### 12.3.4.O

Explain the multiple lines of supporting scientific evidence of biological evolution

#### 12.3.5

Generate and apply biological classification schemes to infer and discuss the degree of divergence between ecosystems

#### 12.3.5.A

List and explain the characteristics of the three domains

#### 12.3.5.B

Compare and contrast the key characteristics of each kingdom

#### 12.3.5.C

Explain how similarities and differences in the key characteristics of each kingdom indicate the degree of divergence between them

#### 12.3.5.D

Explain the classification of living organisms from the domain to species level

#### 12.3.5.E

Explain the importance of binomial nomenclature

#### 12.3.5.F

Generate and use a dichotomous key

#### 12.3.5.G

Differentiate between vascular and nonvascular plants

#### 12.3.5.H

Explain the difference between anigosperms and gymnosperms

#### 12.3.5.I

Compare and contrast major animal phyla

#### 12.3.5.J

Compare and contrast body systems between major animal phyla

#### 12.4.1

Understand the theory of plate tectonics and how it explains the interrelationship between earthquakes, volcanoes, and sea floor spreading

#### 12.4.1.A

Describe the independent movement of Earth's crustal plates

#### 12.4.1.B

Describe the observations and evidence that led to the formation of the theory of plate tectonics

#### 12.4.1.C

Model the interaction of heat-driven convection and the movement of the plates

#### 12.4.1.D

Identify the types of plate boundaries

#### 12.4.1.E

Model ways plates interact at plate boundaries

#### 12.4.1.F

Contrast the different types of plate boundaries and the products of these plate interactions

#### 12.4.1.G

Identify the causes of earthquakes

#### 12.4.1.H

Explain volcanic processes

#### 12.4.1.I

Relate earthquakes and volcanic activity to plate boundaries and other geologic settings

#### 12.4.2

Identify and classify rocks and minerals based on physical and chemical properties and the utilization by humans (e.g., natural resources, building materials)

#### 12.4.2.B

Describe the physical and chemical properties and equipment used to identify minerals

#### 12.4.2.C

Classify minerals using observable properties, tools, and reference materials

#### 12.4.2.D

Describe environments and processes that lead to the formation of various minerals

#### 12.4.2.F

Summarize the rock cycle and its process

#### 12.4.2.G

Describe the physical and chemical properties and equipment used to identify rocks

#### 12.4.2.H

Classify rocks into rock types using observable properties, tools, and reference materials

#### 12.4.2.I

Identify various mineral and rock resources, their value, their uses, and their importance to humans

#### 12.4.2.J

Explain how various mineral and rock resources are obtained

#### 12.4.3

Explain scientific theories about how fossils are used as evidence of changes over time

#### 12.4.3.A

Explain the concept of scientific theory

#### 12.4.3.B

Explain how various fossils show evidence of past life

#### 12.4.3.C

Model the scale of geologic time

#### 12.4.3.D

Interpret rock layers using principles of relative and absolute age dating

#### 12.4.3.E

Give examples of major biologic, climactic, and geologic changes in Earth's history and provide supporting rock and fossil evidence of these changes

#### 12.4.3.F

Relate major changes to the divisions of geologic time

#### 12.4.4

Collect and analyze local and regional weather data to make inferences and predictions about weather patterns; explain factors influencing global weather patterns and climate; and describe the impact on earth of fluctuations in weather and climate (e.g., drought, surface and ground water, glacial instability

#### 12.4.4.A

Identify measurable weather-related variables commonly used in forecasting (

#### 12.4.4.B

Identify the instruments and technology used to collect weather data

#### 12.4.4.C

Collect weather data and observe weather conditions

#### 12.4.4.D

Summarize how cloud formation and precipitation are affected by changes in atmospheric conditions

#### 12.4.4.E

Discuss the role of energy transfer in the atmosphere and its effects on weather changes

#### 12.4.4.F

Describe the impacts of fronts, air masses, and pressure systems on local and regional weather

#### 12.4.4.G

Analyze the effect of local geographic factors on weather

#### 12.4.4.H

Use data to infer and predict weather patterns

#### 12.4.4.I

Identify the geographic factors that influence climate

#### 12.4.4.J

Determine which geographic factors result in specific local and regional climate

#### 12.4.4.K

Examine the importance of the structure and composition of the atmosphere as influencing factors on Earth's weather and climate

#### 12.4.4.L

Describe how global wind patterns influence weather and climate

#### 12.4.4.M

Explain the relationship between ocean currents, weather, and climate

#### 12.4.4.N

Compare the conditions that generate various types of severe weather

#### 12.4.4.O

Discuss the impacts of various types of severe weather

#### 12.4.5

Explain the impact of terrestrial, solar, oceanic, and atmosphere conditions on global climatic patterns

#### 12.4.5.A

Identify examples of natural phenomena (terrestrial, atmospheric, oceanic, and astronomical) that impact global climate patterns

#### 12.4.5.B

Explain the short and long term-effects of these natural phenomena on global climate patterns

#### 12.4.5.C

Examine the geologic, astronomical, and human factors that contibute to global climate change

#### 12.4.5.D

Describe socioeconomic and environmental implications of climate change

#### 12.4.6

Describe the origin, location, and evolution of stars and their planetary systems in respect to the solar system, the Milky Way, the local galactic group, and the universe

#### 12.4.6.A

Describe the Big Bang Theory

#### 12.4.6.B

Summarize evidence supporting the Big Bang Theory

#### 12.4.6.C

Summarize the evolution of stars from birth to death

#### 12.4.6.D

Identify the importance of fusion in a star's evolutionary cycle

#### 12.4.6.E

Explain the relationship between stars and planets in a solar system

#### 12.4.6.F

Compare and contrast the characteristics of planets and stars

#### 12.4.6.G

Explain current theories of the formation of a solar system

#### 12.4.6.H

Explain how the formation and evolution of a solar system influences the composition and placement of objects within it

