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Click on any standard to search for aligned resources. This data may be subject to copyright. You may download a CSV of the Australian Curriculum Standards (ACARA) if your intention constitutes fair use.

Based on the ACARA curriculum.

Plan, assess, and analyze learning aligned to these standards using
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Investigating differences between spoken and written English by comparing the language of conversation and interviews with the written language of print texts

Experimenting with and incorporating new words and creative inventions in students own written and spoken texts

Understanding how and why spelling became standardised and how conventions have changed over time and continue to change through common usage, the invention of new words and creative combinations of existing words

Identifying language that seeks to align the listener or reader (for example 'of course', 'obviously', 'as you can imagine')

Identifying the use of first person I, we and second person pronouns you to distance or involve the audience, for example in a speech made to a local cultural community

Identifying appeals to shared cultural knowledge, values and beliefs

Reflecting on experiences of when language includes, distances or marginalises others

Creating texts that represent personal belief systems (such as credos, statements of ethical judgements, guidelines, letters to the editor and blog entries)

Considering whether ethical judgments of good, bad, right or wrong are absolute or relative through consideration of texts with varying points of view and through discussion with others

Interpreting texts by drawing on knowledge of the historical context in which texts were created

Reproducing and adapting existing print texts for an online environment and explaining the reasons for the adaptations (for example accounting for the navigation and use of hyperlinks as structuring principles in hypertext narratives)

Investigating the structure and language of similar text types like information reports and narratives and how these are influenced by different technological affordances (for example hyperlinks as structuring principles in hypertext narratives versus linear text sequencing principles in print narratives)

Analysing and experimenting with combinations of graphics, text and sound in the production of multimodal texts such as documentaries, media reports, online magazines and digital books

Understanding who to cite in essays, reviews and academic assignments and when it is appropriate to use direct quotations or to report sources more generally

Recognising how emphasis in sentences can be changed by reordering clauses (for example, She made her way home because she was feeling ill as compared with Because she was feeling ill, she made her way home) or parts of clauses (for example, The horses raced up from the valley as compared with Up from the valley raced the horses)

Recognising how the focus of a sentence can be changed through the use of the passive voice (for example compare active, The police had caught the thief. with passive The thief had been caught.)

Observing how authors sometimes use verbless clauses for effect (for example, And what about the other woman? With her long black eyelashes and red lipstick)

Considering how nominalisation affects the way in which events are constructed and explained, making some information more explicit and other information less so

Noting how technicality allows for efficient reference to shared knowledge, indicating growing expertise in the field (for example, The Romantic poetry of Keats is characterised by sensual imagery, most notably in the series of odes.)

Observing how abstraction allows for greater generalisation at a higher level (for example, the political, religious, social and economic features of the society which is an abstract noun group/phrase)

Experimenting with aspects of visual texts to establish different nuances, for example evaluating the impact of the movement of camera or light in moving images

Creating texts that demand complex processes of responding, for example the inclusion of symbolism in advertising, foreshadowing in documentary and irony in humorous texts

Investigating and analysing the ways cultural stories may be retold and adapted across a range of contexts such as the Cinderella story and the anti-hero

Imaginatively adapting texts from an earlier time or different social context for a new audience

Exploring and reflecting on personal understanding of the world and human experience gained from interpreting literature drawn from cultures and times different from the students own

Determining, through debate, whether a text possesses universal qualities and remains relevant

Presenting arguments based on close textual analysis to support an interpretation of a text, for example writing an essay or creating a set of directors notes

Creating personal reading lists in a variety of genres and explain why the texts qualify for inclusion on a particular list

Reflecting upon and asking questions about interpretations of texts relevant to a students cultural background

Looking at a range of texts to consider how the use of a structural device, for example a female narrator, may influence female readers/viewers/listeners to respond sympathetically to an event or issue

Identifying and analysing ethical positions on a current issue debated in blogs or online discussion forums, including values and/or principles involved and the strengths and weaknesses of the position in the context of the issue

Identify, explain and discuss how narrative viewpoint, structure, characterisation and devices including analogy and satire shape different interpretations and responses to a text (ACELT1642)

Creating extended written responses to literary texts, making reference to varying points of view about the issues raised

Using terms associated with literary text analysis (for example narrative, characters, poetry, figurative language, symbolism, soundtrack) when evaluating aspects that are valued and that contain aesthetic qualities

Writing or speaking about how effectively the author constructed the text and engaged and sustained the readers/viewers/listeners personal interest

Creating texts which draw on students experience of other texts and which have a personal aesthetic appeal

Reflect on the authors who have influenced students own aesthetic style and evaluate their impact

Creating a range of students own spoken, written or multimodal texts, experimenting with and manipulating language devices for particular audiences, purposes and contexts

Using humour and drama as devices to entertain, inform and persuade listeners, viewers and readers

Creating texts that refer to themes or make particular connections to texts, for example writing crime fiction or romance short stories

Considering ethical positions across more than one culture as represented in text and consider the similarities and differences

Questioning the representation of stereotypes of people, cultures, places, events and concepts, and expressing views on the appropriateness of these representations

Identifying and explaining satirical events, including events in other cultures, for example depictions in political cartoons

Identifying and evaluating poetic, lyrical language in the depiction of people, culture, places, events, things and concepts in texts

Analysing the ways socio-cultural values, attitudes and beliefs are presented in texts by comparing the ways news is reported in commercial media and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander media

Identifying stereotypes of people, cultures, places, events, and concepts and explaining why they are stereotypes

Identifying and explaining satirical events, including events in other cultures, for example depictions in political cartoons

Applying knowledge of spoken, visual, auditory, technical and multimodal resources (for example sound and silence, camera shot types, lighting and colour) in conjunction with verbal resources for varying purposes and contexts

Selecting subject matter and language to position readers to accept representations of people, events, ideas and information

Participating in pair, group, class, school and community speaking and listening situations, including informal conversations, discussions, debates and presentations

Using effective strategies for dialogue and discussion in a range of formal and informal contexts, including speaking clearly and coherently and at appropriate length, activating prior knowledge to assess the credibility of a speakers assertions, and summarising alternative views on an issue

Choosing vocabulary and spoken text and sentence structures for particular purposes and audiences, such as debating a topic with a team from another school, creating a voiceover for a media presentation, and adapting language devices such as evaluative language, cause and effect, anecdotes and humour for particular effects

Adapting voice effects, such as tone, volume, pitch, pauses and change of pace, for their specific effects such as putting forward a point of view or attempting to persuade an audience to a course of action

Using assumptions about listeners, viewers and readers to try to position them to accept a particular point of view

Skim reading sections of a persuasive text to identify the main contention, key arguments in linked paragraphs and supporting evidence in order to locate points for building rebuttal or counter argument

Assessing the impact of hyperlinked text in a websites navigation

Using appropriate metalanguage associated with digital technologies to analyse reading pathways on websites

Identifying the meaning of an increasing range of subtle vocabulary, for example inferring the different connotations of words in advertising texts from other cultures

Presenting a structured argument by providing a statement of the major perspectives or concerns relating to an issue; previewing the structure of arguments; structuring the text to provide a major point for each paragraph with succinct elaboration, and concluding with a summary of the main issues or recommendations in an argument

Creating spoken, written and multimodal texts that compel readers to empathise with the ideas and emotions expressed or implied

