Alberta Programs of Study — Grade 7

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Express ideas and develop understanding: Extend understanding of ideas and information by finding and exploring oral, print and other media texts on related topics and themes.


Express ideas and develop understanding: Express personal understandings of ideas and information based on prior knowledge, experiences with others and a variety of oral, print and other media texts.


Express ideas and develop understanding: Reflect on own observations and experiences to understand and develop oral, print and other media texts.


Experiment with language and forms: Discuss and respond to ways that content and forms of oral, print and other media texts interact to influence understanding.


Express preferences: Explore and assess oral, print and other media texts recommended by others.


Set goals: Use appropriate terminology to discuss developing abilities in personal language learning and use.


Consider others' ideas: Listen and respond constructively to alternative ideas or opinions.


Combine ideas: Use talk, writing and representing to examine, clarify and assess understanding of ideas, information and experiences.


Extend understanding: Talk with others to elaborate ideas, and ask specific questions to seek helpful feedback.


Use prior knowledge: Select and focus relevant ideas from personal experiences and prior knowledge to understand new ideas and information.


Use prior knowledge: Use expectations and preferences developed during previous reading experiences to select and read new texts with purpose.


Use comprehension strategies: Identify, connect and summarize in own words the main ideas from two or more sources on the same topic.


Use comprehension strategies: Use concept mapping and mental rehearsal to remember main ideas and relevant details.


Use comprehension strategies: Adjust reading rate and strategies to account for changes in structural features of texts and complexity of content.


Use textual cues: Identify and use visual and textual cues, such as numbers, bullets and words; for example, first/then/next, before/after, on the one hand/on the other hand and if/then, that signal organizational patterns in print and other media texts, to enhance understanding of ideas and information.


Use phonics and structural analysis: Apply, flexibly, knowledge of phonics, sight vocabulary, structural analysis, language and context clues, depending on the purpose and rate of reading.


Use references: Skim and scan reference materials to confirm the spellings or locate the meanings of unfamiliar words.


Experience various texts: Experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as journals, nature programs, short stories, poetry, letters, CDROM programs, mysteries, historical fiction, drawings and prints.


Appreciate the artistry of texts: Identify and explain the usefulness, effectiveness and limitations of various forms of oral, print and other media texts.


Appreciate the artistry of texts: Reflect on, revise and elaborate on initial impressions of oral, print and other media texts, through subsequent reading, listening and viewing activities.


Experience various texts: Justify own point of view about oral, print and other media texts, using evidence from texts.


Experience various texts: Organize interpretations of oral, print and other media texts around two or three key ideas.


Experience various texts: Express interpretations of oral, print and other media texts in another form or genre.


Construct meaning from texts: Compare the choices and behaviours of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts with those of self and others.


Construct meaning from texts: Analyze how plot develops; the connection between plot and subplot; and the interrelationship of plot, setting and characters.


Construct meaning from texts: Identify and explain conflict, and discuss how it develops and may be resolved.


Construct meaning from texts: Develop, clarify and defend own interpretation, based on evidence from the text with support from own experiences.


Appreciate the artistry of texts: Discuss how techniques, such as colour, shape, composition, suspense, foreshadowing and flashback, are used to communicate meaning and enhance effects in oral, print and other media texts.


Understand forms and genres: Identify various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts, and describe key characteristics of each.


Understand forms and genres: Identify the characteristics of different types of media texts.


Understand techniques and elements: Discuss connections among plot and subplot, main and supporting characters, main idea and theme in a variety of oral, print and other media texts.


Understand techniques and elements: Identify the narrator's perspective, and explain how it affects the overall meaning of a text.


Understand techniques and elements: Identify and explain how narrative hooks, foreshadowing, flashback, suspense and surprise endings contribute to the effectiveness of plot development.


Understand techniques and elements: Explain how sound and image work together to create effects in media texts.


Experiment with language: Explore surprising and playful uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as cartoons, animated films and limericks; explain ways in which imagery and figurative language, such as simile, convey meaning.


Generate ideas: Choose appropriate strategies for generating ideas and focusing topics for oral, print and other media texts.


Elaborate on the expression of ideas: Use suspense, exaggeration, foreshadowing, dialogue and description to show rising action and develop conflict.


Structure texts: Create oral, print and other media texts that are unified by point of view, carefully developed plot and endings consistent with previous events.


Structure texts: Create a variety of oral, print and other media texts to explore ideas related to particular topics or themes.


Focus attention: Use note-taking, outlining or representing to summarize important ideas and information in oral, print and other media texts.


Use a variety of sources: Obtain information from a variety of sources, such as adults, peers, advertisements, magazines, lyrics, formal interviews, almanacs, broadcasts and videos, to explore research questions.


Access information: Use a variety of tools and text features, such as headings, subheadings, topic sentences, summaries, staging and pacing, and highlighting, to access information.


Access information: Distinguish between fact and opinion, and follow the development of argument and opinion.


Organize information: Organize ideas and information by selecting or developing categories appropriate to a particular topic and purpose.


Organize information: Produce oral, print and other media texts with well-developed and well-linked ideas and sections.


Record information: Make notes, using headings and subheadings or graphic organizers appropriate to a topic; reference sources.


