Kentucky Learning Standards for Social Studies — Grade 12


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CS.2.16

Students observe, analyze, and interpret human behaviors, social groupings, and institutions to better understand people and the relationships among individuals and among groups

CS.2.17

Students interact effectively and work cooperatively with the many ethnic and cultural groups of our nation and world.

CS.2.17.a

culture is a system of beliefs, knowledge, institutions, customs/traditions, languages and skills shared by a group. Through a societys culture, individuals learn the relationships, structures, patterns and processes to be members of the society.

CS.2.17.b

social institutions (e.g., government, economy, education, religion, family) respond to human needs, structure society, and influence behavior within different cultures

CS.2.17.c

interactions among individuals and groups assume various forms (e.g., compromise, cooperation, conflict, competition) and are influenced by culture.

CS.2.17.d

culture affects how people in a society behave in relation to groups and their environment.

CS.2.17.e

a variety of factors promote cultural diversity in a society, a nation, and the world.

CS.2.17.f

an appreciation of the diverse nature of cultures is essential in our global society.

CS.2.18.a

demonstrate an understanding of the nature of culture:

CS.2.18.a.a

analyze cultural elements of diverse groups in the United States (Reconstruction to present)

CS.2.18.a.b

describe how belief systems, knowledge, technology, and behavior patterns define cultures

CS.2.18.a.c

analyze historical perspectives and events in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present) in terms of how they have affected and been affected by cultural issues and elements

CS.2.18.b

describe and compare how various human needs are met through interactions with and among social institutions (e.g., family, religion, education, government, economy) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present)

CS.2.18.c

explain or give examples of how communications between groups can be influenced by cultural differences; explain the reasons why conflict and competition (e.g., violence, difference of opinion, stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, genocide) developed as cultures emerged in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and in the United States (Reconstruction to present)

CS.2.18.d

describe how compromise and cooperation are characteristics that influence interaction (e.g., peace studies, treaties, conflict resolution) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present)

CS.2.18.e

compare examples of cultural elements (e.g., beliefs, customs/traditions, languages, skills, literature, the arts) of diverse groups today to those of the past, using information from a variety of print and non-print sources (e.g., autobiographies, biographies, documentaries, news media, artifacts)

E.2.18

Students understand economic principles and are able to make economic decisions that have consequences in daily living.

E.2.18.a

the basic economic problem confronting individuals, societies and governments is scarcity; as a result of scarcity, economic choices and decisions must be made.

E.2.18.b

economic systems are created by individuals, societies and governments to achieve broad goals (e.g., security, growth, freedom, efficiency, equity)

E.2.18.c

markets (e.g., local, national, global) are institutional arrangements that enable buyers and sellers to exchange goods and services.

E.2.18.d

all societies deal with questions about production, distribution and consumption

E.2.18.e

a variety of fundamental economic concepts (e.g., supply and demand, opportunity cost) affect individuals, societies and governments.

E.2.18.f

our global economy provides for a level of interdependence among individuals, societies and governments of the world

E.2.18.g

the United States Government and its policies play a major role in the performance of the U.S. economy at both the national and international levels

E.2.18.h

in a global economy, interdependence results in economic conditions and policies in one nation affecting economic conditions in other nations.

E.2.19.a

demonstrate an understanding of the nature of limited resources and scarcity in the modern world

E.2.19.a.a

explain how scarcity of resources necessitates choices at both the personal and societal levels, and explain the impact of those choices

E.2.19.a.b

explain how governments with limited budgets consider revenues, costs and opportunity when planning expenditures

E.2.19.a.c

describe how economic institutions (e.g., corporations, labor unions, banks, stock markets, cooperatives, partnerships) help to deal with scarcity

E.2.19.b

compare and contrast economic systems (e.g., traditional, command, market, mixed), and evaluate their effectiveness in achieving broad social goals (e.g., freedom, efficiency, equity, security)

E.2.19.c

analyze free enterprise systems, and explain strategies for maximizing profits based on different roles in the economy (e.g., producers, entrepreneurs, workers, savers and investors)