Exploring models of sustained texts created for persuasive purposes about a challenging or complex issue from other cultures, including Asia

Reflecting on, critiquing and refining students own texts prior to publishing for an authentic audience, such as uploading a movie to a website, contributing to an anthology, writing texts appropriate for the workplace, or delivering a presentation

Designing a webpage that combines navigation, text, sound and moving and still images for a specific audience

Solve practical problems requiring basic number operations (ACMEM001)

Apply arithmetic operations according to their correct order (ACMEM002)

Ascertain the reasonableness of answers to arithmetic calculations (ACMEM003)

Recognise the significance of place value after the decimal point (ACMEM007)

Evaluate decimal fractions to the required number of decimal places (ACMEM008)

Round up or round down numbers to the required number of decimal places (ACMEM009)

Determine one amount expressed as a percentage of another (ACMEM012)

Apply percentage increases and decreases in situations; for example, mark-ups, discounts and GST. (ACMEM013)

Identify common usage of rates; for example, km/h as a rate to describe speed, beats/minute as a rate to describe pulse (ACMEM014)

Convert units of rates occurring in practical situations to solve problems (ACMEM015)

Use rates to make comparisons; for example, using unit prices to compare best buys, comparing heart rates after exercise. (ACMEM016)

Use metric units of length, their abbreviations, conversions between them, and appropriate levels of accuracy and choice of units (ACMEM017)

Convert between metric units of length and other length units (ACMEM019)

Calculate perimeters of familiar shapes, including triangles, squares, rectangles, and composites of these. (ACMEM020)

Use metric units of mass, their abbreviations, conversions between them, and appropriate choices of units (ACMEM025)

Use metric units of volume, their abbreviations, conversions between them, and appropriate choices of units (ACMEM027)

Understand the relationship between volume and capacity (ACMEM028)

Calculate the volume of objects, such as cubes and rectangular and triangular prisms. (ACMEM030)

Substitute numerical values into algebraic expressions; for example, substitute different values of x to evaluate the expressions 3x/5, 5(2x-4). (ACMEM035)

substitute given values for the other pronumerals in a mathematical formula to find the value of the subject of the formula. (ACMEM036)

Interpret information presented in graphs, such as conversion graphs, line graphs, step graphs, column graphs and picture graphs (ACMEM037)

Interpret information presented in two-way tables (ACMEM038)

Discuss and interpret graphs found in the media and in factual texts. (ACMEM039)

Determine which type of graph is best used to display a dataset (ACMEM040)

Display categorical data in tables and column graphs (ACMEM045)

Display numerical data as frequency distributions, dot plots, stem and leaf plots, and histograms (ACMEM046)

Compare the suitability of different methods of data presentation in real-world contexts. (ACMEM048)

Calculate measures of central tendency, the arithmetic mean and the median (ACMEM050)

Investigate the suitability of measures of central tendency in various real-world contexts (ACMEM051)

Investigate the effect of outliers on the mean and the median (ACMEM052)

Calculate and interpret quartiles, deciles and percentiles (ACMEM053)

Use informal ways of describing spread, such as spread out/dispersed, tightly packed, clusters, gaps, more/less dense regions, outliers (ACMEM054)

Calculate and interpret statistical measures of spread, such as the range, interquartile range and standard deviation (ACMEM055)

Investigate real-world examples from the media illustrating inappropriate uses, or misuses, of measures of central tendency and spread. (ACMEM056)

Compare back-to-back stem plots for different data-sets (ACMEM057)

Construct box plots using a five number summary (ACMEM059)

Compare the characteristics of the shape of histograms using symmetry, skewness and bimodality. (ACMEM060)

Review calculating a percentage of a given amount (ACMEM061)

Review one amount expressed as a percentage of another. (ACMEM062)

Calculate simple interest for different rates and periods. (ACMEM064)

Demonstrate an understanding of the elementary ideas and notation of ratio (ACMEM065)

Understand the relationship between fractions and ratio (ACMEM066)

Review identifying common usage of rates such as km/h (ACMEM071)

Convert between units for rates; for example, km/h to m/s, mL/min to L/h (ACMEM072)

Complete calculations with rates, including solving problems involving direct proportion in terms of rate. (ACMEM073)

Use rates to determine costs; for example, calculating the cost of a tradesman using rates per hour, call-out fees. (ACMEM075)

Use units of time, conversions between units, fractional, digital and decimal representations (ACMEM076)

Represent time using 12-hour and 24-hour clocks (ACMEM077)

Interpret timetables, such as bus, train and ferry timetables (ACMEM079)

Use several timetables and electronic technologies to plan the most time-efficient routes (ACMEM080)

Interpret complex timetables, such as tide charts, sunrise charts and moon phases (ACMEM081)

Compare the time taken to travel a specific distance with various modes of transport (ACMEM082)

Use scales to find distances, such as on maps; for example, road maps, street maps, bushwalking maps, online maps and cadastral maps (ACMEM083)

Calculate speed, distance or time using the formula speed = distance/time (ACMEM086)

Calculate the time or costs for a journey from distances estimated from maps (ACMEM087)

Calculate and interpret average speed; for example, a 4-hour trip covering 250 km. (ACMEM089)

Review metric units of length, their abbreviations, conversions between them, estimation of lengths, and appropriate choices of units (ACMEM090)

Calculate perimeters of familiar shapes, including triangles, squares, rectangles, polygons, circles, arc lengths, and composites of these. (ACMEM091)

Use formulas to calculate areas of regular shapes, including triangles, squares, rectangles, parallelograms, trapeziums, circles and sectors (ACMEM093)

Find the area of irregular figures by decomposition into regular shapes (ACMEM094)

Find the surface area of familiar solids, including cubes, rectangular and triangular prisms, spheres and cylinders (ACMEM095)

Find the surface area of pyramids, such as rectangular- and triangular-based pyramids (ACMEM096)

review metric units of mass (and weight), their abbreviations, conversions between them, and appropriate choices of units (ACMEM098)

Review metric units of volume, their abbreviations, conversions between them, and appropriate choices of units (ACMEM101)

Recognise relations between volume and capacity, recognising that 1cm^3 = 1mL and 1m^3 = 1kL (ACMEM102)

Use formulas to find the volume and capacity of regular objects such as cubes, rectangular and triangular prisms and cylinders (ACMEM103)

Use formulas to find the volume of pyramids and spheres. (ACMEM104)

Recognise the properties of common two-dimensional geometric shapes and three-dimensional solids (ACMEM105)

Use symbols and conventions for the representation of geometric information; for example, point, line, ray, angle, diagonal, edge, curve, face and vertex. (ACMEM107)

Interpret commonly used symbols and abbreviations in scale drawings (ACMEM108)

Find actual measurements from scale drawings, such as lengths, perimeters and areas (ACMEM109)

Estimate and compare quantities, materials and costs using actual measurements from scale drawings; for example, using measurements for packaging, clothes, painting, bricklaying and landscaping. (ACMEM110)

Understand and apply drawing conventions of scale drawings, such as scales in ratio, clear indications of dimensions, and clear labelling (ACMEM111)

Construct scale drawings by hand and by using software packages. (ACMEM112)

Interpret diagrams of three-dimensional objects. (ACMEM115)

Apply the tangent ratio to find unknown angles and sides in right-angled triangles (ACMEM117)

Work with the concepts of angle of elevation and angle of depression (ACMEM118)

