Alberta Programs of Study — Grade 8

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Express ideas and develop understanding: Revise understanding and expression of ideas by connecting new and prior knowledge and experiences.


Express ideas and develop understanding: Review, reread and reflect on oral, print and other media texts to explore, confirm or revise understanding.


Express ideas and develop understanding: Seek out and consider diverse ideas, opinions and experiences to develop and extend own ideas, opinions and experiences.


Experiment with language and forms: Discuss and respond to ways that forms of oral, print and other media texts enhance or constrain the development and communication of ideas, information and experiences.


Express preferences: Pursue personal interest in specific genres by particular writers, artists, storytellers and filmmakers.


Set goals: Examine and reflect on own growth in effective use of language to revise and extend personal goals.


Consider others' ideas: Acknowledge the value of others' ideas and opinions in exploring and extending personal interpretations and perspectives.


Combine ideas: Exchange ideas and opinions to clarify understanding and to broaden personal perspectives.


Extend understanding: Reconsider and revise initial understandings and responses in light of new ideas, information and feedback from others.


Use prior knowledge: Use strategies to supplement and extend prior knowledge and experience when interpreting new ideas and information.


Use prior knowledge: Use knowledge of authors, forms and genres, developed during previous reading, to direct and extend reading experiences.


Use comprehension strategies: Enhance understanding by paraphrasing main ideas and supporting details, and by rereading and discussing relevant passages.


Use comprehension strategies: Monitor understanding; skim, scan or read slowly and carefully, as appropriate, to enhance comprehension.


Use comprehension strategies: Take notes, make outlines and use strategies such as read, recite, review to comprehend and remember ideas and information.


Use textual cues: Identify and use visual and textual cues in reference materials, such as catalogues, databases, web sites, thesauri and writers' handbooks, to access information effectively and efficiently.


Use phonics and structural analysis: Choose and use strategies for word identification, vocabulary development and spelling that build on specific strengths or address areas for improvement.


Experience various texts: Experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as magazine articles, diaries, drama, poetry, Internet passages, fantasy, nonfiction, advertisements and photographs.


Appreciate the artistry of texts: Identify and discuss how word choice and order, figurative language, plot, setting and character work together to create mood and tone.


Experience various texts: Write and represent narratives from other points of view.


Experience various texts: Expect that there is more than one interpretation for oral, print and other media texts.


Construct meaning from texts: Interpret the choices and motives of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts, and examine how they relate to self and others.


Construct meaning from texts: Identify and describe characters' attributes and motivations, using evidence from the text and personal experiences.


Construct meaning from texts: Discuss various ways characters are developed and the reasons for and plausibility of character change.


Construct meaning from texts: Compare two similar oral, print or other media texts by considering the characters, plot, conflicts and main ideas.


Appreciate the artistry of texts: Discuss how techniques, such as word choice, balance, camera angles, line and framing, communicate meaning and enhance effects in oral, print and other media texts.


Appreciate the artistry of texts: Identify ways that characters can be developed, and discuss how character, plot and setting are interconnected and mutually supportive.


Understand forms and genres: Compare the usefulness of different types of media texts.


Understand techniques and elements: Distinguish theme from topic or main idea in oral, print and other media texts.


Understand techniques and elements: Identify and explain characters' qualities and motivations, by considering their words and actions, their interactions with other characters and the author's or narrator's perspective.


Understand techniques and elements: Compare and contrast the different perspectives provided by first and third person narration.


Understand techniques and elements: Summarize the content of media texts, and discuss the choices made in planning and producing them.


Experiment with language: Identify creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as commercials, rock videos and magazines; explain how imagery and figurative language, such as hyperbole, create tone and mood.


Generate ideas: Create oral, print and other media texts related to issues encountered in texts and in own life.


Elaborate on the expression of ideas: Retell oral, print and other media texts from different points of view.


Structure texts: Create oral, print and other media texts with both main and minor characters.


Structure texts: Choose forms or genres of oral, print or other media texts for the particular effects they will have on audiences and purposes.


Focus attention: Experiment with several ways to focus a topic, and select a form appropriate to audience and purpose.