Evaluate information: Connect new information with prior knowledge to build new understanding.


Share ideas and information: Communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as reports, autobiographies, brochures and video presentations.


Share ideas and information: Use appropriate visual, print and/or other media effectively to inform and engage the audience.


Review research process: Identify strengths and areas for improvement in personal research.


Appraise own and others' work: Identify particular content features that enhance the effectiveness of published oral, print and other media texts.


Enhance artistry: Experiment with figurative language, illustrations and video effects to create visual images, provide emphasis or express emotion.


Appraise own and others' work: Incorporate particular content features of effective texts into own oral, print and other media texts.


Revise and edit: Revise introductions, conclusions and the order of ideas and information to add coherence and clarify meaning.


Revise and edit: Revise to eliminate unnecessary repetition of words and ideas.


Enhance legibility: Choose and use printing, cursive writing or word processing, depending on the task, audience and purpose.


Enhance legibility: Identify how the format of documents enhances the presentation of content.


Expand knowledge of language: Identify differences between standard English and slang, colloquialism or jargon, and explain how these differences affect meaning.


Expand knowledge of language: Identify and explain figurative and metaphorical use of language in context.


Attend to grammar and usage: Use a variety of subordinate clauses, correctly and appropriately in own writing.


Attend to capitalization and punctuation: Use quotation marks to identify information taken from secondary sources in own writing.


Attend to grammar and usage: Use correct subject-verb agreement in sentences with compound subjects.


Attend to grammar and usage: Distinguish between formal and informal conventions of oral and written language, and use each appropriately, depending on the context, audience and purpose.


Attend to grammar and usage: Identify and use common subjective and objective forms of pronouns, appropriately and correctly in own writing.


Attend to spelling: Use reference materials to confirm spellings and to solve spelling problems when editing and proofreading.


Attend to spelling: Extend spelling vocabulary to include words frequently used in literature, but infrequently used in oral and other media texts.


Attend to spelling: Apply specific and effective strategies for learning and remembering the correct spelling of words in own writing.


Attend to capitalization and punctuation: Use periods and commas with quotation marks that indicate direct speech in own writing.


Attend to capitalization and punctuation: Use commas to separate phrases and clauses in own writing.


Present information: Present ideas and opinions confidently, but without dominating the discussion, during small group activities and short, whole class sessions.


Enhance presentation: Clarify and support ideas or opinions with details, visuals or media techniques.


Use effective oral and visual communication: Identify and use explicit techniques to arouse and maintain interest and to convince the audience.


Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing: Listen and view attentively to organize and classify information and to carry out multistep instructions.


Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing: Ask questions or make comments that elicit additional information; probe different aspects of ideas, and clarify understanding.


Appreciate diversity: Discuss how ideas, people, experiences and cultural traditions are portrayed in various oral, print and other media texts.


Appreciate diversity: Explain how differing perspectives and unique reactions expand understanding.


Relate texts to culture: Identify and discuss recurring themes in oral, print and other media texts from diverse cultures and communities.


Celebrate accomplishments and events: Select and use appropriate form and tone for specific audiences to celebrate special events and accomplishments.


Use language to show respect: Demonstrate respect for diverse ideas, cultures and traditions portrayed in oral, print and other media texts.


Cooperate with others: Contribute collaboratively in group situations, by asking questions and building on the ideas of others.


Cooperate with others: Take responsibility for assuming a variety of roles in a group, depending on changing contexts and needs.


Work in groups: Contribute ideas, knowledge and questions to establish an information base for research or investigations.


Work in groups: Assist in setting and achieving group goals by inviting others to speak, suggesting alternatives, assigning tasks, sharing resources, following up on others' ideas and listening to a variety of points of view.


Evaluate group process: Evaluate group process and personal contributions according to pre-established criteria to determine strengths and areas for improvement.


Communication: Students are expected to communicate in order to learn and express their understanding


Connections: Students are expected to connect mathematical ideas to other concepts in mathematics, to everyday experiences and to other disciplines


Mental Mathematics and Estimation: Students are expected to demonstrate fluency with mental mathematics and estimation


Problem Solving: Students are expected to develop and apply new mathematical knowledge through problem solving


Reasoning: Students are expected to develop mathematical reasoning


Visualization: Students are expected to develop visualization skills to assist in processing information, making connections and solving problems.


Determine and explain why a number is divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 or 10, and why a number cannot be divided by 0. [C, R]


Demonstrate an understanding of the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of decimals to solve problems (for more than 1-digit divisors or 2-digit multipliers, the use of technology is expected). [ME, PS, T] [ICT: P2-3.4]


Solve problems involving percents from 1% to 100%. [C, CN, PS, R, T] [ICT: P2-3.4]

What were the different ways in which Aboriginal societies were structured (i.e., Iroquois Confederacy, Ojibwa, Mikmaq)? (CC, I, LPP)

How did the structures of Aboriginal societies affect decision making in each society (i.e., role and status of women, consensus building)? (CC, TCC, PADM)

What were the social and economic factors of European imperialism? (CC, I, TCC)

In what ways did European imperialism impact the social and economic structures of Aboriginal societies? (ER, GC, PADM, TCC)