Apply the cosine and sine ratios to find unknown angles and sides in right-angled triangles (ACMEM119)

Demonstrate familiarity with Cartesian coordinates in two dimensions by plotting points on the Cartesian plane (ACMEM121)

Generate tables of values for linear functions, including for negative values of (ACMEM122)

Graph linear functions for all values of with pencil and paper and with graphing software. (ACMEM123)

Interpret and use graphs in practical situations, including travel graphs and conversion graphs (ACMEM124)

Draw graphs from given data to represent practical situations (ACMEM125)

Interpret the point of intersection and other important features of given graphs of two linear functions drawn from practical contexts; for example, the break-even point. (ACMEM126)

Investigate the procedure for conducting a census (ACMEM127)

Investigate the advantages and disadvantages of conducting a census. (ACMEM128)

Understand the purpose of sampling to provide an estimate of population values when a census is not used (ACMEM129)

Investigate the different kinds of samples; for example, systematic samples, self-selected samples, simple random samples (ACMEM130)

Investigate the advantages and disadvantages of these kinds of samples; for example, comparing simple random samples with self-selected samples. (ACMEM131)

Investigate questionnaire design principles; for example, simple language, unambiguous questions, consideration of number of choices, issues of privacy and ethics, and freedom from bias. (ACMEM133)

Describe the faults in the collection of data process (ACMEM134)

Describe sources of error in surveys; for example, sampling error and measurement error (ACMEM135)

Investigate the possible misrepresentation of the results of a survey due to misunderstanding the procedure, or misunderstanding the reliability of generalising the survey findings to the entire population (ACMEM136)

Investigate errors and misrepresentation in surveys, including examples of media misrepresentations of surveys. (ACMEM137)

Describe the patterns and features of bivariate data (ACMEM138)

Describe the association between two numerical variables in terms of direction (positive/negative), form (linear/non-linear) and strength (strong/moderate/weak). (ACMEM139)

Identify the dependent and independent variable (ACMEM140)

Interpret relationships in terms of the variables (ACMEM143)

Use technology to find the correlation coefficient (an indicator of the strength of linear association) (ACMEM144)

Use the line of best fit to make predictions, both by interpolation and extrapolation (ACMEM145)

Distinguish between causality and correlation through examples. (ACMEM147)

Interpret commonly used probability statements, including possible, probable, likely, certain (ACMEM148)

Describe ways of expressing probabilities formally using fractions, decimals, ratios, and percentages. (ACMEM149)

Perform simulations of experiments using technology (ACMEM150)

Recognise that the repetition of chance events is likely to produce different results (ACMEM151)

Identify factors that could complicate the simulation of real-world events. (ACMEM153)

Use arrays or tree diagrams to determine the outcomes and the probabilities for experiments. (ACMEM156)

Determine the probabilities associated with simple games (ACMEM157)

Determine the probabilities of occurrence of simple traffic-light problems. (ACMEM158)

Locate positions on Earths surface given latitude and longitude using GPS, a globe, an atlas, and digital technologies (ACMEM159)

Find distances between two places on Earth on the same longitude (ACMEM160)

Find distances between two places on Earth using appropriate technology. (ACMEM161)

Understand the concept of compound interest as a recurrence relation (ACMEM169)

Consider similar problems involving compounding; for example, population growth (ACMEM170)

Use technology to calculate the future value of a compound interest loan or investment and the total interest paid or earned (ACMEM171)

Use technology to compare, numerically and graphically, the growth of simple interest and compound interest loans and investments (ACMEM172)

Use technology to investigate the effect of the interest rate and the number of compounding periods on the future value of a loan or investment. (ACMEM173)

Use technology and a recurrence relation to model a reducing balance loan (ACMEM174)

Investigate the effect of the interest rate and repayment amount on the time taken to repay a loan. (ACMEM175)

Calculate weekly or monthly wage from an annual salary, wages from an hourly rate including situations involving overtime and other allowances and earnings based on commission or piecework (ACMGM002)

Calculate payments based on government allowances and pensions (ACMGM003)

Prepare a personal budget for a given income taking into account fixed and discretionary spending (ACMGM004)

Compare prices and values using the unit cost method (ACMGM005)

Apply percentage increase or decrease in various contexts; for example, determining the impact of inflation on costs and wages over time, calculating percentage mark-ups and discounts, calculating GST, calculating profit or loss in absolute and percentage terms, and calculating simple and compound interest (ACMGM006)

Use a spreadsheet to display examples of the above computations when multiple or repeated computations are required; for example, preparing a wage-sheet displaying the weekly earnings of workers in a fast food store where hours of employment and hourly rates of pay may differ, preparing a budget, or investigating the potential cost of owning and operating a car over a year. (ACMGM009)

Substitute numerical values into linear algebraic and simple non-linear algebraic expressions, and evaluate (ACMGM010)

Find the value of the subject of the formula, given the values of the other pronumerals in the formula (ACMGM011)

Use a spreadsheet or an equivalent technology to construct a table of values from a formula, including two-by-two tables for formulas with two variable quantities; for example, a table displaying the body mass index (BMI) of people of different weights and heights. (ACMGM012)

Use matrices for storing and displaying information that can be presented in rows and columns; for example, databases, links in social or road networks (ACMGM013)

Recognise different types of matrices (row, column, square, zero, identity) and determine their size (ACMGM014)

Perform matrix addition, subtraction, multiplication by a scalar, and matrix multiplication, including determining the power of a matrix using technology with matrix arithmetic capabilities when appropriate (ACMGM015)

Use matrices, including matrix products and powers of matrices, to model and solve problems; for example, costing or pricing problems, squaring a matrix to determine the number of ways pairs of people in a communication network can communicate with each other via a third person. (ACMGM016)

Review Pythagoras Theorem and use it to solve practical problems in two dimensions and for simple applications in three dimensions. (ACMGM017)

Solve practical problems requiring the calculation of perimeters and areas of circles, sectors of circles, triangles, rectangles, parallelograms and composites (ACMGM018)

Calculate the volumes of standard three-dimensional objects such as spheres, rectangular prisms, cylinders, cones, pyramids and composites in practical situations; for example, the volume of water contained in a swimming pool (ACMGM019)

Calculate the surface areas of standard three-dimensional objects such as spheres, rectangular prisms, cylinders, cones, pyramids and composites in practical situations; for example, the surface area of a cylindrical food container. (ACMGM020)

Review the conditions for similarity of two-dimensional figures including similar triangles (ACMGM021)

Use the scale factor for two similar figures to solve linear scaling problems (ACMGM022)

Obtain measurements from scale drawings, such as maps or building plans, to solve problems (ACMGM023)

Obtain a scale factor and use it to solve scaling problems involving the calculation of the areas of similar figures (ACMGM024)

Obtain a scale factor and use it to solve scaling problems involving the calculation of surface areas and volumes of similar solids. (ACMGM025)

Review the statistical investigation process; for example, identifying a problem and posing a statistical question, collecting or obtaining data, analysing the data, interpreting and communicating the results. (ACMGM026)

Classify a categorical variable as ordinal, such as income level (high, medium, low), or nominal, such as place of birth (Australia, overseas), and use tables and bar charts to organise and display the data (ACMGM027)

With the aid of an appropriate graphical display (chosen from dot plot, stem plot, bar chart or histogram), describe the distribution of a numerical dataset in terms of modality (uni or multimodal), shape (symmetric versus positively or negatively skewed), location and spread and outliers, and interpret this information in the context of the data (ACMGM029)