E.2.19.d

describe relationships between and among markets (e.g., local, national, global) and exchange of goods and services:

E.2.19.d.a

explain factors that influence the supply and demand of products (e.g., supplytechnology, cost of inputs, number of sellers; demandincome, utility, price of similar products, consumers' preferences)

E.2.19.d.b

describe how financial and non-financial incentives influence individuals differently (e.g., discounts, sales promotions, trends, personal convictions)

E.2.19.d.c

explain or model cause-effect relationships between the level of competition in a market and the number of buyers and sellers

E.2.19.d.d

research laws and government mandates (e.g., anti-trust legislation, tariff policy, regulatory policy) and analyze their purposes and effects in the United States and in the global marketplace

E.2.19.e

investigate the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services:

E.2.19.e.a

analyze changing relationships between and among business, labor and government (e.g., unions, anti-trust laws, tariff policy, price controls, subsidies, tax incentives), and examine the effects of those changing relationships on production, distribution and consumption in the United States

E.2.19.e.b

describe how different factors (e.g., new knowledge, technological change, investments in capital goods and human capital/resources) have increased productivity in the world

E.2.19.f

explain results and issues related to interdependence of personal, national and international economic activities (e.g., natural resource dependencies, economic sanctions, environmental and humanitarian issues) in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and the United States (Reconstruction to present):

E.2.19.f.a

analyze how economies of nations around the world (e.g., China, India, Japan) affect and are affected by American economic policies

G.2.19

Students recognize and understand the relationship between people and geography and apply their knowledge in real-life situations

G.2.19.a

patterns emerge as humans move, settle and interact on Earths surface, and can be identified by examining the location of physical and human characteristics, how they are arranged, and why they are in particular locations. Economic, political, cultural and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations, interdependence, cooperation and conflict.

G.2.19.b

regions help us to see the Earth as an integrated system of places and features organized by such principles as landform types, political units, economic patterns and cultural groups. People vary in how they organize, interpret and use information about places and regions.

G.2.19.c

human actions modify the physical environment and, in turn, the physical environment limits or promotes human activities

G.2.19.d

human and physical features of the Earth's surface can be identified by absolute and relative location.

G.2.19.e

the use of maps, geographic tools, and mental maps helps interpret information, analyze patterns and spatial data, predict consequences and find/propose solutions to world problems.

G.2.19.f

citizens in an interdependent global community impact their physical environments through the use of land and other resources.

G.2.19.g

environmental changes and physical and human geographic factors have influenced world economic, political, and social conditions.

G.2.19.h

many of the important issues facing societies involve the consequences of interactions between human and physical systems. Complex interrelationships between societies and their physical environments influence conditions locally, regionally and globally.

G.2.20.a

use a variety of geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, charts, graphs, photographs, models, data bases, satellite images):

G.2.20.a.a

analyze the distribution of physical and human features on Earth's surface

G.2.20.a.b

interpret patterns and develop rationales for the location and distribution of Earth's human features (e.g., available transportation, location of resources and markets, individual preference, centralization versus dispersion)

G.2.20.b

investigate regions of the Earths surface using information from print and non-print sources (e.g., books, films, periodicals, Internet, geographic tools, news media):

G.2.20.b.a

interpret how places and regions serve as meaningful symbols for individuals and societies (e.g., Jerusalem, Vietnam Memorial, Ellis Island, the Appalachian region)

G.2.20.b.b

analyze pros and cons of physical (e.g., climate, mountains, rivers) and human characteristics (e.g., interstate highways, urban centers, workforce) of regions in terms of human activity

G.2.20.b.c

evaluate reasons for stereotypes (e.g., all cities are dangerous and dirty; rural areas are poor) associated with places or regions

G.2.20.b.d

explain how cultural differences and perspectives sometimes result in conflicts in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present)

G.2.20.c

describe movement and settlement patterns in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present):