How was European imperialism responsible for the development of Acadia, New France and British settlements? (I, GC, PADM)

Who were the key figures in the French exploration and settlement of North America? (CC, LPP, TCC)

What roles did the Royal Government and the Catholic Church play in the social structure of New France (i.e., governor, intendant, Jesuits, religious congregations)? (ER, GC, PADM, LPP)

Who were the key figures in the British exploration and settlement of North America? (CC, LPP, TCC)

What role did the British government play in the settlement of North America? (PADM, ER, LPP, GC)


Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between positive terminating decimals and positive fractions and between positive repeating decimals and positive fractions. [C, CN, R, T] [ICT: P2-3.4]

How did the First Nations, French, British and Mtis peoples interact with each other as participants in the fur trade? (TCC, ER, LPP)

How did the fur trade contribute to the foundations of the economy in North America? (ER, LPP, TCC)

How was Britain's interest in the fur trade different from that of New France? (TCC, ER, GC)

How was economic development in New France impacted by the changing policies of the French Royal Government? (PADM, ER, GC, TCC)

What was the role of mercantilism before and after the 1763 Treaty of Paris? (ER, TCC)


Demonstrate an understanding of adding and subtracting positive fractions and mixed numbers, with like and unlike denominators, concretely, pictorially and symbolically (limited to positive sums and differences). [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]

In what ways did conflicts between the French and the British in Europe impact North America? (TCC, LPP)

How did conflicts between the French and the British in Europe become factors in the Great Deportation of the Acadians in 1755? (I, C, LPP, GC)

To what extent was the Battle of the Plains of Abraham the key event in achieving British control over North America? (TCC, LPP, GC)

How was British North America impacted by rebellion in the 13 colonies and by the subsequent Loyalist migration? (LPP, ER, TCC)


Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction of integers, concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]

What was the role and intent of Chief Pontiac in controlling British forts? (PADM, TCC)

To what extent was Confederation an attempt to strengthen the Maritime colonies? (GC, TCC, LPP)

How was the Royal Proclamation of 1763 an attempt to achieve compromise between the Aboriginal peoples, the French and the British? (PADM, TCC)

How did the Qubec Act of 1774 contribute to the foundations of Canada as an officially bilingual country? (PADM, TCC)

What was the role of Chief Tecumseh in the War of 1812? (PADM, TCC)

How did the War of 1812 contribute to British identity in Canada? (I, LPP, TCC)

How did the War of 1812 contribute to defining Canada's political boundaries? (LPP, TCC, I)

How was the Great Migration of 18151850 in Upper Canada and Lower Canada an attempt to confirm British identity in the Province of Canada? (LPP, I, TCC)

How was the Act of Union of 1840 an attempt to resolve the issues raised by the 1837 and 1838 Rebellions in Lower Canada and Upper Canada? (PADM, LPP, I, TCC)

To what extent was Confederation an attempt to provide the populations of Qubec and Ontario with increased control over their own affairs? (PADM, LPP, TCC)


Compare and order positive fractions, positive decimals (to thousandths) and whole numbers by using: benchmarks; place value; equivalent fractions and/or decimals. [CN, R, V]


Demonstrate an understanding of oral and written patterns and their equivalent linear relations. [C, CN, R]


Create a table of values from a linear relation, graph the table of values, and analyze the graph to draw conclusions and solve problems. [C, CN, PS, R, V] [ICT: C7-3.1]


Demonstrate an understanding of preservation of equality by: modelling preservation of equality, concretely, pictorially and symbolically; applying preservation of equality to solve equations. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Explain the difference between an expression and an equation. [C, CN]

What factors led to Louis Riel's emergence as the leader of the Mtis? (TCC, PADM, I, CC)

What similarities and differences exist between the causes of the Red River Resistance in 1869 and the causes of the second Mtis uprising in 1885? (TCC, PADM, LPP)

How did the Government of Canada's response to the Red River Resistance and the second Mtis uprising solidify Canada's control of the West? (TCC, PADM)

To what extent were the Red River Resistance and the second Mtis uprising means to counter assimilation? (PADM, I, C)

What were the Mtis, First Nations, French and British perspectives on the events that led to the establishment of Manitoba? (TCC, PADM, I, CC)

How was the creation of Manitoba an attempt to achieve compromise between the Mtis, First Nations, French and British peoples? (TCC, PADM, I, LPP)

To what extent were the Manitoba Schools Act and evolving educational legislation in the Northwest Territories attempts to impose a British identity in western Canada? (I, PADM, TCC)


Evaluate an expression, given the value of the variable(s). [CN, R]

What factors led to the purchase of Rupert's Land in 1869? (TCC, PADM, LPP)

How did communities, services and businesses established by Francophones contribute to the overall development of western Canada (i.e., health, education, churches, commerce, politics, journalism, agriculture)? (ER, TCC, CC, PADM)

How did immigrants from eastern Europe contribute to the development of western Canada (i.e., health, education, churches, commerce, politics, journalism, agriculture)? (CC, ER, TCC, PADM)

To what extent was agricultural activity a key factor in the population growth of western Canada? (TCC, LPP, ER)

What factors led to British Columbia's joining Confederation? (TCC, LPP, PADM)