Determine the mean and standard deviation of a dataset and use these statistics as measures of location and spread of a data distribution, being aware of their limitations. (ACMGM030)

Compare groups on a single numerical variable using medians, means, IQRs, ranges or standard deviations, as appropriate; interpret the differences observed in the context of the data; and report the findings in a systematic and concise manner (ACMGM032)

Implement the statistical investigation process to answer questions that involve comparing the data for a numerical variable across two or more groups; for example, are Year 11 students the fittest in the school? (ACMGM033)

Review the use of the trigonometric ratios to find the length of an unknown side or the size of an unknown angle in a right-angled triangle (ACMGM034)

Solve practical problems involving the trigonometry of right-angled and non-right-angled triangles, including problems involving angles of elevation and depression and the use of bearings in navigation. (ACMGM037)

Develop a linear formula from a word description (ACMGM039)

Construct straight-line graphs both with and without the aid of technology (ACMGM040)

Determine the slope and intercepts of a straight-line graph from both its equation and its plot (ACMGM041)

Interpret, in context, the slope and intercept of a straight-line graph used to model and analyse a practical situation (ACMGM042)

Construct and analyse a straight-line graph to model a given linear relationship; for example, modelling the cost of filling a fuel tank of a car against the number of litres of petrol required. (ACMGM043)

Solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations, using technology when appropriate (ACMGM044)

Solve practical problems that involve finding the point of intersection of two straight-line graphs; for example, determining the break-even point where cost and revenue are represented by linear equations. (ACMGM045)

Review the statistical investigation process; for example, identifying a problem and posing a statistical question, collecting or obtaining data, analysing the data, interpreting and communicating the results. (ACMGM048)

Construct two-way frequency tables and determine the associated row and column sums and percentages (ACMGM049)

Use an appropriately percentaged two-way frequency table to identify patterns that suggest the presence of an association (ACMGM050)

Describe an association in terms of differences observed in percentages across categories in a systematic and concise manner, and interpret this in the context of the data. (ACMGM051)

Construct a scatterplot to identify patterns in the data suggesting the presence of an association (ACMGM052)

Describe an association between two numerical variables in terms of direction (positive/negative), form (linear/non-linear) and strength (strong/moderate/weak) (ACMGM053)

Calculate and interpret the correlation coefficient (r) to quantify the strength of a linear association. (ACMGM054)

Identify the response variable and the explanatory variable (ACMGM055)

Use a scatterplot to identify the nature of the relationship between variables (ACMGM056)

Model a linear relationship by fitting a least-squares line to the data (ACMGM057)

Use a residual plot to assess the appropriateness of fitting a linear model to the data (ACMGM058)

Interpret the intercept and slope of the fitted line (ACMGM059)

Use the equation of a fitted line to make predictions (ACMGM061)

Distinguish between interpolation and extrapolation when using the fitted line to make predictions, recognising the potential dangers of extrapolation (ACMGM062)

Write up the results of the above analysis in a systematic and concise manner. (ACMGM063)

Recognise that an observed association between two variables does not necessarily mean that there is a causal relationship between them (ACMGM064)

Identify possible non-causal explanations for an association, including coincidence and confounding due to a common response to another variable, and communicate these explanations in a systematic and concise manner. (ACMGM065)

Implement the statistical investigation process to answer questions that involve identifying, analysing and describing associations between two categorical variables or between two numerical variables; for example, is there an association between attitude to capital punishment (agree with, no opinion, disagree with) and sex (male, female)? Is there an association between height and foot length? (ACMGM066)

Display the terms of an arithmetic sequence in both tabular and graphical form and demonstrate that arithmetic sequences can be used to model linear growth and decay in discrete situations (ACMGM068)

Deduce a rule for the nth term of a particular arithmetic sequence from the pattern of the terms in an arithmetic sequence, and use this rule to make predictions (ACMGM069)

Use arithmetic sequences to model and analyse practical situations involving linear growth or decay; for example, analyzing a simple interest loan or investment, calculating a taxi fare based on the flag fall and the charge per kilometre, or calculating the value of an office photocopier at the end of each year using the straight-line method or the unit cost method of depreciation. (ACMGM070)

Display the terms of a geometric sequence in both tabular and graphical form and demonstrate that geometric sequences can be used to model exponential growth and decay in discrete situations (ACMGM072)

Deduce a rule for the nth term of a particular geometric sequence from the pattern of the terms in the sequence, and use this rule to make predictions (ACMGM073)

Use geometric sequences to model and analyse (numerically, or graphically only) practical problems involving geometric growth and decay; for example, analysing a compound interest loan or investment, the growth of a bacterial population that doubles in size each hour, the decreasing height of the bounce of a ball at each bounce; or calculating the value of office furniture at the end of each year using the declining (reducing) balance method to depreciate. (ACMGM074)

Use a general first-order linear recurrence relation to generate the terms of a sequence and to display it in both tabular and graphical form (ACMGM075)

Recognise that a sequence generated by a first-order linear recurrence relation can have a long term increasing, decreasing or steady-state solution (ACMGM076)

Use first-order linear recurrence relations to model and analyse (numerically or graphically only) practical problems; for example, investigating the growth of a trout population in a lake recorded at the end of each year and where limited recreational fishing is permitted, or the amount owing on a reducing balance loan after each payment is made. (ACMGM077)

Apply Eulers formula, v + f e = 2, to solve problems relating to planar graphs. (ACMGM082)

Describe time series plots by identifying features such as trend (long term direction), seasonality (systematic, calendar-related movements), and irregular fluctuations (unsystematic, short term fluctuations), and recognise when there are outliers; for example, one-off unanticipated events. (ACMGM088)

Smooth time series data by using a simple moving average, including the use of spreadsheets to implement this process (ACMGM089)

Calculate seasonal indices by using the average percentage method (ACMGM090)

Deseasonalise a time series by using a seasonal index, including the use of spreadsheets to implement this process (ACMGM091)

Fit a least-squares line to model long-term trends in time series data. (ACMGM092)

Implement the statistical investigation process to answer questions that involve the analysis of time series data. (ACMGM093)

Use a recurrence relation to model a compound interest loan or investment, and investigate (numerically or graphically) the effect of the interest rate and the number of compounding periods on the future value of the loan or investment (ACMGM094)

Calculate the effective annual rate of interest and use the results to compare investment returns and cost of loans when interest is paid or charged daily, monthly, quarterly or six-monthly (ACMGM095)

With the aid of a calculator or computer-based financial software, solve problems involving compound interest loans or investments; for example, determining the future value of a loan, the number of compounding periods for an investment to exceed a given value, the interest rate needed for an investment to exceed a given value. (ACMGM096)

Use a recurrence relation to model a reducing balance loan and investigate (numerically or graphically) the effect of the interest rate and repayment amount on the time taken to repay the loan (ACMGM097)

With the aid of a financial calculator or computer-based financial software, solve problems involving reducing balance loans; for example, determining the monthly repayments required to pay off a housing loan. (ACMGM098)

Solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of prisms, cylinders and composite solids (ACMMG242)

Investigating and determining the volumes and surface areas of composite solids by considering the individual solids from which they are constructed

Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles and angle properties (ACMMG243)

Applying an understanding of relationships to deduce properties of geometric figures (for example the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal)

Apply logical reasoning, including the use of congruence and similarity, to proofs and numerical exercises involving plane shapes (ACMMG244)

Distinguishing between a practical demonstration and a proof (for example demonstrating triangles are congruent by placing them on top of each other, as compared to using congruence tests to establish that triangles are congruent)

Performing a sequence of steps to determine an unknown angle giving a justification in moving from one step to the next.