Focus attention: Identify and trace the development of arguments, opinions or points of view in oral, print and other media texts.


Determine information needs: Select the most appropriate information sources for topic, audience, purpose and form.


Use a variety of sources: Obtain information from a variety of sources, such as artifacts, debates, forums, biographies, autobiographies, surveys, documentaries, films, CDROMs, charts and tables, when conducting research.


Access information: Expand and use a variety of tools and text features, such as subtitles, margin notes, key words, electronic searches, previews, reviews, visual effects and sound effects, to access information.


Access information: Adjust rate of reading or viewing to suit purpose and density of information in print or other media texts.


Organize information: Organize ideas and information creatively, as well as logically, to develop a comparison or chronology, or to show a cause-effect relationship.


Organize information: Organize ideas and information to establish an overall impression or point of view in oral, print and other media texts.


Record information: Make notes in point form, summarizing major ideas and supporting details; reference sources.


Record information: Use a consistent and approved format to give credit for quoted and paraphrased ideas and information.


Evaluate information: Incorporate new information with prior knowledge and experiences to develop new understanding.


Share ideas and information: Communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as interviews, minilessons and documentaries.


Share ideas and information: Integrate appropriate visual, print and/or other media to inform and engage the audience.


Review research process: Assess the research process, and consider alternative ways of achieving research goals.


Appraise own and others' work: Share draft oral, print and other media texts in a way that will elicit useful feedback.


Expand knowledge of language: Infer the literal and figurative meaning of words in context, using idioms, analogies, metaphors and similes.


Enhance artistry: Experiment with figurative language, voice, sentence patterns, camera angle and music to create an impression or mood.


Appraise own and others' work: Evaluate how particular content features contribute to, or detract from, the overall effectiveness of own and others' oral, print and other media texts; make and suggest revisions.


Revise and edit: Revise by adding words and phrases that emphasize important ideas or create dominant impressions.


Revise and edit: Revise to enhance sentence variety, word choice and appropriate tone.


Revise and edit: Enhance the coherence and impact of documents, using electronic editing functions.


Revise and edit: Use paragraph structures to demonstrate unity and coherence.


Enhance legibility: Vary handwriting style and pace, depending on the context, audience and purpose.


Enhance legibility: Choose an effective format for documents, depending on the content, audience and purpose.


Expand knowledge of language: Explore and explain ways that new words, phrases and manners of expression enter the language as a result of factors, such as popular culture, technology, other languages.


Attend to grammar and usage: Use words and phrases to modify, clarify and enhance ideas and descriptions in own writing.


Attend to capitalization and punctuation: Use parentheses appropriately in own writing.


Attend to capitalization and punctuation: Use appropriate capitalization and punctuation for referencing oral, print and other media texts.


Attend to grammar and usage: Use a variety of simple, compound and complex sentence structures to communicate effectively, and to make writing interesting.


Attend to grammar and usage: Use correct pronoun-antecedent agreement in own.


Attend to grammar and usage: Use verb tenses consistently throughout a piece of writing.


Attend to spelling: Develop a systematic and effective approach to studying and remembering the correct spelling of key words encountered in a variety of print and other media texts.


Attend to spelling: Use knowledge of spelling generalizations and how words are formed to spell technical terms and unfamiliar words in own writing.


Attend to spelling: Identify the use of spelling variants in print and other media texts, and discuss the effectiveness depending on audience and purpose.


Attend to capitalization and punctuation: Use hyphens to break words at the end of lines, and to make a new word from two related words in own writing.


Attend to capitalization and punctuation: Identify semicolons, dashes and hyphens when reading, and use them to assist comprehension.


Plan and facilitate small group and short, whole class presentations to share information.


Enhance presentation: Present information to achieve a particular purpose and to appeal to interest and background knowledge of reader or audience.


Use effective oral and visual communication: Plan and shape presentations to achieve particular purposes or effects, and use feedback from rehearsals to make modifications.


Use effective oral and visual communication: Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing.


Use effective oral and visual communication: Anticipate the organizational pattern of presentations, and identify important ideas and supporting details.