What factors led to Prince Edward Island's joining Confederation? (TCC, LPP, PADM)

How were the needs of varied populations considered through the creation of Alberta and of Saskatchewan? (LPP, TCC, PADM)

What were the underlying reasons for the negotiation of the numbered treaties? (C, I, LPP, TCC)

How did the National Policy determine the economic and demographic aspects of Canadian expansion? (TCC, ER, PADM, LPP)

How did changing demographics resulting from Clifford Sifton's immigration policies affect the collective identity of Francophones in communities across western Canada? (I, TCC, PADM)

How did Asian immigrants contribute to the development of Canada (i.e., Chinese railway workers)? (TCC, CC, LPP)

In what ways did the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway affect the growth of Canada? (TCC, PADM, ER, LPP)

What was the role of the North West Mounted Police in the development of western Canada? (PADM, TCC)

What strategies were used by the government to encourage immigration from Europe? (GC, LPP, TCC)

What strategies were used by religious communities and missionaries to encourage migration and immigration to western Canada from eastern Canada and the United States? (TCC, LPP, GC)

What impact did immigration have on Aboriginal peoples and on communities in Canada? (GC, CC, I, TCC)


Model and solve, concretely, pictorially and symbolically, problems that can be represented by one-step linear equations of the form x + a = b, where a and b are integers. [CN, PS, R, V]

What were the reasons for, and the consequences of, Newfoundland's joining Confederation? (PADM, TCC, I)

How did joining Confederation impact the citizens of Newfoundland? (C, I, PADM)

What are the social and economic effects of the changing roles and images of women in Canadian society (i.e., right to vote, working conditions, changing family structures)? (ER, I)

What challenges and opportunities have emerged as a result of increases in the Aboriginal population in western Canada? (LPP, CC, C, I)

How has the Official Languages Act contributed to bilingualism in Canada? (PADM, C, I)

How have Canadian immigration policies contributed to increased diversity and multiculturalism within the Canadian population? (PADM, GC, C, I)

What strategies and conditions are needed for the Franco-Albertan community to counter assimilation? (CC, I, PADM)


Model and solve, concretely, pictorially and symbolically, problems that can be represented by linear equations of the form: ax + b = c; ax = b; x/a = b, a 0 where a, b and c are whole numbers. [CN, PS, R, V]

What impact has increased urbanization had on rural communities in Canada? (LPP, CC)

How did the emergence of large factories in Canada contribute to the development of Canada's economy? (ER, PADM)

In what ways did technological advances contribute to the development of Canada (e.g., aviation, farming equipment, radio transmissions, electronics, multimedia)? (ER, PADM)

What effects have La Socit Radio-Canada (SRC) and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) had on Canadian identity? (I)


Demonstrate an understanding of circles by: describing the relationships among radius, diameter and circumference; relating circumference to pi; determining the sum of the central angles; constructing circles with a given radius or diameter; solving problems involving the radii, diameters and circumferences of circles. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Develop and apply a formula for determining the area of: triangles; parallelograms; circles. [CN, PS, R, V]


Perform geometric constructions, including: perpendicular line segments; parallel line segments; perpendicular bisectors; angle bisectors. [CN, R, V]


Identify and plot points in the four quadrants of a Cartesian plane, using integral ordered pairs. [C, CN, V]


Perform and describe transformations (translations, rotations or reflections) of a 2-D shape in all four quadrants of a Cartesian plane (limited to integral number vertices). [C, CN, PS, T, V] [ICT: C6-3.4]


Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and range by: determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and range; determining the most appropriate measures of central tendency to report findings. [C, PS, R, T] [ICT: P2-3.4]


Construct, label and interpret circle graphs to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, R, T, V] [ICT: P2-3.3]


Express probabilities as ratios, fractions and percents. [C, CN, R, T, V] [ICT: P2-3.4]


Identify the sample space (where the combined sample space has 36 or fewer elements) for a probability experiment involving two independent events. [C, ME, PS]


Conduct a probability experiment to compare the theoretical probability (determined using a tree diagram, table or other graphic organizer) and experimental probability of two independent events. [C, PS, R, T] [ICT: C7-3.2, P2-3.4]


Analyzing and Interpreting - Students will:


Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations


Classify organisms found in a study plot


Initiating and Planning - Students will:


Ask questions about the relationships between and among observable variables, and plan investigations to address those questions


Identify science-related issues (e.g., identify a specific issue regarding human impacts on environments)


Performing and Recording - Students will:


Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among observations, and gather and record qualitative and quantitative data


Use tools and apparatus effectively and accurately for collecting data (e.g., measure factors, such as temperature, moisture, light, shelter and potential sources of food, that might affect the survival and distribution of different organisms within a local environment)


Investigate and describe relationships between humans and their environments, and identify related issues and scientific questions


Illustrate how life-supporting environments meet the needs of living things for nutrients, energy sources, moisture, suitable habitat, and exchange of gases


Describe examples of interaction and interdependency within an ecosystem (e.g., identify examples of dependency between species, and describe adaptations involved; identify changing relationships between humans and their environments, over time and in different cultures"""as, for example, in aboriginal cultures)


