Montana State Standards for Science — Grade 8


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8.1.1

Identify a question, determine relevant variable and a control, formulate a testable hypothesis, plan and predict the outcome of an investigation, safely conduct scientific investigation, and compare and analyze data

8.1.1.A

Compare testable vs. non-testable questions

8.1.1.B

Write a testable question for an investigation

8.1.1.C

Explain the difference between variable and control

8.1.1.D

Determine the variables and control for an investigation

8.1.1.E

Distinguish between a testable question and a testable hypothesis

8.1.1.F

Write a testable hypothesis for an investigation

8.1.1.G

Formulate a plan to test the hypothesis that includes materials, procedures, control, variables, safety precautions, data collection and analysis methods

8.1.1.H

Conduct investigation by following student designed plan

8.1.2

Select and use appropriate tools including technology to make measurements (in metric units), gather, process and analyze data from scientific investigations

8.1.2.A

Identify metric base units

8.1.2.B

Construct properly labeled data tables

8.1.2.C

Select and use appropriate measurement tool(s) and metric units to gather data

8.1.2.D

Identify and use the appropriate graphical representation of the data

8.1.2.E

Analyze data using median, mean, mode, range and graphical comparisons

8.1.3

Review, communicate and defend results of investigations, including considering alternative explanations.

8.1.3.A

Identify data examples that support or refute the hypothesis

8.1.3.B

Judge whether or not the data supports the hypothesis

8.1.3.C

Communicate results by sharing and comparing data with others

8.1.3.D

Compare the differences between student collected data

8.1.3.E

Infer the reasons why student collected data may vary

8.1.3.F

Defend conclusions by providing examples from the data

8.1.3.G

Share and discuss alternative conclusions

8.1.4

Create models to illustrate scientific concepts and use the model to predict change. (e.g., computer simulation, stream table, graphic representation)

8.1.4.A

Identify the similarities and differences between working models and representative models

8.1.4.B

Create representative models to demonstrate knowledge of scientific concepts (i.e., biomes, cells, life systems, density, water cycle)

8.1.4.C

Create working models to illustrate scientific concepts

8.1.4.D

Manipulate working models to predict and make conclusions about scientific concepts

8.1.4.E

Identify the advantages and limitations of various models

8.1.5

Identify strengths and weakness in an investigation design

8.1.5.A

Identify the essential components of investigation design (i.e. sample size and selection, repetition, controls)

8.1.5.B

Explain the purpose of each essential component and why you must plan an investigation

8.1.5.C

Identify the strengths and weaknesses in a variety of investigations

8.1.6

Compare how observations of nature form an essential base of knowledge among the Montana American Indians.

8.1.6.A

Identify examples of various Montana American Indian tribes using observation

8.1.6.B

Compare how observations of nature form an essential base of knowledge among the different Montana American Indian tribes (e.g., migration patterns, planting cycles, etc.)

8.2.1

Classify, describe, and manipulate the physical models of matter in terms of: elements, and compounds, pure substances and mixtures, atoms, and molecules

8.2.1.A

Classify matter as atoms, molecules, elements, compounds, pure substances, or mixtures.

8.2.1.B

Identify common element and compounds by their symbol and chemical formula

8.2.1.C

Create and manipulate simple models of common elements and compounds

8.2.1.D

Identify the relationship between atoms, molecules, elements, compounds, pure substances and mixtures.

8.2.2

Examine, describe, compare and classify objects and substances based on common physical properties and simple chemical properties

8.2.2.A

Distinguish between chemical and physical properties of matter

8.2.2.B

Compare objects and substances based on their physical properties and simple chemical properties

8.2.2.C

Classify objects and substances based on common physical properties and simple chemical properties

8.2.3

Describe energy and compare and contrast the energy transformations and the characteristics of light, heat, motion, magnetism, electricity, sound and mechanical waves

8.2.3.B

Identify examples of various forms of energy

8.2.3.C

Compare and contrast various forms of energy

8.2.3.D

Explain the Law of Conservation of energy using various forms of energy transformation

8.2.3.E

Describe various types of light (visible and invisible)

8.2.3.F

Describe the behavior of light (e.g. refraction,reflection, diffraction)

8.2.3.G

Identify characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum

8.2.3.H

Explain the behavior of light (particle vs. wave, reflection, diffraction, speed)

8.2.3.I

Compare and contrast the three types of heat transfer

8.2.3.J

Explain the relationship between energy and motion

8.2.3.K

Describe properties of magnetic materials

8.2.3.L

Describe the properties of electricity

8.2.3.M

Identify how electricity is produced.