Communicating a proof using a sequence of logically connected statements

Solve right-angled triangle problems including those involving direction and angles of elevation and depression (ACMMG245)

Applying Pythagoras' Theorem and trigonometry to problems in surveying and design

Solve problems involving surface area and volume of right pyramids, right cones, spheres and related composite solids (ACMMG271)

Using authentic situations to apply knowledge and understanding of surface area and volume

Prove and apply angle and chord properties of circles (ACMMG272)

Performing a sequence of steps to determine an unknown angle or length in a diagram involving a circle, or circles, giving a justification in moving from one step to the next

Communicating a proof using a logical sequence of statements

Establish the sine, cosine and area rules for any triangle and solve related problems (ACMMG273)

Applying knowledge of sine, cosine and area rules to authentic problems such as those involving surveying and design

Use the unit circle to define trigonometric functions, and graph them with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMMG274)

Establishing the symmetrical properties of trigonometric functions

Understanding that trigonometric functions are periodic and that this can be used to describe motion

Apply Pythagoras Theorem and trigonometry to solving three- dimensional problems in right-angled triangles (ACMMG276)

Investigating the applications of Pythagoras' theorem in authentic problems

Determine the coordinates of the midpoint of two points (ACMMM001)

Examine examples of direct proportion and linearly related variables (ACMMM002)

Recognise features of the graph of y=mx+c, including its linear nature, its intercepts and its slope or gradient (ACMMM003)

Examine examples of quadratically related variables (ACMMM006)

Recognise features of the graphs of y=x^2, y=a(x-b)^2+c, and y=a(x-b)(x-c), including their parabolic nature, turning points, axes of symmetry and intercepts (ACMMM007)

Solve quadratic equations using the quadratic formula and by completing the square (ACMMM008)

Find the equation of a quadratic given sufficient information (ACMMM009)

Find turning points and zeros of quadratics and understand the role of the discriminant (ACMMM010)

Recognise features of the graph of the general quadratic y=ax^2+bx+c. (ACMMM011)

Recognise features of the graphs of y=1/x and y=a/(x-b), including their hyperbolic shapes, and their asymptotes. (ACMMM013)

Recognise features of the graphs of y=x^n for nN, n=-1 and n=1/2, including shape, and behaviour as x _ and x -_ (ACMMM014)

Identify the coefficients and the degree of a polynomial (ACMMM015)

Expand quadratic and cubic polynomials from factors (ACMMM016)

Recognise features of the graphs of y=x^3, y=a(x-b)^3+c and y=k(x-a)(x-b)(x-c), including shape, intercepts and behaviour as x _ and x -_ (ACMMM017)

Solve cubic equations using technology, and algebraically in cases where a linear factor is easily obtained. (ACMMM019)

Recognise features of the graphs of x^2+y^2=r^2 and (x-a)^2 + (y-b)^2 = r^2, including their circular shapes, their centres and their radii (ACMMM020)

Recognise features of the graph of y^2 = x including its parabolic shape and its axis of symmetry. (ACMMM021)

Understand the concept of a function as a mapping between sets, and as a rule or a formula that defines one variable quantity in terms of another (ACMMM022)

Use function notation, domain and range, independent and dependent variables (ACMMM023)

Understand the concept of the graph of a function (ACMMM024)

Examine translations and the graphs of y = f(x)+a and y = f(x+b) (ACMMM025)

Examine dilations and the graphs of y=cf(x) and y=f(kx) (ACMMM026)

Recognise the distinction between functions and relations, and the vertical line test. (ACMMM027)

Review sine, cosine and tangent as ratios of side lengths in right-angled triangles (ACMMM028)

Understand the unit circle definition of cos, sin and tan and periodicity using degrees (ACMMM029)

Examine the relationship between the angle of inclination of a line and the gradient of that line (ACMMM030)

Define and use radian measure and understand its relationship with degree measure (ACMMM032)

calculate lengths of arcs and areas of sectors in circles. (ACMMM033)

Understand the unit circle definition of cos, sin and tan and periodicity using radians (ACMMM034)

Recognise the exact values of cos, sin and tan at integer multiples of /6 and /4 (ACMMM035)

Recognise the graphs of y=sin x, y=cos x, and y=tan x on extended domains (ACMMM036)

Examine amplitude changes and the graphs of y=a sin x and y=a cos x(ACMMM037)

Examine period changes and the graphs of y=sin bx, y=cos bx, and y=tan bx (ACMMM038)

Examine phase changes and the graphs of y=sin(x+c), y=cos(x+c) and (ACMMM039)

y=tan(x+c) and the relationships sin(x+/2)=cos x and cos(x-/2)=sin x(ACMMM040)

Prove and apply the angle sum and difference identities (ACMMM041)

Identify contexts suitable for modelling by trigonometric functions and use them to solve practical problems (ACMMM042)

Solve equations involving trigonometric functions using technology, and algebraically in simple cases. (ACMMM043)

Review the concepts and language of outcomes, sample spaces and events as sets of outcomes (ACMMM049)

Use set language and notation for events, including __ (or A) for the complement of an event A, A?B for the intersection of events A and B, and A?B for the union, and recognise mutually exclusive events (ACMMM050)

Use everyday occurrences to illustrate set descriptions and representations of events, and set operations. (ACMMM051)

Review probability as a measure of the likelihood of occurrence of an event (ACMMM052)

Review the probability scale: 0 = _ P(A) _ 1 for each event A, with P(A)=0 if A is an impossibility and P(A) = 1 if A is a certainty (ACMMM053)

Review the rules: P(__) = 1-P(A) and P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) P(AB) (ACMMM054)

Use relative frequencies obtained from data as point estimates of probabilities. (ACMMM055)

Understand the notion of a conditional probability and recognise and use language that indicates conditionality (ACMMM056)

Use the notation P(A|B) and the formula P(AB) = P(A|B)P(B) (ACMMM057)

Understand the notion of independence of an event A from an event B, as defined by P(A|B)=P(A) (ACMMM058)

Establish and use the formula P(AB) = P(A)P(B) for independent events A and B, and recognise the symmetry of independence (ACMMM059)

Use relative frequencies obtained from data as point estimates of conditional probabilities and as indications of possible independence of events. (ACMMM060)

Review indices (including fractional indices) and the index laws (ACMMM061)

Use radicals and convert to and from fractional indices (ACMMM062)

Understand and use scientific notation and significant figures. (ACMMM063)

Establish and use the algebraic properties of exponential functions (ACMMM064)

Recognise the qualitative features of the graph of y=a^x (a > 0) including asymptotes, and of its translations (y = a^x + b and y = a^(x+c)) (ACMMM065)

Solve equations involving exponential functions using technology, and algebraically in simple cases. (ACMMM067)

Recognise and use the recursive definition of an arithmetic sequence: t_(n+1) = t_n + d (ACMMM068)

Use the formula t_n = t_1 + (n-1) for the general term of an arithmetic sequence and recognise its linear nature (ACMMM069)