Identify examples of human impacts on ecosystems, and investigate and analyze the link between these impacts and the human wants and needs that give rise to them (e.g., identify impacts of the use of plants and animals as sources of food, fibre and other materials; identify potential impacts of waste products on environments)


Analyze personal and public decisions that involve consideration of environmental impacts, and identify needs for scientific knowledge that can inform those decisions


Trace and interpret the flow of energy and materials within an ecosystem


Analyze an ecosystem to identify biotic and abiotic components, and describe interactions among these components


Analyze ecosystems to identify producers, consumers and decomposers; and describe how energy is supplied to and flows through a food web, by:


Describing and giving examples of energy and nutrient storage in plants and animals


Describing how matter is recycled in an ecosystem through interactions among plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms


Interpreting food webs, and predicting the effects of changes to any part of a web


Describe the process of cycling carbon and water through an ecosystem


Identify mechanisms by which pollutants enter and move through the environment, and can become concentrated in some organisms (e.g., acid rain, mercury, PCBs, DDT)


Monitor a local environment, and assess the impacts of environmental factors on the growth, health and reproduction of organisms in that environment


Investigate a variety of habitats, and describe and interpret distribution patterns of living things found in those habitats (e.g., describe and compare two areas within the school grounds"""a relatively undisturbed site and a site that has been affected by heavy use; describe and compare a wetland and a dryland area in a local parkland)


Investigate and interpret evidence of interaction and change (e.g., population fluctuations, changes in weather, availability of food or introduction of new species into an ecosystem)


Identify signs of ecological succession in local ecosystems (e.g., emergence of fireweed in recently cut forest areas, replacement of poplar by spruce in maturing forests, reestablishment of native plants on unused farmland)


Describe the relationships among knowledge, decisions and actions in maintaining life-supporting environments


Identify intended and unintended consequences of human activities within local and global environments (e.g., changes resulting from habitat loss, pest control or from introduction of new species; changes leading to species extinction)


Describe and interpret examples of scientific investigations that serve to inform environmental decision making


Analyze a local environmental issue or problem based on evidence from a variety of sources, and identify possible actions and consequences (e.g., analyze a local issue on the control of the beaver population in a nearby wetland, and identify possible consequences)


Analyzing and Interpreting - Students will:


Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations


Identify strengths and weaknesses of different methods of collecting and displaying data (e.g., compare two different ways to measure the amount of moisture in soil; evaluate different ways of presenting data on the health and growth of plants)


Use and/or construct a classification key (e.g., distinguish among several grain varieties, using a classification guide or key)


Compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs and line graphs (e.g., prepare a record of a plant"s growth that charts its development in terms of height, leaf development, flowering and seed production)


Identify new questions and problems that arise from what was learned


Communication and Teamwork - Students will:


Work collaboratively on problems; and use appropriate language and formats to communicate ideas, procedures and results


Communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results, using lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables, graphs, drawings, oral language and other means (e.g., show the growth of a group of plants over time through a data table and diagrams)


Initiating and Planning - Students will:


Ask questions about the relationships between and among observable variables, and plan investigations to address those questions


Define practical problems (e.g., identify problems in growing plants under dry conditions)


Identify questions to investigate arising from practical problems and issues (e.g., What methods will help limit moisture loss from plants and soil? What reduction in the loss of soil moisture can be achieved through the use of a plastic ground sheet or through the use of a plastic canopy?)


Rephrase questions in a testable form, and clearly define practical problems (e.g., rephrase a broad question, such as: """What amount of fertilizer is best?"to become """What effect will the application of different quantities of fertilizer X have on the growth of plant Y and its environment?)


Formulate operational definitions (e.g., define the health of a plant in terms of its colour and growth pattern)


Performing and Recording - Students will:


Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among observations, and gather and record qualitative and quantitative data


Observe and record data, and create simple line drawings (e.g., describe plant growth, using qualitative and quantitative observations; draw and describe plant changes resulting from an experimental procedure)


Investigate plant uses; and identify links among needs, technologies, products and impacts


Illustrate and explain the essential role of plants within the environment


Describe human uses of plants as sources of food and raw materials, and give examples of other uses (e.g., identify uses of plants as herbs or medicines; describe plant products, and identify plant sources on which they depend)


Investigate trends in land use from natural environments (e.g., forests, grasslands) to managed environments (e.g., farms, gardens, greenhouses) and describe changes


Investigate practical problems and issues in maintaining productive plants within sustainable environments, and identify questions for further study (e.g., investigate the long-term effects of irrigation practices or fertilizer use)


Investigate life processes and structures of plants, and interpret related characteristics and needs of plants in a local environment


Describe the general structure and functions of seed plants (e.g., describe the roots, stem, leaves and flower of a common local plant)


Investigate and interpret variations in plant structure, and relate these to different ways that plants are adapted to their environment (e.g., distinguish between plants with shallow spreading roots and those with deep taproots; describe and interpret differences in flower form and in the timing of flower production)


Investigate and interpret variations in needs of different plants and their tolerance for different growing conditions (e.g., tolerance for drought, soil salinization or short growing seasons)


Describe the processes of diffusion, osmosis, conduction of fluids, transpiration, photosynthesis and gas exchange in plants [Note: This item requires a general understanding of the processes; it does not require knowledge of the specific biochemistry of these processes.]