8.2.3.N

Describe the relationship between electricity and magnetism

8.2.3.O

Identify the parts of waves

8.2.3.P

Describe the basic properties of sound

8.2.3.Q

Compare and contrast longitudinal and transverse waves

8.2.3.R

Discuss the variables that affect the speed of sound (e.g., temperature, density)

8.2.4

Model and explain the states of matter are dependent upon the quantity of energy present in the system and describe what will change and what will remain unchanged at the particulate level when matter experiences an external force or energy change

8.2.4.A

Explain the three states of matter and how they relate to temperature change

8.2.4.B

Explain the relationship between changes in thermal energy and states of matter (e.g., increase/decrease of thermal energy = change in state)

8.2.4.C

Recognize that temperature measures the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance.

8.2.4.D

Describe what will change and what will remain unchanged at the particulate level when matter experiences an external force or energy change

8.2.5

Describe and explain the motion of an object in terms of its position, direction, and speed as well as the forces acting upon it

8.2.5.A

Describe the basic characteristics of motion (position, direction, speed, reference point

8.2.5.B

Identify variables that affect the motion of an object

8.2.5.D

Explain different types of forces

8.2.5.E

Explain Newton's laws of motion

8.2.5.F

Explain, the relationship between speed, velocity, acceleration, force, mass, and momentum

8.2.6

Identify, build, describe, measure, and analyze mechanical systems (e.g., simple and complex compound machines) and describe the forces acting within those systems

8.2.6.A

Compare and contrast simple, complex compound machines

8.2.6.B

Recognize that a machine makes work easier by changing the amount or direction of the force

8.2.6.C

Identify that simple and compound machines transfer energy by doing work

8.2.6.D

Measure and calculate efficiency, ideal and actual mechanical advantage for simple machines using the appropriate formulas (e.g., work w=f x d)

8.2.6.E

Create simple and complex compound machines to examine and measure the related forces

8.2.7

Give examples and describe how energy is transferred and conserved (e.g. electric to light and heat [light bulb], chemical to mechanical [fuel to propulsion])

8.2.7.A

Discuss that energy can be transferred (one object to another) or transformed (one form to another)

8.2.7.B

Discuss multi-step energy transformations/transfers

8.2.7.C

The relationship between energy transfer/transformations and conservation of energy.

8.3.1

Compare the structure and function of prokaryotic cells (bacteria) and eukaryotic cells (plant, animal, etc.) including the levels of organization of the structure and function, particularly with humans

8.3.1.A

Identify and observe single-celled and multicellular organisms

8.3.1.B

Define nucleus, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

8.3.1.C

Classify cells as prokaryotic and eukaryotic

8.3.1.D

Identify and describe the functions of cell organelles in meeting the needs of cells

8.3.1.E

Define cell, tissue, organ, system, and organism

8.3.1.F

Illustrate the hierarchal relationships of cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms

8.3.2

Explain how organisms and systems of organisms obtain and use energy resources to maintain stable conditions (e.g., food webs, photosynthesis, respiration)

8.3.2.A

Describe the process by which organisms (plants and animals) use the energy from sugars to carry out life functions.

8.3.2.B

Explain the process by which organisms obtain energy from the sun.