G.2.20.c.a

analyze the causes of movement and settlement (e.g., famines, military conflicts, climate, economic opportunity) and their impacts in different places and at different times in history

G.2.20.c.b

explain how technology has facilitated the movement of goods, services and populations, increased economic interdependence, and influenced development of centers of economic activity (e.g., cities, interstate highways, airports, rivers, railroads, computers, telecommunications)

G.2.20.d

investigate interactions among human activities and the physical environment in the modern world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States (Reconstruction to present):

G.2.20.d.a

describe human strategies (e.g., transportation, communication, technology) used to overcome limits of the physical environment

G.2.20.d.b

interpret and analyze possible global effects (e.g., global warming, destruction of the rainforest, acid rain) of human modifications to the physical environment (e.g., deforestation, mining), perspectives on the use of natural resources (e.g., oil, water, land), and natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, floods)

GC.2.14

Students understand the democratic principles of justice, equality, responsibility, and freedom and apply them to real-life situations.

GC.2.15

Students can accurately describe various forms of government and analyze issues that relate to the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democracy.

GC.2.15.a

people form governments to establish order, provide security and accomplish common goals. Governments in the world vary in terms of their sources of power, purposes and effectiveness.

GC.2.15.b

the Government of the United States, established by the Constitution, embodies the purposes, values and principles (e.g., liberty, justice, individual human dignity, the rules of law) of American representative democracy.

GC.2.15.c

the Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches. The provisions of the U.S. Constitution have allowed our government to change over time to meet the changing needs of our society.

GC.2.15.d

all citizens of the United States have certain rights and responsibilities as members of a democratic society.

GC.2.15.e

individual rights in a democracy may, at times, be in conflict with others individual rights, as well as with the responsibility of government to protect the common good.

GC.2.15.f

the United States does not exist in isolation; its democratic form of government has played and continues to play a considerable role in our interconnected world.

GC.2.15.g

the level of individual civic engagement in a democracy can impact the governments effectiveness.

GC.2.15.h

the development and ongoing functions of a political system (e.g., elections, political parties, campaigns, political identity and culture, the role of the media) is necessary for a democratic form of government to be effective.

GC.2.16.a

demonstrate an understanding (e.g., illustrate, write, model, present, debate) of the nature of government:

GC.2.16.a.a

examine ways that democratic governments do or do not preserve and protect the rights and liberties of their constituents (e.g., U.N. Charter, Declaration of the Rights of Man, U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, U.S. Constitution)

GC.2.16.a.b

compare purposes and sources of power of various forms of government in the world, and analyze their effectiveness in establishing order, providing security and accomplishing goals

GC.2.16.a.c

evaluate the relationship between and among the U.S. government's response to contemporary issues and societal problems (e.g., education, welfare system, health insurance, childcare, crime) and the needs, wants and demands of its citizens (e.g., individuals, political action committees, special interest groups, political parties)

GC.2.16.a.d

examine conflicts within and among different governments and analyze their impacts on historical or current events

GC.2.16.b

examine issues related to the intent of the Constitution of the United States and its amendments:

GC.2.16.b.a

explain the principles of limited government (e.g., rule of law, federalism, checks and balances, majority rule, protection of minority rights, separation of powers) and how effective these principles are in protecting individual rights and promoting the 'common good

GC.2.16.b.b

analyze how powers of government are distributed and shared among levels and branches, and how this distribution of powers works to protect the 'common good' (e.g., Congress legislates on behalf of the people, the President represents the people as a nation, the Supreme Court acts on behalf of the people as a whole when it interprets the Constitution)

GC.2.16.c

investigate the rights of individuals (e.g., Freedom of Information Act, free speech, civic responsibilities in solving global issues) to explain how those rights can sometimes be in conflict with the responsibility of the government to protect the 'common good' (e.g., homeland security issues, environmental regulations, censorship, search and seizure), the rights of others (e.g., slander, libel), and civic responsibilities (e.g., personal belief/responsibility versus civic responsibility)

GC.2.16.d

evaluate the impact citizens have on the functioning of a democratic government by assuming responsibilities (e.g., seeking and assuming leadership positions, voting) and duties (e.g., serving as jurors, paying taxes, complying with local, state and federal laws, serving in the armed forces)

GC.2.16.e

documents, articles, interviews, Internet, film, media) to research issues, perspectives and solutions to problems

HP.2.2

Students understand, analyze, and interpret historical events, conditions, trends, and issues to develop historical perspective.