Describe life cycles of seed plants, and identify example methods used to ensure their germination, growth and reproduction (e.g., describe propagation of plants from seeds and vegetative techniques, such as cuttings; conduct a germination study; describe the use of beehives to support pollination)


Analyze plant environments, and identify impacts of specific factors and controls


Describe methods used to increase yields, through modifying the environment and by creating artificial environments (e.g., describe processes used in raising bedding plants or in vegetable production through hydroponics)


Investigate and describe characteristics of different soils and their major component (e.g., distinguish among clayey soils, sandy soils and soils rich in organic content; investigate and describe particle sizes, compaction and moisture content of soil samples)


Identify practices that may enhance or degrade soils in particular applications


Describe and interpret the consequences of using herbicides, pesticides and biological controls in agriculture and forestry


Identify and interpret relationships among human needs, technologies, environments, and the culture and use of living things as sources of food and fibre


Investigate and describe the development of plant varieties through selective breeding, and identify related needs and problems (e.g., identify needs leading to the development of new grain varieties; identify problems arising from the development of new plant varieties that require extensive fertilization)


Investigate and identify intended and unintended consequences of environmental management practices (e.g., identify problems arising from monocultural land use in agricultural and forestry practices, such as susceptibility to insect infestation or loss of diversity)


Identify the effects of different practices on the sustainability of agriculture and environmental resources (e.g., identify positive and negative effects of using chemical fertilizers and pesticides and of using organic farming practices)


Analyzing and Interpreting - Students will:


Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations


Compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs and line graphs (e.g., construct a database to enter, compare and present data on the insulative properties of different materials)


Identify, and suggest explanations for, discrepancies in data


Identify and evaluate potential applications of findings (e.g., the application of heat transfer principles to the design of homes and protective clothing)


Test the design of a constructed device or system (e.g., test a personally-constructed heating or cooling device)


Initiating and Planning - Students will:


Ask questions about the relationships between and among observable variables, and plan investigations to address those questions


Identify science-related issues (e.g., identify an economic issue related to heat loss in a building)


Identify questions to investigate arising from a problem or issue (e.g., ask a question about the source of cold air in a building, or about ways to prevent cold areas)


Performing and Recording - Students will:


Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among observations, and gather and record qualitative and quantitative data


Identify data and information that are relevant to a given problem or issue


Carry out procedures, controlling the major variables (e.g., show appropriate attention to controls in investigations of the insulative properties of different materials)


Illustrate and explain how human needs have led to technologies for obtaining and controlling thermal energy and to increased use of energy resources


Investigate and interpret examples of heat-related technologies and energy use in the past (e.g., investigate uses of heat for domestic purposes, such as cooking or home heating, and for industrial processes, such as ceramics, metallurgy or use of engines)


Identify and explain uses of devices and systems to generate, transfer, control or remove thermal energy (e.g., describe how a furnace and wall thermostat keep a house at a constant temperature)


Identify examples of personal and societal choices in using energy resources and technology (e.g., identify choices that affect the amount of hot water used in their daily routines; identify choices in how that water is heated)


Describe the nature of thermal energy and its effects on different forms of matter, using informal observations, experimental evidence and models


Compare heat transmission in different materials (e.g., compare conduction of heat in different solids; compare the absorption of radiant heat by different surfaces)


Explain how heat is transmitted by conduction, convection and radiation in solids, liquids and gases


Describe the effect of heat on the motion of particles; and explain changes of state, using the particle model of matter


Distinguish between heat and temperature; and explain temperature, using the concept of kinetic energy and the particle model of matter


Investigate and describe the effects of heating and cooling on the volume of different materials, and identify applications of these effects (e.g., use of expansion joints on bridges and railway tracks to accommodate thermal expansion)


Apply an understanding of heat and temperature in interpreting natural phenomena and technological devices


Describe ways in which thermal energy is produced naturally (e.g., solar radiation, combustion of fuels, living things, geothermal sources and composting)


Describe examples of passive and active solar heating, and explain the principles that underlie them (e.g., design of homes to maximize use of winter sunshine)


Explain the operation of technological devices and systems that respond to temperature change (e.g., thermometers, bimetallic strips, thermostatically-controlled heating systems)


Describe and interpret the function of household devices and systems for generating, transferring, controlling or removing thermal energy (e.g., describe in general terms the operation of heaters, furnaces, refrigerators and air conditioning devices)


Investigate and describe practical problems in controlling and using thermal energy (e.g., heat losses, excess energy consumption, damage to materials caused by uneven heating, risk of fire)


Analyze issues related to the selection and use of thermal technologies, and explain decisions in terms of advantages and disadvantages for sustainability


Identify and evaluate different sources of heat and the environmental impacts of their use (e.g., identify advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuel use; compare the use of renewable and nonrenewable sources in different applications)


Identify positive and negative consequences of energy use, and describe examples of energy conservation in their home or community


Analyzing and Interpreting - Students will:


Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations


Compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line graphs and scatterplots (e.g., plot a graph, showing the deflection of different materials tested under load)


Identify and evaluate potential applications of findings (e.g., identify possible applications of materials for which they have studied the properties)