Use arithmetic sequences in contexts involving discrete linear growth or decay, such as simple interest (ACMMM070)

Establish and use the formula for the sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence. (ACMMM071)

Recognise and use the recursive definition of a geometric sequence: t_(n+1) = rt_n (ACMMM072)

Use the formula t_n = r^(n-1)t_1 for the general term of a geometric sequence and recognise its exponential nature (ACMMM073)

Understand the limiting behaviour as n _ of the terms t_n in a geometric sequence and its dependence on the value of the common ratio r (ACMMM074)

Establish and use the formula S_n = t_1 ((r^n-1)/(r-1)) for the sum of the first n terms of a geometric sequence (ACMMM075)

Use geometric sequences in contexts involving geometric growth or decay, such as compound interest. (ACMMM076)

Interpret the ratios (f(x+h)-f(x))/h and y/x as the slope or gradient of a chord or of the graph of interpret the ratios and as the slope or gradient of a chord or secant of the graph of y = f(x). (ACMMM080)

Examine the behaviour of the difference quotient f(x+h)-f(x)/h as h 0 as an informal introduction to the concept of a limit (ACMMM081)

Define the derivative f(x) as lim(h 0) f(x+h)-f(x)/h (ACMMM082)

Use the Leibniz notation for the derivative: dy/dx = lim(x 0) y/x and the correspondence dy/dx = f(x) where y=f(x) (ACMMM083)

Interpret the derivative as the instantaneous rate of change (ACMMM084)

Interpret the derivative as the slope or gradient of a tangent line of the graph of y=f(x). (ACMMM085)

Estimate numerically the value of a derivative, for simple power functions (ACMMM086)

Recognise and use linearity properties of the derivative (ACMMM090)

Calculate derivatives of polynomials and other linear combinations of power functions. (ACMMM091)

Construct and interpret position-time graphs, with velocity as the slope of the tangent (ACMMM094)

Sketch curves associated with simple polynomials; find stationary points, and local and global maxima and minima; and examine behaviour as x _ and x -_ (ACMMM095)

Calculate anti-derivatives of polynomial functions and apply to solving simple problems involving motion in a straight line. (ACMMM097)

Estimate the limit of a^h1/h as h 0 using technology, for various values of a > 0 (ACMMM098)

Recognise that e is the unique number a for which the above limit is 1 (ACMMM099)

Establish the formulas d/dx (sin x) = cos x, and d/dx (cos x) = -sin x by numerical estimations of the limits and informal proofs based on geometric constructions (ACMMM102)

Use trigonometric functions and their derivatives to solve practical problems. (ACMMM103)

Use the increments formula: y dy/dx x x to estimate the change in the dependent variable y resulting from changes in the independent variable x (ACMMM107)

Understand the concept of the second derivative as the rate of change of the first derivative function (ACMMM108)

Establish and use the formula (x^n)dx = (1/n+1)x^(n+1) + c for n -1 (ACMMM116)

Understand the concepts of concavity and points of inflection and their relationship with the second derivative (ACMMM110)

Understand and use the second derivative test for finding local maxima and minima (ACMMM111)

Sketch the graph of a function using first and second derivatives to locate stationary points and points of inflection (ACMMM112)

Determine indefinite integrals of the form f(ax+b)dx (ACMMM120)

Identify families of curves with the same derivative function (ACMMM121)

Determine f(x), given f(x) and an initial condition f(a) = b (ACMMM122)

Recognise anti-differentiation as the reverse of differentiation (ACMMM114)

Examine the area problem, and use sums of the form i f(xi) xi to estimate the area under the curve y = f(x) (ACMMM124)

Interpret the definite integral {a to b} f(x)dx as area under the curve y = f(x) if f(x) > 0 (ACMMM125)

Recognise the definite integral {a to b} f(x)dx as a limit of sums of the form i f(xi) xi (ACMMM126)

Interpret {a to b} f(x)dx as a sum of signed areas (ACMMM127)

Recognise and use the additivity and linearity of definite integrals. (ACMMM128)

Understand the concept of the signed area function F(x) = {a to x} f(t)dt (ACMMM129)

Understand and use the theorem: F(x) = d/dx ({a to x} f(t)dt) = f(x), and illustrate its proof geometrically (ACMMM130)

Calculate total change by integrating instantaneous or marginal rate of change (ACMMM133)

Identify contexts suitable for modelling by Bernoulli random variables (ACMMM144)

Understand the formula {a to b} f(x)dx = F(b)-F(a) and use it to calculate definite integrals. (ACMMM131)

Calculate the area between curves in simple cases (ACMMM134)

Recognise the mean p and variance p(1-p) of the Bernoulli distribution with parameter p (ACMMM145)

Use Bernoulli random variables and associated probabilities to model data and solve practical problems. (ACMMM146)

Use the notation f(x)dx for anti-derivatives or indefinite integrals (ACMMM115)

Establish and use the formula (e^x)dx = e^x + c (ACMMM117)

Recognise and use linearity of anti-differentiation (ACMMM119)

Understand the concepts of a discrete random variable and its associated probability function, and their use in modelling data (ACMMM136)

Use relative frequencies obtained from data to obtain point estimates of probabilities associated with a discrete random variable (ACMMM137)

Recognise uniform discrete random variables and use them to model random phenomena with equally likely outcomes (ACMMM138)

Examine simple examples of non-uniform discrete random variables (ACMMM139)

Recognise the mean or expected value of a discrete random variable as a measurement of centre, and evaluate it in simple cases (ACMMM140)

Recognise the variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable as a measures of spread, and evaluate them in simple cases (ACMMM141)

Use discrete random variables and associated probabilities to solve practical problems. (ACMMM142)

Use a Bernoulli random variable as a model for two-outcome situations (ACMMM143)

Understand the concepts of Bernoulli trials and the concept of a binomial random variable as the number of successes in n independent Bernoulli trials, with the same probability of success p in each trial (ACMMM147)

Identify contexts suitable for modelling by binomial random variables (ACMMM148)

Determine and use the probabilities P(X=r) = (n r) p^r (1-p)^(n-r) associated with the binomial distribution with parameters n and p; note the mean np and variance np(1-p) of a binomial distribution (ACMMM149)

Use binomial distributions and associated probabilities to solve practical problems. (ACMMM150)

Define logarithms as indices: a^x = b is equivalent to x = log_a b, i.e. a^(log_a b) = b (ACMMM151)

Establish and use the algebraic properties of logarithms (ACMMM152)

Recognise the inverse relationship between logarithms and exponentials: y = a^x is equivalent to x = log_a y (ACMMM153)

Interpret and use logarithmic scales such as decibels in acoustics, the Richter Scale for earthquake magnitude, octaves in music, pH in chemistry (ACMMM154)

Solve equations involving indices using logarithms (ACMMM155)

Recognise the qualitative features of the graph of y = log_a x (a > 1) including asymptotes, and of its translations y = log_a x+b and y = log_a (x+c) (ACMMM156)

Solve simple equations involving logarithmic functions algebraically and graphically (ACMMM157)

Identify contexts suitable for modelling by logarithmic functions and use them to solve practical problems. (ACMMM158)

Recognise and use the inverse relationship of the functions y = e^x and y = ln x (ACMMM160)

Use relative frequencies and histograms obtained from data to estimate probabilities associated with a continuous random variable (ACMMM164)