8.3.2.C

Diagram the flow of energy through photosynthesis and its decomposition through respiration

8.3.2.D

Analyze energy movement in biomes (food webs and pyramids)

8.3.2.E

Classify organisms in food webs based upon characteristics (e.g., physical and behavior)

8.3.3

Communicate the differences in the reproductive processes of a variety of plants and animals using the principles of genetic modeling (e.g., Punnet squares)

8.3.3.A

Explain the function of a chromosome

8.3.3.B

Identify organisms that have different numbers of chromosomes

8.3.3.C

Identify the number of chromosomes in human body cells and human sex cells

8.3.3.D

Identify the purposes of cell division

8.3.3.E

Describe the key events in each phase of mitosis

8.3.3.F

Identify the differences in mitosis and meiosis

8.3.3.G

Differentiate between sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction

8.3.3.H

Define and identify gene, inheritance, phenotype, and genotype

8.3.3.I

Define and identify dominant and recessive traits

8.3.3.J

Identify examples of inherited characteristics

8.3.3.K

Explain why inherited characteristics of living things depend on genes

8.3.3.L

Define Punnett square and genetic cross

8.3.3.M

Predict genetic crosses using Punnett squares

8.3.3.N

Interpret simple genetic crosses using Punnett squares

8.3.4

Investigate and explain the interdependent nature of populations and communities in the environment and describe how species in these populations adapt by evolving

8.3.4.A

Distinguish between a population and a community

8.3.4.B

Identify living and non-living factors that effect populations and communities

8.3.4.C

Identify the different types of symbiosis and their positive and negative effects

8.3.4.D

Explain how populations are impacted by changes in living and non-living factors in the environment

8.3.4.E

Explain and provide examples of adaptations

8.3.4.F

Define natural selection

8.3.4.G

Explain the relationship between adaptations and natural selection

8.3.4.H

Identify natural selection as a mechanism for evolution

8.3.4.I

Identify lines of evidence that support evolution.

8.3.4.J

Explain how the fossil record provides evidence of life forms' appearance, diversification, and extinction

8.3.5

Create and use a basic classification scheme to identify plants and animals

8.3.5.A

Explain the relationship between kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species

8.3.5.B

Identify and describe similarities and differences among organisms of different, but closely related taxa (i.e., pine trees, big cats, rodents ungulates)

8.3.5.C

Create and use a basic classification scheme to identify plants and animals.

8.4.1

Model and explain the internal structure of the earth and describe the formation and composition of earths external features in terms of the rock cycle and plate tectonics and constructive and destructive forces

8.4.1.A

Identify internal structures of the earth and their characteristics

8.4.1.B

Model or diagram the internal structure of the earth

8.4.1.C

Diagram convection currents inside of the earth

8.4.1.D

Explain the movement of plates over time

8.4.1.E

Explain or model the differences between Oceanic and Continental plates

8.4.1.F

Model and explain constructive forces on the earth (i.e., plate tectonics)

8.4.1.G

Compare and contrast types of rocks formed from different earth processes

8.4.1.H

Model and explain the appearance of the earth caused by destructive forces (i.e., weathering and erosion)

8.4.2

Differentiate between rock types and mineral types and classify both by how they are formed and the utilization by humans

8.4.2.A

Make use of common rock and mineral identification tests to identify rocks and minerals, including common Montana rocks and minerals

8.4.2.B

List how rocks and minerals are used in daily life.

8.4.2.C

Explain the importance of the mining industry in Montana and the uses of rocks and minerals.

8.4.2.D

Diagram the interaction between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks through the rock cycle

8.4.3

Use fossils to describe the geologic timeline

8.4.3.A

Identify major geologic divisions of time

8.4.3.B

Categorize the predominant organisms that appear within each major division of geologic time

8.4.4

Describe the water cycle, the composition and structure of the atmosphere and the impact of oceans on large-scale weather patterns

8.4.4.A

Identify, diagram and label the composition and structure of the atmosphere.

8.4.4.B

Identify, diagram and label the components of the water cycle

8.4.4.C

Describe convection currents

8.4.4.D

Explain how ocean currents are caused by convection currents

8.4.4.E

Explain the impact of ocean currents on large-scale weather patterns

8.4.5

Describe and model the motion and tilt of earth in relation to the sun, and explain the concepts of day, night, seasons, year, and climatic changes

8.4.5.A

Explain, using a model, how the Earth rotates and revolves around the sun.