HP.2.20.a

history is an account of human activities that is interpretive in nature, and a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources, data, artifacts) are needed to analyze historical events.

HP.2.20.b

history is a series of connected events shaped by multiple cause-effect relationships, tying past to present.

HP.2.20.c

geography and natural resources have a significant impact on historical perspectives and events.

HP.2.20.d

advances in research, science and technology have a significant impact on historical events, American society, and the global community.

HP.2.21.a

U.S. History can be analyzed by examining significant eras (Reconstruction, Industrialization, Progressive Movement, World War I, Great Depression and the New Deal, World War II, Cold War, Contemporary United States) to develop chronological understanding and recognize cause-and- effect relationships and multiple causation

HP.2.21.b

U.S. History has been impacted by significant individuals and groups.

HP.2.21.c

each era in the history of the United States has social, political and economic characteristics

HP.2.21.d

the role of the United States in the global community has evolved into that of a world power.

HP.2.22.a

world civilizations (e.g., African, Asian, European, Latin American, Middle Eastern) can be analyzed by examining significant eras (Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Exploration, Age of Revolution, Nationalism and Imperialism, Technological Age, 21st Century) to develop chronological understanding and recognize cause-effect relationships and multiple causation.

HP.2.22.b

world civilizations share common characteristics (e.g., government, belief system, economy) and have been impacted by significant individuals and groups

HP.2.22.c

each era in the history of the world has social, political and economic characteristics.

HP.2.22.d

an increasingly interdependent world provides challenges and opportunities.

HP.2.23.a

demonstrate an understanding of the interpretative nature of history using a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources, Internet, timelines, maps, data):

HP.2.23.a.a

investigate and analyze perceptions and perspectives (e.g., gender, race, region, ethnic group, nationality, age, economic status, religion, politics, geographic factors) of people and historical events in the modern world (world civilizations, U.S. history)

HP.2.23.a.b

examine multiple cause-effect relationships that have shaped history (e.g., showing how a series of events are connected)

HP.2.23.b

analyze how the United States participates with the global community to maintain and restore world peace (e.g., League of Nations, United Nations, Cold War politics, Persian Gulf War), and evaluate the impact of these efforts

HP.2.23.c

research issues or interpret accounts of historical events in U.S. history using primary and secondary sources (e.g., biographies, films, periodicals, Internet resources, textbooks, artifacts):

HP.2.23.c.a

compare, contrast and evaluate the approaches and effectiveness of Reconstruction programs

HP.2.23.c.b

explain how the rise of big business, factories, mechanized farming, and the labor movement have impacted the lives of Americans

HP.2.23.c.c

examine the impact of massive immigration (e.g., new social patterns, conflicts in ideas about national unity amid growing cultural diversity) after the Civil War

HP.2.23.c.d

explain and evaluate the impact of significant social, political and economic changes (e.g., imperialism to isolationism, industrial capitalism, urbanization, political corruption, initiation of reforms) during the Progressive Movement, World War I and the Twenties

HP.2.23.c.e

evaluate how the Great Depression, New Deal policies, and World War II transformed America socially and politically at home (e.g., stock market crash, relief, recovery, reform initiatives, increased role of government in business, influx of women into workforce, rationing) and reshaped its role in world affairs (emergence of the U.S. as economic and political superpower)

HP.2.23.c.f

analyze economic growth in America after WWII (e.g., suburban growth), struggles for racial and gender equality (e.g., Civil Rights Movement), the extension of civil liberties, and conflicts over political issues (e.g., McCarthyism, U.S. involvement in Vietnam)