Ohio Learning Standards for Science — Grade 4

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About 70 percent of the Earths surface is covered with water and most of that is the ocean. Only a small portion of the Earths water is freshwater, which is found in rivers, lakes and ground water.


Earths surface can change due to erosion and deposition of soil, rock or sediment. Catastrophic events such as flooding, volcanoes and earthquakes can create landforms


Rocks change shape, size and/or form due to water or ice movement, freeze and thaw, wind, plant growth, gases in the air, pollution and catastrophic events such as earthquakes, mass wasting, flooding and volcanic activity.


Water, wind and ice physically remove and carry (erosion) rock, soil and sediment and deposit the material in a new location.


Gravitational force affects movements of water, rock and soil.


Ecosystems can change gradually or dramatically. When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce and others die or move to new locations. An animals patterns of behavior are related to the environment. This includes the kinds and numbers of other organisms present, the availability of food and resources, and the physical attributes of the environment.


The concept of biodiversity is expanded to include different classification schemes based upon shared internal and external characteristics of organisms


Most types of organisms that have lived on Earth no longer exist.


Fossils provide a point of comparison between the types of organisms that lived long ago and those existing today


When an object is broken into smaller pieces, when a solid is dissolved in a liquid or when matter changes state (solid, liquid, gas), the total amount of matter remains constant.


Energy transfers from hot objects to cold objects as heat, resulting in a temperature change.


Electric circuits require a complete loop of conducting materials through which an electrical energy can be transferred.


Electrical energy in circuits can be transformed to other forms of energy, including light, heat, sound and motion.


Electricity and magnetism are closely related.