Ohio Learning Standards for Science — Grade 6

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Minerals are naturally occurring, inorganic solids that have a defined chemical composition. Minerals have properties that can be observed and measured. Minerals form in specific environments.


Most rocks are composed of one or more minerals, but there are a few types of sedimentary rocks that contain organic material, such as coal. The composition of the rock, types of mineral present, mineral arrangement, and/or mineral shape and size can be used to identify the rock and to interpret its history of formation, breakdown (weathering) and transport (erosion).


Magma or lava cools and crystallizes to form igneous rocks. Heat and pressure applied to existing rock forms metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rock forms as existing rock weathers chemically and/or physically and the weathered material is compressed and then lithifies. Each rock type can provide information about the environment in which it was formed.


Soil formation occurs at different rates and is based on environmental conditions, types of existing bedrock and rates of weathering. Soil forms in layers known as horizons. Soil horizons can be distinguished from one another based on properties that can be measured.


Nearly all manufactured material requires some kind of geologic resource. Most geologic resources are considered nonrenewable. Rocks, minerals and soil are examples of geologic resources that are nonrenewable.


All living things are composed of cells. Different body tissues and organs are made of different kinds of cells. The ways cells function are similar in all living organisms.


Cells repeatedly divide resulting in more cells and growth and repair in multicellular organisms.


Many basic functions of organisms occur in cells. Cells take in nutrients and energy to perform work, like making various molecules required by that cell or an organism.


Every cell is covered by a membrane that controls what can enter and leave the cell.


Within the cell are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, information feedback and movement.


The level of organization within organisms includes cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and whole organisms.


Whether the organism is single-celled or multicellular, all of its parts function as a whole to perform the tasks necessary for the survival of the organism.


Organisms have diverse body plans, symmetry and internal structures that contribute to their being able to survive in their environments.


Each atom takes up space, has mass and is in constant motion. Mass is the amount of matter in an object.


Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom


Molecules are the combination of two or more atoms that are joined together chemically.


Compounds are composed of two or more different elements. Each element and compound has properties, which are independent of the amount of the sample.


When substances undergo changes of state, neither atoms nor molecules themselves are changed in structure.


Thermal energy is a measure of the motion of the atoms and molecules in a substance.


Mass is conserved when substances undergo changes of state.


Objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy.


Objects and substances can have energy as a result of their position (potential energy).


An objects position and speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time.