Washington State K-12 Social Studies Learning Standards — Grade 12

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Analyzes and evaluates the ways in which state and U.S. Constitutions and other fundamental documents promote key ideals and principles.

Evaluates how well federal, state, and local court decisions and government policies have upheld key ideals and principles in the United States.

Analyzes and evaluates the structures of state, tribal, and federal forms of governments by comparing them to those of other governments.

Understands and evaluates how political systems in the United States operate.

Understands and evaluates how political systems in the United States operate. Examples: Evaluates the political system examining the role of the chair and the caucus in national and state legislative bodies. Explains the impact of third party candidates on U.S. elections. Evaluates how interest groups use money to promote their agendas and influence the political system. Evaluates the effectiveness of current campaign finance laws. Explains how local tribal governments operate and interact within local, state, and federal governments on issues of environmental and conservation initiatives. Suggested Unit: Civics Government in Action OSPI-developed Assessment: Government Revenue and Responsibility

Evaluates the impact of international agreements on contemporary world issues.

Analyzes and evaluates ways of influencing local, state, and national governments and international organizations to establish or preserve individual rights and/or promote the common good.

Analyzes how economic choices made by groups and individuals in the global economy can impose costs and provide benefits.

Analyzes and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of different economic systems for countries and groups of people.

Analyzes and evaluates the effects of specialization on global trade.

Evaluates the costs and benefits of governmental fiscal and monetary policies.

Analyzes and evaluates how individuals affect and are affected by the distribution of resources and sustainability.

Analyzes information from geographic tools, including computer-based mapping systems, to draw conclusions on an issue or event.

Evaluates the complexities of regions and the challenges involved in defining those regions.

Evaluates how human interaction with the environment has affected economic growth and sustainability.

Analyzes and evaluates the social and political factors affecting cultural interactions.

Analyzes and evaluates current opportunities and obstacles connected with international migration.

Analyzes how the geography of globalization affects local diversity.

This component is addressed in grades K 2, and 4 11.

Evaluates how individuals and movements have shaped contemporary world issues.

Analyzes how cultural identity can promote unity and division.

Evaluates the ethics of current and future uses of technology based on how technology has shaped history.

Analyzes the motives and interests behind an interpretation of a recent local, state, national, or international event.

Evaluates the ramifications of mono-causal explanations of contemporary events in the world.

Evaluates positions on a current issue based on an analysis of history.

Analyzes the short-term and long-term implications of decisions affecting the global community.

Evaluates the plausibility of an analysis of decisions affecting the global community.

Evaluates the breadth of research to determine the need for new or additional investigation when researching an issue or event. Examples: Upon concluding a research paper on the fairness of welfare reform, critiques the ways in which the research could be enhanced with additional investigation. Upon concluding a research paper on the fairness of the governments farm subsidies, critiques the ways in which the research could be enhanced with additional investigation. Suggested Unit: Civics Government in Action OSPI-developed Assessments: Cultural Interactions; Government Revenue and Responsibility; You and the Economy

Evaluates how the discussion and the proposed alternative resolutions changed or solidified ones own position on public issues.

Evaluates positions and evidence to make ones own decisions in a paper or presentation.


Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.


By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11-12 text complexity band independently and proficiently.


Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.


Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.


Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).


Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole.


Evaluate authors' differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors' claims, reasoning, and evidence.


Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.


Evaluate an author's premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.


Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.


Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.


Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.


Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.


Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.


Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.


Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.


Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.


Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.


Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.


Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.


Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.


Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.


Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).


(See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)


Note: Students' narrative skills continue to grow in these grades. The Standards require that students be able to incorporate narrative elements effectively into arguments and informative/explanatory texts. In history/social studies, students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of individuals or events of historical import.


Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.


Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.


Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.


Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.


Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.


Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.