Test the design of a constructed device or system (e.g., test and evaluate a prototype design of a foundation for a model building to be constructed on sand)


Evaluate designs and prototypes in terms of function, reliability, safety, efficiency, use of materials and impact on the environment


Identify and correct practical problems in the way a prototype or constructed device functions


Communication and Teamwork - Students will:


Work collaboratively on problems; and use appropriate language and formats to communicate ideas, procedures and results


Communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results, using lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables, graphs, drawings, oral language and other means (e.g., produce a work plan, in cooperation with other team members, that identifies criteria for selecting materials and evaluating designs)


Initiating and Planning - Students will:


Ask questions about the relationships between and among observable variables, and plan investigations to address those questions


Identify practical problems (e.g., identify a problem related to the stability of a structure)


Performing and Recording - Students will:


Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among observations, and gather and record qualitative and quantitative data


Organize data, using a format that is appropriate to the task or experiment (e.g., use a database or spreadsheet for recording the deformation of components under different loads)


Carry out procedures, controlling the major variables (e.g., ensure that tests to determine the effect of any one variable are based on changes to that variable only)


Use tools and apparatus safely (e.g., select appropriate tools, and safely apply methods for joining materials; use saws and other cutting tools safely)


Describe and interpret different types of structures encountered in everyday objects, buildings, plants and animals; and identify materials from which they are made


Recognize and classify structural forms and materials used in construction (e.g., identify examples of frame structures, such as goal posts and girder bridges, examples of shell structures, such as canoes and car roofs, and examples of frame-and-shell structures, such as houses and apartment buildings)


Describe and compare example structures developed by different cultures and at different times; and interpret differences in functions, materials and aesthetics (e.g., describe traditional designs of indigenous people and peoples of other cultures; compare classical and current designs; investigate the role of symmetry in design)


Describe and interpret natural structures, including the structure of living things and structures created by animals (e.g., skeletons, exoskeletons, trees, birds" nests)


Identify points of failure and modes of failure in natural and built structures (e.g., potential failure of a tree under snow load, potential failure of an overloaded bridge)


Investigate and analyze forces within structures, and forces applied to them


Recognize and use units of force and mass, and identify and measure forces and loads


Identify examples of frictional forces and their use in structures (e.g., friction of a nail driven into wood, friction of pilings or footings in soil, friction of stone laid on stone)


Identify tension, compression, shearing and bending forces within a structure; and describe how these forces can cause the structure to fail (e.g., identify tensile forces that cause lengthening and possible snapping of a member; identify bending forces that could lead to breakage)


Analyze a design, and identify properties of materials that are important to individual parts of the structure (e.g., recognize that cables can be used as a component of structures where only tensile forces are involved; recognize that beams are subject to tension on one side and compression on the other; recognize that flexibility is important in some structures)


Infer how the stability of a model structure will be affected by changes in the distribution of mass within the structure and by changes in the design of its foundation (e.g., infer how the stability of a structure will be affected by increasing the width of its foundation)


Investigate and analyze the properties of materials used in structures


Devise and use methods of testing the strength and flexibility of materials used in a structure (e.g., measure deformation under load)


Compare structural properties of different materials, including natural materials and synthetics


Investigate and describe the role of different materials found in plant and animal structures (e.g., recognize the role of bone, cartilage and ligaments in vertebrate animals, and the role of different layers of materials in plants)


Demonstrate and describe processes used in developing, evaluating and improving structures that will meet human needs with a margin of safety


Demonstrate and describe methods to increase the strength of materials through changes in design (e.g., corrugation of surfaces, lamination of adjacent members, changing the shape of components, changing the method of fastening)


Identify environmental factors that may affect the stability and safety of a structure, and describe how these factors are taken into account (e.g., recognize that snow load, wind load and soil characteristics need to be taken into account in building designs; describe example design adaptations used in earthquake-prone regions)


Analyze and evaluate a technological design or process on the basis of identified criteria, such as costs, benefits, safety and potential impact on the environment


Analyzing and Interpreting - Students will:


Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations


Use or construct a classification key (e.g., apply a classification key to identify a group of rocks from a local gravel yard)


Identify and suggest explanations for discrepancies in data (e.g., suggest explanations for an igneous rock being found in a sedimentary formation)


Initiating and Planning - Students will:


Ask questions about the relationships between and among observable variables, and plan investigations to address those questions


Formulate operational definitions of major variables and other aspects of their investigations (e.g., define hardness by reference to a set of mineral samples, or by reference to the Mohs" scale of hardness)


Describe and demonstrate methods used in the scientific study of Earth and in observing and interpreting its component materials


Investigate and interpret evidence that Earth"s surface undergoes both gradual and sudden change (e.g., recognize earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides as examples of sudden change; recognize glacial erosion and river erosion as examples of gradual/incremental change)


Interpret models that show a layered structure for Earth"s interior; and describe, in general terms, evidence for such models


Identify and explain the purpose of different tools and techniques used in the study of Earth (e.g., describe and explain the use of seismographs and coring drills, as well as tools and techniques for the close examination of rocks; describe methods used in oil and gas exploration)