8.4.5.B

Identify Earth's climate zones and their key characteristics

8.4.5.C

Explain how Earth's tilt and revolution affects climate zones

8.4.5.D

Explain how Montana's location on earth influences Montana's climate

8.4.5.E

Predict how a change in planetary movement would change Earth's days, seasons, years and climate

8.4.6

Describe the earth, moon, planets and other objects in space in terms of size, force of gravity, structure, and movement in relation to the sun

8.4.6.A

Describe the earth, moon, planets and other objects in space in terms of relative size and structure.

8.4.6.B

Identify that planets in our solar system have different lengths of orbits and periods of rotation around the sun.

8.4.6.C

Discuss how length of orbit and period of rotation affects length of years and days

8.4.6.D

Compare and contrast the length of days and years on different planets.

8.4.6.E

Describe the role of gravity in the orbit of moons around planets and planets around the sun.

8.4.7

Identify scientific theories about the origin and evolution of the earth and solar system

8.4.7.A

Define scientific theory as an explanation supported by rigorous testing and multiple lines of evidence

8.4.7.B

Recognize that the sun and planets formed from the accretion of dust and gases

8.4.7.C

Identify how planets, such as the Earth, changed after their formation

8.5.1

Describe the specific fields of science and technology as they relate to occupations within those fields

8.5.1.A

Research a variety of science and technological fields.

8.5.1.B

Identify and describe a variety of occupations within fields of science and technology

8.5.1.C

Identify and describe uses of technology unique to specific occupations within each field of science

8.5.2

Apply scientific knowledge and process skills to understand issues and everyday events

8.5.2.A

Identify a local current event or problem involving science

8.5.2.B

Research and summarize the scientific issues relevant to that local current event or problem

8.5.2.C

Present and discuss the research on the scientific issues relevant to that local current event or problem

8.5.3

Simulate collaborative problem solving and give examples of how scientific knowledge and technology are shared with other scientists and the public

8.5.3.A

Identify and describe methods scientists use to collaborate and share scientific findings with other scientists

8.5.3.B

Identify and describe methods scientists use to share scientific findings with the public

8.5.3.C

Identify, working in collaboration, a current event or problem involving science

8.5.3.D

Research and summarize, working in collaboration, the scientific issues relevant to that current event or problem

8.5.3.E

Present and discuss, working in collaboration, the scientific issues relevant to that current event or problem

8.5.4

Use scientific knowledge to investigate problems and their proposed solutions and evaluate those solutions while considering environmental impacts

8.5.4.A

Identify and research a local issue with an environmental impact

8.5.4.B

Explain possible environmental impacts

8.5.5

Describe how the knowledge of science and technology influences the development of the Montana American Indian cultures

8.5.5.A

Investigate how science and technology have impact on Montana American Indians

8.5.5.B

Explain the impact of science and technology on Montana American Indians.

8.6-8.ESS.1

Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons

8.6-8.ESS.10

Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses result in changes in weather conditions

8.6-8.ESS.11

Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates

8.6-8.ESS.12

Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century

8.6-8.ESS.13

Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects

8.6-8.ESS.14

Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment

8.6-8.ESS.15

Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems including indigenous populations

8.6-8.ESS.2

Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system

8.6-8.ESS.3

Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system

8.6-8.ESS.4

Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's 4.6 billion-year-old history

8.6-8.ESS.5

Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time scales and spatial scales

8.6-8.ESS.6

Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions

8.6-8.ESS.7

Develop a model to describe the cycling of earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process

8.6-8.ESS.8

Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity

8.6-8.ESS.9

Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes

8.6-8.LS.1

Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells, either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells

8.6-8.LS.10

Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively

8.6-8.LS.11

Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth and development of organisms

8.6-8.LS.12

Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes, such as mutations, may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism

8.6-8.LS.13

Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation

8.6-8.LS.14

Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms

8.6-8.LS.15

Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past

8.6-8.LS.16

Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships

8.6-8.LS.17

Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy

8.6-8.LS.18

Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment

8.6-8.LS.19

Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time

8.6-8.LS.2

Develop and use a model to describe the structure and function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function

8.6-8.LS.3

Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells

8.6-8.LS.4

Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms

8.6-8.LS.5

Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth, release energy, or both, as this matter moves through an organism