Understand the concepts of a probability density function, cumulative distribution function, and probabilities associated with a continuous random variable given by integrals; examine simple types of continuous random variables and use them in appropriate contexts (ACMMM165)

Recognise the expected value, variance and standard deviation of a continuous random variable and evaluate them in simple cases (ACMMM166)

Identify contexts such as naturally occurring variation that are suitable for modelling by normal random variables (ACMMM168)

Recognise features of the graph of the probability density function of the normal distribution with mean and standard deviation and the use of the standard normal distribution (ACMMM169)

Calculate probabilities and quantiles associated with a given normal distribution using technology, and use these to solve practical problems. (ACMMM170)

Discuss sources of bias in samples, and procedures to ensure randomness (ACMMM172)

Use graphical displays of simulated data to investigate the variability of random samples from various types of distributions, including uniform, normal and Bernoulli. (ACMMM173)

Understand the concept of the sample proportion p as a random variable whose value varies between samples, and the formulas for the mean p and standard deviation _(p(1-p)/n) of the sample proportion p (ACMMM174)

Examine the approximate normality of the distribution of p for large samples (ACMMM175)

Simulate repeated random sampling, for a variety of values of p and a range of sample sizes, to illustrate the distribution of p and the approximate standard normality p-p/_(p(1-p)/n) of where the closeness of the approximation depends on both n and p. (ACMMM176)

The concept of an interval estimate for a parameter associated with a random variable (ACMMM177)

Use the approximate confidence interval (p-z_((p(1-p)/n), p+z_(p(1-p)/n)), as an interval estimate for , where is the appropriate quantile for the standard normal distribution (ACMMM178)

Define the approximate margin of error E=z_(p(1-p)/n) and understand the trade-off between margin of error and level of confidence (ACMMM179)

Use simulation to illustrate variations in confidence intervals between samples and to show that most but not all confidence intervals contain p. (ACMMM180)

Connect the compound interest formula to repeated applications of simple interest using appropriate digital technologies (ACMNA229)

Working with authentic information, data and interest rates to calculate compound interest and solve related problems

Factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor (ACMNA230)

Using the distributive law and the index laws to factorise algebraic expressions

Simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws (ACMNA231)

Applying knowledge of index laws to algebraic terms, and simplifying algebraic expressions using both positive and negative integral indices

Apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators (ACMNA232)

Expressing the sum and difference of algebraic fractions with a common denominator

Using the index laws to simplify products and quotients of algebraic fractions

Expand binomial products and factorise monic quadratic expressions using a variety of strategies (ACMNA233)

Exploring the method of completing the square to factorise quadratic expressions and solve quadratic equations

Identifying and using common factors, including binomial expressions, to factorise algebraic expressions using the technique of grouping in pairs

Using the identities for perfect squares and the difference of squares to factorise quadratic expressions

Substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown (ACMNA234)

Solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas (ACMNA235)

Representing word problems with simple linear equations and solving them to answer questions

Solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line (ACMNA236)

Representing word problems with simple linear inequalities and solving them to answer questions

Solve linear simultaneous equations, using algebraic and graphical techniques, including using digital technology (ACMNA237)

Associating the solution of simultaneous equations with the coordinates of the intersection of their corresponding graphs

Solve problems involving parallel and perpendicular lines (ACMNA238)

Solving problems using the fact that parallel lines have the same gradient and conversely that if two lines have the same gradient then they are parallel

Solving problems using the fact that the product of the gradients of perpendicular lines is 1 and conversely that if the product of the gradients of two lines is 1 then they are perpendicular

Explore the connection between algebraic and graphical representations of relations such as simple quadratics, circles and exponentials using digital technology as appropriate (ACMNA239)

Applying translations, reflections and stretches to parabolas and circles

Solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions (ACMNA240)

Solving a wide range of linear equations, including those involving one or two simple algebraic fractions, and checking solutions by substitution

Representing word problems, including those involving fractions, as equations and solving them to answer the question

Solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies (ACMNA241)

Using a variety of techniques to solve quadratic equations, including grouping, completing the square, the quadratic formula and choosing two integers with the required product and sum

Define rational and irrational numbers and perform operations with surds and fractional indices (ACMNA264)

Understanding that the real number system includes irrational numbers

Use the definition of a logarithm to establish and apply the laws of logarithms (ACMNA265)

Investigating the relationship between exponential and logarithmic expressions

Investigate the concept of a polynomial and apply the factor and remainder theorems to solve problems (ACMNA266)

Investigating the relationship between algebraic long division and the factor and remainder theorems

Describe, interpret and sketch parabolas, hyperbolas, circles and exponential functions and their transformations (ACMNA267)

Applying transformations, including translations, reflections in the axes and stretches to help graph parabolas, rectangular hyperbolas, circles and exponential functions

Apply understanding of polynomials to sketch a range of curves and describe the features of these curves from their equation (ACMNA268)

Investigating the features of graphs of polynomials including axes intercepts and the effect of repeated factors

Factorise monic and non-monic quadratic expressions and solve a wide range of quadratic equations derived from a variety of contexts (ACMNA269)

Writing quadratic equations that represent practical problems

Solve problems involving permutations and restrictions with or without repeated objects. (ACMSM004)

Determine and use the formulas for finding the number of elements in the union of two and the union of three sets. (ACMSM005)

Solve problems and prove results using the pigeon-hole principle. (ACMSM006)

Examine examples of vectors including displacement and velocity (ACMSM010)

Define and use the magnitude and direction of a vector (ACMSM011)

Use the triangle rule to find the sum and difference of two vectors. (ACMSM013)

Use ordered pair notation and column vector notation to represent a vector (ACMSM014)

Define and use unit vectors and the perpendicular unit vectors i and j (ACMSM015)

Express a vector in component form using the unit vectors i and j (ACMSM016)

Examine and use addition and subtraction of vectors in component form (ACMSM017)

Define and use multiplication by a scalar of a vector in component form (ACMSM018)

Apply the scalar product to vectors expressed in component form (ACMSM020)

Examine properties of parallel and perpendicular vectors and determine if two vectors are parallel or perpendicular (ACMSM021)

Solve problems involving displacement, force and velocity involving the above concepts. (ACMSM023)

Use implication, converse, equivalence, negation, contrapositive (ACMSM024)

Use the symbols for implication (), equivalence (), and equality (=) (ACMSM026)

The angle at the centre subtended by an arc of a circle is twice the angle at the circumference subtended by the same arc (ACMSM030)

Angles at the circumference of a circle subtended by the same arc are equal (ACMSM031)

The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary (ACMSM032)

Chords of equal length subtend equal angles at the centre and conversely chords subtending equal angles at the centre of a circle have the same length (ACMSM033)

When two chords of a circle intersect, the product of the lengths of the intervals on one chord equals the product of the lengths of the intervals on the other chord (ACMSM035)

When a secant (meeting the circle at A and B) and a tangent (meeting the circle at T) are drawn to a circle from an external point M, the square of the length of the tangent equals the product of the lengths to the circle on the secant. (AM x BM = TM^2) (ACMSM036)

Suitable converses of some of the above results (ACMSM037)

Solve problems finding unknown angles and lengths and prove further results using the results listed above. (ACMSM038)

The diagonals of a parallelogram meet at right angles if and only if it is a rhombus (ACMSM039)