#### 12.4.6.J

Describe the shape of the Milky Way Galaxy and our place in it (

#### 12.4.6.K

Illustrate the hierachy of stars, planets, solar systems, galaxies and galactic group in the universe

#### 12.4.7

Relate how evidence from advanced technology applied to scientific investigations (e.g., large telescopes and spaceborne observatories), has dramatically impacted our understanding of the origin, size, and volution of the universe

#### 12.4.7.A

Discuss how various types of technology are used to study space

#### 12.4.7.B

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of various tools used to study space

#### 12.4.7.C

Assess how our understanding of the universe changes as technology advances

#### 12.5.1

Predict how key factors (e.g., technology, competitiveness, and world events) affect the development and acceptance of scientific thought

#### 12.5.1.A

Identify an example of scientific thought that has been or is affected by key factors such as technology, competitiveness (industrial, political, religious, etc.), world events, etc

#### 12.5.1.B

Analyze how the development and/or acceptance of this example was influenced by various factors

#### 12.5.1.C

Justify the analysis using cited peer reviewed sources

#### 12.5.1.D

Predict and discuss how key factors could impact the development and acceptance of scientific though

#### 12.5.2

Give examples of scientific innovation challenging commonly held perceptions

#### 12.5.2.A

Identify and discuss examples of commonly held perceptions or ideas being challenged by science (i.e. heliocentrism, flat earth, spontaneous generation)

#### 12.5.3

Evaluate the ongoing, collaborative scientific process by gathering and critiquing information

#### 12.5.3.A

Identify and discuss the practices employed by scientists to collaborate, share, and critique scientific information

#### 12.5.3.B

Summarize the peer review process scientists use to critique and publish scientific research

#### 12.5.3.C

Compare and contrast the formal and informal methods by which scientists communicate with each other and the public

#### 12.5.4

Analyze benefits, limitations, costs, consequences, and ethics involved in using scientific and technological innovations (e.g., biotechnology, environmental issues)

#### 12.5.4.A

Identify various scientific and technological innovations

#### 12.5.4.B

Compare and contrast the benefits and limitations of the various innovations

#### 12.5.4.C

Examine the ethical issues involved with the innovations

#### 12.5.5

Explain how the knowledge of science and technology applies to contemporary Montana American Indian communities (e.g., natural resources development, management and conservation)

#### 12.5.5.A

Identify current practices by Montana American Indian tribes that are influenced by knowlege of science and technology

#### 12.5.5.B

Explain how tribal sovereignty affects the use of science and technology within Montana American Indian communities

#### 12.6.1

Analyze and illustrate the historical impact of scientific and technological advances, including Montana American Indian examples

#### 12.6.1.A

Identify important historical events in science and technology

#### 12.6.1.B

analyze the positive and negative impacts of past, present, and future science and technological advances

#### 12.6.2

Trace developments that demonstrate scientific knowledge is subject to change as new evidence becomes available

#### 12.6.2.A

Identify examples of scientific knowledge that have changed over time

#### 12.6.2.B

Discuss the developments that contributed to the progression of the scientific knowledge

#### 12.6.2.C

. Analyze the impact of each development on the scientific knowledge

#### 12.6.2.D

Summarize the process of the advancement of scientific knowledge

#### 12.6.3

Describe, explain, and analyze science as a human endeavor and an ongoing process

#### 12.6.3.A

Discuss the purpose of science (

#### 12.6.3.B

Summarize the parameters that guide the process of science

#### 12.6.3.C

Examine the role of human reasoning in the process of science

#### 12.6.3.D

Analyze how human interpretation of evidence affects the process of science

#### 12.6.3.E

Describe how science is an ongoing process

#### 12.9-12.LS.13.1

New genetic combinations through meiosis

#### 12.9-12.LS.13.2

Viable errors occurring during replication

#### 12.9-12.LS.13.3

Mutations caused by environmental factors

#### 12.9-12.LS.16.1

The potential for a species to increase in number

#### 12.9-12.LS.16.2

The heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction

#### 12.9-12.LS.16.3

Competition for limited resources

#### 12.9-12.LS.16.4

The proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment

#### 12.9-12.LS.19.1

Changes in the number of individuals of some species

#### 12.9-12.LS.19.2

The emergence of new species over time

#### 12.9-12.LS.19.3

The extinction of other species

#### 12.9-12.LS.19.4

Investigate and explain American Indian perspectives on changes in environmental conditions and their impacts

#### 12.RST.11-12.1

Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.

#### 12.RST.11-12.10

By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

#### 12.RST.11-12.2

Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.

#### 12.RST.11-12.3

Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.

#### 12.RST.11-12.4

Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 1112 texts and topics.

#### 12.RST.11-12.5

Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.

#### 12.RST.11-12.6

Analyze the authors purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.

#### 12.RST.11-12.7

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia, Montana tribal resources) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

#### 12.RST.11-12.8

Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information, including those from American Indians.

#### 12.RST.11-12.9

Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations, and knowledge derived from American Indian cultures) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.1

Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.1.a

Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.1.b

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audiences knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.1.c

Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.1.d

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.1.e

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.2

Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.2.a

Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.2.b

Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audiences knowledge of the topic.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.2.c

Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.2.d

Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.2.e

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

#### 12.WHST.11-12.3

(See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)

#### 12.WHST.11-12.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.8

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative oral, print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

#### 12.WHST.11-12.9

Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Include texts by and about American Indians.