8.6-8.LS.6

Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem and analyze scientific concepts used by American Indians to maintain healthy relationships with environmental sources

8.6-8.LS.7

Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem

8.6-8.LS.8

Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems

8.6-8.LS.9

Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services

8.6-8.PS.1

Develop and critique models that describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures

8.6-8.PS.10

Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the mass of interacting objects

8.6-8.PS.11

Design and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact

8.6-8.PS.12

Construct and interpret graphic displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object

8.6-8.PS.13

Develop and critique models to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system

8.6-8.PS.14

Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer

8.6-8.PS.15

Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample

8.6-8.PS.16

Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object

8.6-8.PS.17

Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude and wavelength of a wave is related to the energy in a wave

8.6-8.PS.18

Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials

8.6-8.PS.2

Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred

8.6-8.PS.3

Gather information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society

8.6-8.PS.4

Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed

8.6-8.PS.5

Develop, use, and critique a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved

8.6-8.PS.6

Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes

8.6-8.PS.7

Apply Newton's Third Law of Motion to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects

8.6-8.PS.8

Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object

8.6-8.PS.9

Ask questions about data to determine the factors affecting electric and magnetic force strengths

8.6.1

Give examples of scientific discoveries and describe the interrelationship between technological advances and scientific understanding, including Montana American Indian examples

8.6.1.A

Identify and describe examples of technological advances throughout history, including Montana American Indian examples

8.6.1.B

Identify and explain scientific discoveries influenced by these technologies

8.6.1.C

Explain how technology advances science understanding

8.6.2

Identify major milestones in science that have impacted science, technology, and society

8.6.2.A

Identify and describe the importance of various physical scientists and their discoveries such as Aristotle (motion), Archimedes (levers and properties of buoyancy), Galileo, Newton & Da Vinci (further researched motion), Einstein (discovered gravitys effect on light), Goddard (designed the first liquid propelled rocket)

8.6.2.B

Identify and describe the importance of various life scientists and their discoveries such as Hooke & Van Leeuwenhoek (development of microscope), Pasteur (pasteurization and vaccines), Mendel (heredity), Darwin (evolution), Curie (radiation), Linnaeus (binomial nomenclature), Virchow, Schwann & Schleiden (cell theory), Crick & Watson (DNA)

8.6.2.C

Identify and describe the importance of various earth scientists and their discoveries such as Steno (recognized the importance of rock layers), Hutton (Naturalness of change theory), Boltwood (dating and timescale), Horner (fossils and Museum of the Rockies), Hubble (astronomy), Cousteau (oceanography)

8.6.3

Describe and explain science as a human endeavor and an ongoing process

8.6.3.A

Describe examples of scientific knowledge changing human understanding of the natural world

8.6.3.B

Describe and explain the features of science that make it a human endeavor and an ongoing process

8.RST.6-8.1

Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.

8.RST.6-8.10

By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 68 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

8.RST.6-8.2

Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

8.RST.6-8.3

Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

8.RST.6-8.4

Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 68 texts and topics.

8.RST.6-8.5

Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic.

8.RST.6-8.6

Analyze the authors purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text.

8.RST.6-8.7

Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).

8.RST.6-8.8

Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text. Include texts by and about American Indians.

8.RST.6-8.9

Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.

8.WHST.6-8.1

Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

8.WHST.6-8.1.a

Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.

8.WHST.6-8.1.b

Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.

8.WHST.6-8.1.c

Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

8.WHST.6-8.1.d

Establish and maintain a formal style.

8.WHST.6-8.1.e

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

8.WHST.6-8.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

8.WHST.6-8.2

Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

8.WHST.6-8.2.a

Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

8.WHST.6-8.2.b

Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.

8.WHST.6-8.2.c

Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.

8.WHST.6-8.2.d

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

8.WHST.6-8.2.e

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.

8.WHST.6-8.2.f

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

8.WHST.6-8.3

(See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)

8.WHST.6-8.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

8.WHST.6-8.5

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

8.WHST.6-8.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.

8.WHST.6-8.7

Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

8.WHST.6-8.8

Gather relevant information from multiple oral, print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

8.WHST.6-8.9

Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Include texts by and about American Indians.