Use effective oral and visual communication: Use appropriate verbal and nonverbal feedback to respond respectfully.


Appreciate diversity: Compare own with others' understanding of people, cultural traditions and values portrayed in oral, print and other media texts.


Appreciate diversity: Clarify and broaden perspectives and opinions, by examining the ideas of others.


Relate texts to culture: Compare ways in which oral, print and other media texts reflect specific elements of cultures or periods in history.


Celebrate accomplishments and events: Participate in organizing and celebrating special events, recognizing the appropriateness and significance of the language arts.


Use language to show respect: Use inclusive language and actions that demonstrate respect for people of different races, cultures, genders, ages and abilities.


Cooperate with others: Propose ideas or advocate points of view that recognize the ideas of others and advance the thinking of the group.


Cooperate with others: Use opportunities as a group member to contribute to group goals and extend own learning.


Work in groups: Contribute ideas, knowledge and strategies to identify group information needs and sources.


Work in groups: Organize and complete tasks cooperatively by defining roles and responsibilities, negotiating to find the basis for agreement, setting objectives and time frame, and reviewing progress.


Evaluate group process: Evaluate the quality of own contributions to group process, and offer constructive feedback to others; propose suggestions for improvement.


Communication: Students are expected to communicate in order to learn and express their understanding


Connections: Students are expected to connect mathematical ideas to other concepts in mathematics, to everyday experiences and to other disciplines


Mental Mathematics and Estimation: Students are expected to demonstrate fluency with mental mathematics and estimation


Problem Solving: Students are expected to develop and apply new mathematical knowledge through problem solving


Reasoning: Students are expected to develop mathematical reasoning


Visualization: Students are expected to develop visualization skills to assist in processing information, making connections and solving problems.


Demonstrate an understanding of perfect squares and square roots, concretely, pictorially and symbolically (limited to whole numbers). [C, CN, R, V]


Determine the approximate square root of numbers that are not perfect squares (limited to whole numbers). [C, CN, ME, R, T] [ICT: P2-3.4]


Demonstrate an understanding of percents greater than or equal to 0%, including greater than 100%. [CN, PS, R, V]


Demonstrate an understanding of ratio and rate. [C, CN, V]


Solve problems that involve rates, ratios and proportional reasoning. [C, CN, PS, R]

In what ways did Japan isolate itself from the rest of the world? (PADM, LPP, CC)

How did isolation during the Edo period lead to changes in Japan? (CC, PADM)

How did the changes resulting from isolation affect Japan economically, politically and socially during the Edo period? (ER, PADM, CC, I)

How did the physical geography of Japan affect its worldview? (LPP, PADM, TCC)

How did the shogun use the feudal system and the hierarchical social classes to maintain control of Japan? (PADM, CC)


Demonstrate an understanding of multiplying and dividing positive fractions and mixed numbers, concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, ME, PS]

What were the motivations for the radical changes in Japan's model of organization during the Meiji period? (ER, CC, PADM)

How did Japan adapt to changes brought on by the transition from feudal to modern models of organization? (CC, TCC, I)

How did the changes resulting from adaptation affect Japan economically, politically and socially during the Meiji period? (ER, CC, PADM)

In what ways did changes resulting from isolation in the Edo period compare to changes resulting from adaptation in the Meiji period? (CC, TCC, I)

What challenges emerged for the Japanese in maintaining traditional cultural aspects of their society while undergoing rapid change? (CC, I, TCC)


Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division of integers, concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Graph and analyze two-variable linear relations. [C, ME, PS, R, T, V] [ICT: P2-3.3]


Model and solve problems concretely, pictorially and symbolically, using linear equations of the form: ax = b; a/x = b, a 0; ax + b = c; x/a + b = c, a 0; a(x + b) = c where a, b and c are integers. [C, CN, PS, V]


Students will recognize how beliefs and values are shaped by time, geographic location and societal context (C, TCC, LPP)


Students will examine, critically, the factors that shaped the worldview evolving in western Europe during the Renaissance by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:

What was the Renaissance? (TCC, LPP)