Explain the need for common terminology and conventions in describing rocks and minerals, and apply suitable terms and conventions in describing sample materials (e.g., use common terms in describing the lustre, transparency, cleavage and fracture of rocks and minerals; apply the Mohs" scale in describing mineral hardness)


Identify evidence for the rock cycle, and use the rock cycle concept to interpret and explain the characteristics of particular rocks


Distinguish between rocks and minerals


Describe characteristics of the three main classes of rocks"""igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic"""and describe evidence of their formation (e.g., describe evidence of igneous rock formation, based on the study of rocks found in and around volcanoes; describe the role of fossil evidence in interpreting sedimentary rock)


Describe local rocks and sediments, and interpret ways they may have formed


Investigate and interpret examples of weathering, erosion and sedimentation


Investigate and interpret evidence of major changes in landforms and the rock layers that underlie them


Investigate and interpret patterns in the structure and distribution of mountain formations (e.g., describe and interpret mountain formations of the North American cordillera)


Interpret the structure and development of fold and fault mountains


Describe evidence for crustal movement, and identify and interpret patterns in these movements (e.g., identify evidence of earthquakes and volcanic action along the Pacific Rim; identify evidence of the movement of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate)


Identify and interpret examples of gradual/incremental change, and predict the results of those changes over extended periods of time (e.g., identify evidence of erosion, and predict the effect of erosional change over a year, century and millennium; project the effect of a given rate of continental drift over a period of one million years)


Describe, interpret and evaluate evidence from the fossil record


Describe the nature of different kinds of fossils, and identify hypotheses about their formation (e.g., identify the kinds of rocks where fossils are likely to be found; identify the portions of living things most likely to be preserved; identify possible means of preservation, including replacement of one material by another and formation of molds and casts)


Explain and apply methods used to interpret fossils (e.g., identify techniques used for fossil reconstruction, based on knowledge of current living things and findings of related fossils; identify examples of petrified wood and bone)


Describe patterns in the appearance of different life forms, as indicated by the fossil record (e.g., construct and interpret a geological time scale; and describe, in general terms, the evidence that has led to its development)


Identify uncertainties in interpreting individual items of fossil evidence; and explain the role of accumulated evidence in developing accepted scientific ideas, theories and explanations


Determine the validity of information based on context, bias, source, objectivity, evidence and/or reliability to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue


Evaluate, critically, ideas, information and positions from multiple perspectives


Demonstrate the ability to analyze local and current affairs


Re-evaluate personal opinions to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue


Generate creative ideas and strategies in individual and group activities


Access diverse viewpoints on particular topics, using appropriate technologies


Analyze historical issues to form or support an opinion


Use historical and community resources to organize the sequence of historical events


Explain the historical contexts of key events of a given time period


Distinguish cause, effect, sequence and correlation in historical events, including the long- and short-term causal relations of events


Identify patterns in organized information


Construct and interpret maps to broaden understanding of issues, places and peoples of Canada (i.e., elevation, latitude and longitude, population density, waterways)


Use geographic tools, such as geographical information system (GIS) software, to assist in preparing graphs and maps


Interpret historical maps to broaden understanding of historical events


Define geographic challenges and issues that lead to geographic questions


Access and operate multimedia applications and technologies from stand-alone and online sources; e.g., GIS


Predict outcomes of decision-making and problem-solving scenarios from multiple perspectives


Articulate clearly a plan of action to use technology to solve a problem


Identify appropriate materials and tools to use in order to accomplish a plan of action


Use networks to brainstorm, plan and share ideas with group members


Assume various roles within groups, including roles of leadership where appropriate


Identify and use a variety of strategies to resolve conflicts peacefully and equitably


Consider the needs and perspectives of others


Support and participate in activities and projects that promote the well-being and meet the particular needs of their community


Develop a position that is supported by information gathered through research


Demonstrate the advanced search skills necessary to limit the number of hits desired for online and offline databases; for example, the use of and" or or" between search topics and the choice of appropriate search engines for the topic


Develop a process to manage volumes of information that can be made available through electronic sources


Evaluate the relevance of electronically accessed information to a particular topic


Make connections among related, organized data and assemble various pieces into a unified message


Refine searches to limit sources to a manageable number


Analyze and synthesize information to produce an original work


Determine how information serves a variety of purposes and that the accuracy or relevance of information may need verification


Organize and synthesize researched information


Practise the responsible and ethical use of information and technology


Include and organize references as part of research


Plan and conduct a search, using a wide variety of electronic sources


Communicate information in a clear, persuasive and engaging manner, through written and oral means


Elicit, clarify and respond appropriately to questions, ideas and multiple points of view in discussions


Listen to others in order to understand their perspectives


Offer reasoned comments related to a topic of discussion


Use selected presentation tools to demonstrate connections among various pieces of information


Analyze the impact of television, the Internet, radio and print media on a particular current affairs issue


Detect bias on issues presented in the media


Examine techniques used to enhance the authority and authenticity of media messages


Examine the values, lifestyles and points of view represented in a media message


Identify and distinguish points of view expressed in electronic sources on a particular topic


Recognize that information serves different purposes and that data from electronic sources may need to be verified to determine accuracy or relevance for the purpose used