Midpoints of the sides of a quadrilateral join to form a parallelogram (ACMSM040)

The sum of the squares of the lengths of the diagonals of a parallelogram is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the sides. (ACMSM041)

Find all solutions of f(a(x-b))=c where f is one of sin, cos or tan (ACMSM042)

Graph functions with rules of the form y=f(a(x-b)) where f is one of sin, cos or tan. (ACMSM043)

Prove and apply the angle sum, difference and double angle identities. (ACMSM044)

Define the reciprocal trigonometric functions, sketch their graphs, and graph simple transformations of them. (ACMSM045)

Prove and apply the identities for products of sines and cosines expressed as sums and differences (ACMSM047)

Convert sums a cos x+b sin x to R cos (x) or R sin(x) and apply these to sketch graphs, solve equations of the form a cos x + b sin x = c and solve problems (ACMSM048)

Prove and apply other trigonometric identities such as cos 3x = 4 cos^3 x-3 cos x. (ACMSM049)

Model periodic motion using sine and cosine functions and understand the relevance of the period and amplitude of these functions in the model. (ACMSM050)

Define and use addition and subtraction of matrices, scalar multiplication, matrix multiplication, multiplicative identity and inverse (ACMSM052)

Calculate the determinant and inverse of 2x2 matrices and solve matrix equations of the form AX=B, where A is a 2x2 matrix and X and B are column vectors. (ACMSM053)

Express rational numbers as terminating or eventually recurring decimals and vice versa (ACMSM062)

Define the imaginary number as a root of the equation x^2 = -1 (ACMSM067)

Use complex numbers in the form a+bi where a and b are the real and imaginary parts (ACMSM068)

Perform complex-number arithmetic: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. (ACMSM070)

Consider complex numbers as points in a plane with real and imaginary parts as Cartesian coordinates (ACMSM071)

Examine addition of complex numbers as vector addition in the complex plane (ACMSM072)

Understand and use location of complex conjugates in the complex plane. (ACMSM073)

Use the general solution of real quadratic equations (ACMSM074)

Determine complex conjugate solutions of real quadratic equations (ACMSM075)

Determine linear factors of real quadratic polynomials. (ACMSM076)

Review real and imaginary parts Re(z) and Im(z) of a complex number z (ACMSM077)

Review complex arithmetic using Cartesian forms. (ACMSM079)

Prove and apply the factor theorem and the remainder theorem for polynomials (ACMSM089)

Consider conjugate roots for polynomials with real coefficients (ACMSM090)

Determine when the composition of two functions is defined (ACMSM092)

Examine the reflection property of the graph of a function and the graph of its inverse. (ACMSM096)

Use and apply the notation |x| for the absolute value for the real number x and the graph of y=|x| (ACMSM098)

Sketch the graphs of simple rational functions where the numerator and denominator are polynomials of low degree. (ACMSM100)

Examine the three cases for solutions of systems of equations a unique solution, no solution, and infinitely many solutions and the geometric interpretation of a solution of a system of equations with three variables. (ACMSM110)

Recognise the general form of a system of linear equations in several variables, and use elementary techniques of elimination to solve a system of linear equations (ACMSM109)

Consider position of vectors as a function of time (ACMSM111)

Derive the Cartesian equation of a path given as a vector equation in two dimensions including ellipses and hyperbolas (ACMSM112)

Differentiate and integrate a vector function with respect to time (ACMSM113)

Establish and use the formula (1/x)dx = ln |x| + c, for x 0 (ACMSM118)

Calculate areas between curves determined by functions (ACMSM124)

Use and apply the probability density function, f(t) = e^(-t) for t0, of the exponential random variable with parameter >0 and use the exponential random variables and associated probabilities and quantiles to model data and solve practical problems. (ACMSM127)

Solve simple first-order differential equations of the form dy/dx = f(x), differential equations of the form dy/dx = g(y) and, in general, differential equations of the form dy/dx = f(x)g(y) using separation of variables (ACMSM130)

Examine the concept of the sample mean X as a random variable whose value varies between samples where X is a random variable with mean _ and the standard deviation (ACMSM137)

Simulate repeated random sampling, from a variety of distributions and a range of sample sizes, to illustrate properties of the distribution of x across samples of a fixed size n, including its mean _, its standard deviation /_n (where _ and are the mean and standard deviation of X), and its approximate normality if n is large (ACMSM138)

Simulate repeated random sampling, from a variety of distributions and a range of sample sizes, to illustrate the approximate standard normality of x-_/(s/_n) for large samples (n 30), where s is the sample standard deviation. (ACMSM139)

Understand the concept of an interval estimate for a parameter associated with a random variable (ACMSM140)

Examine the approximate confidence interval (x-(zs/_n), x+(zs/_n)), as an interval estimate for _, the population mean, where z is the appropriate quantile for the standard normal distribution (ACMSM141)

Use simulation to illustrate variations in confidence intervals between samples and to show that most but not all confidence intervals contain _ (ACMSM142)

Use x and s to estimate _ and , to obtain approximate intervals covering desired proportions of values of a normal random variable and compare with an approximate confidence interval for _ (ACMSM143)

Collect data and construct an approximate confidence interval to estimate a mean and to report on survey procedures and data quality. (ACMSM144)

Describe the results of two- and three-step chance experiments, both with and without replacements, assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities of events. Investigate the concept of independence (ACMSP246)

Recognising that an event can be dependent on another event and that this will affect the way its probability is calculated

Use the language of if ....then, given, of, knowing that to investigate conditional statements and identify common mistakes in interpreting such language (ACMSP247)

Using two-way tables and Venn diagrams to understand conditional statements

Using arrays and tree diagrams to determine probabilities

Finding the five-number summary (minimum and maximum values, median and upper and lower quartiles) and using its graphical representation, the box plot, as tools for both numerically and visually comparing the centre and spread of data sets

Construct and interpret box plots and use them to compare data sets (ACMSP249)

Understanding that box plots are an efficient and common way of representing and summarising data and can facilitate comparisons between data sets

Compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms and dot plots (ACMSP250)

Investigating data in different ways to make comparisons and draw conclusions

Use scatter plots to investigate and comment on relationships between two numerical variables (ACMSP251)

Using authentic data to construct scatter plots, make comparisons, and draw conclusions

Investigate and describe bivariate numerical data where the independent variable is time (ACMSP252)

Investigating biodiversity changes in Australia since European occupation

Constructing and interpreting data displays representing bivariate data over time

Evaluate statistical reports in the media and other places by linking claims to displays, statistics and representative data (ACMSP253)

Investigating the use of statistics in reports regarding the growth of Australia's trade with other countries of the Asia region

Evaluating statistical reports comparing the life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with that of the Australian population as a whole

Investigate reports of studies in digital media and elsewhere for information on their planning and implementation (ACMSP277)

Evaluating the appropriateness of sampling methods in reports where statements about a population are based on a sample

Evaluating whether graphs in a report could mislead, and whether graphs and numerical information support the claims

Calculate and interpret the mean and standard deviation of data and use these to compare data sets (ACMSP278)

Using the standard deviation to describe the spread of a set of data

Using the mean and standard deviation to compare numerical data sets

Use information technologies to investigate bivariate numerical data sets. Where appropriate use a straight line to describe the relationship allowing for variation (ACMSP279)

Investigating different techniques for finding a line of best fit

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