Alaska English Language Arts Standards — Grade 4

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Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; a Use nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that), and relative adverbs (where, when, why) appropriate to function and purpose in order to apply the conventions of English; b Form and use the progressive (eg, I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses; c Use modal auxiliaries (eg, can, may, must) to convey various conditions; d Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (eg, a small red bag rather than a red small bag); e Form and use prepositional phrases; f Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons*; g Correctly use frequently confused words (eg, to, too, two, there, their)*


Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; a Use correct capitalization; b Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text; c Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence; d Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed


Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening; a Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely*; b Choose punctuation for effect*; c Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (eg, presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (eg, small-group discussion)


Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies; a Determine meaning of unfamiliar words by using knowledge of phonetics, word structure, and language structure through reading words in text (word order, grammar, syntax), use context (eg, definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase; b Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (eg, telegraph, photograph, autograph); c Consult reference materials (eg, dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases


Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings; a Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (eg, as pretty as a picture) in context; b Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs; c Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms)


Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (eg,quizzed,whined,stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (eg,wildlife,conservation, andendangeredwhen discussing animal preservation)


Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words; a Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (eg, roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context


Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension; a Read on-level text with purpose and understanding; b Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings; c Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary


Locate explicit information in the text to explain what the text says explicitly and to support inferences drawn from the text


By the end of the year, read and comprehend a range of informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts within a complexity band appropriate to grade 4 (from upper grade 3 to grade 5), with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range


Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; paraphrase or summarize key ideas, events, or procedures including correct sequence when appropriate


Explain relationships (eg, cause-effect) among events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text


Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area


Describe the overall structure (eg, sequence, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text


Determine authors purpose; compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided


Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (eg, in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears


Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text


Integrate information from two texts on the same topic or related topics in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably


Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text


By the end of the year, read and comprehend a range of literature from a variety of cultures, within a complexity band appropriate to grade 4 (from upper grade 3 to grade 5), with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range


Determine a theme or authors message or purpose of a story, drama, or poem using details and evidence from the text as support; summarize main ideas or events, in correct sequence, including how conflicts are resolved


Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (eg, a characters thoughts, words, or actions)


Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including use of figurative language and literary devices (eg, imagery, metaphors, similes)


Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (eg, verse and rhythm) and drama (eg, casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text


Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including how the use of first or third person can change the way a reader might see characters or events described


Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text


(Not applicable to literature)


Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and plots (eg, opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (eg, the quest) in literature


Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly; a Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion; b Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles; c Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others; d Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion


Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally


Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points (eg, using a graphic organizer to show connections between reasons given and support provided)


Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace


Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes and to engage listeners more fully


Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (eg, presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (eg, small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation (See grade 4 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations)


Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with fact- or text-based reasons and information (eg, The character ___ was brave because she ____); a Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writers purpose; b Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details; c Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (eg, for instance, in order to, in addition); d Provide a concluding statement or section that reinforces or restates the opinion presented


Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences


Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly; a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include labeled or captioned visuals when useful to aiding comprehension; b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information/explanations and examples that support the focus; c Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (eg, another, for example, also, because); d Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic; e Provide a concluding statement or section that paraphrases the focus of the text or explanation presented


Use narrative writing to develop real or imagined characters, experiences, or events using effective narrative techniques (dialogue, description, elaboration, problem-solution, figurative language) and clear event sequences (chronology); a Orient the reader by establishing a context or situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally; b Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description and elaboration, and concrete and sensory details to describe actions, thoughts, and motivations and to develop experiences and events showing the responses of characters to situations, problems, or conflicts; c Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to develop the sequence of events; d Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details, and elaboration to convey experiences and events precisely; e Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events


Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 13 above)


With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 13 up to and including grade 4)


With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce, edit, and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others and to locate information about topics; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting


Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic


Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources


Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research; a Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (eg, Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [eg, a characters thoughts, words, or actions]); b Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (eg, Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text)