How did the Renaissance spark the growth and exchange of ideas and knowledge across Europe (i.e., astronomy, mathematics, science, politics, religion, arts)? (TCC, ER, PADM, GC)

How did the physical geography of Renaissance Europe affect trade and competition among European countries? (LPP, TCC)

How did increased trade lead to the emergence of powerful city-states (i.e., Florence, Venice, Genoa)? (TCC, CC, ER)

In what ways were the Age of Discovery and the rise of imperialism expressions of an expansionist worldview? (TCC, PADM, LPP)

In what ways did exploration and intercultural contact during the Renaissance affect the citizenship and identity of Europeans? (C, I, GC, LPP, TCC)


Develop and apply the Pythagorean theorem to solve problems. [CN, PS, R, T, V] [ICT: P2-3.4]


Draw and construct nets for 3-D objects. [C, CN, PS, V]


Determine the surface area of: right rectangular prisms; right triangular prisms; right cylinders to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Develop and apply formulas for determining the volume of right rectangular prisms, right triangular prisms and right cylinders. [C, CN, PS, R, V]

What were the key elements of the worldview of the Aztec civilization prior to contact with the Spanish? (TCC, I, CC)

How did the Aztec civilization's worldview influence the Aztecs' choices, decisions and customs? (TCC, CC, PADM)

What key elements of Spain's worldview led to the desire to expand the Spanish empire? (TCC, I, PADM)

In what ways did factors such as technology and disease contribute to the dominance of the Spanish over the Aztec civilization? (ER, LPP)

To what extent were the divergent worldviews of the Spanish and Aztecs factors in the dominance of one nation over the other? (TCC, CC, GC, PADM)


Demonstrate an understanding of the congruence of polygons. [CN, R, V]


Critique ways in which data is presented in circle graphs, line graphs, bar graphs and pictographs. [C, R, T, V] [ICT: C7-3.1, C7-3.2, F4-3.3]


Solve problems involving the probability of independent events. [C, CN, PS, T] [ICT: P2-3.4]


Analyzing and Interpreting - Students will:


Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations


Identify and suggest explanations for discrepancies in data (e.g., explain a loss in the volume of a liquid, by identifying such factors as evaporation or absorption by a filtering material)


Predict the value of a variable, by interpolating or extrapolating from graphical data (e.g., extrapolate results to predict how much solute will dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature)


Identify new questions and problems that arise from what was learned (e.g., identify questions, such as: """What techniques are used to remove pollutants from air and water?)


Identify and evaluate potential applications of findings


Performing and Recording - Students will:


Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among observations, and gather and record qualitative and quantitative data


Carry out procedures, controlling the major variables (e.g., carry out a test of the viscosity of different fluids)


Investigate and describe fluids used in technological devices and everyday materials


Investigate and identify examples of fluids in household materials, technological devices, living things and natural environments


Explain the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) symbols for labelling substances; and describe the safety precautions to follow when handling, storing and disposing of substances at home and in the laboratory


Identify properties of fluids that are important in their selection and use (e.g., lubricant properties of oils, compressibility of gases used in tires)


Investigate and describe the composition of fluids, and interpret the behaviour of materials in solution


Distinguish among pure substances, mixtures and solutions, using common examples (e.g., identify examples found in households)


Investigate the solubility of different materials, and describe their concentration (e.g., describe concentration in grams of solute per 100 mL of solution)


Relate the properties of mixtures and solutions to the particle model of matter (e.g., recognize that the attraction between particles of solute and particles of solvent helps keep materials in solution)


Investigate and compare the properties of gases and liquids; and relate variations in their viscosity, density, buoyancy and compressibility to the particle model of matter


Investigate and compare fluids, based on their viscosity and flow rate, and describe the effects of temperature change on liquid flow


Observe the mass and volume of a liquid, and calculate its density using the formula d = m/v [Note: This outcome does not require students to perform formula manipulations or solve for unknown terms other than the density.]


Compare densities of materials; and explain differences in the density of solids, liquids and gases, using the particle model of matter


Describe methods of altering the density of a fluid, and identify and interpret related practical applications (e.g., describe changes in buoyancy resulting from increasing the concentration of salt in water)


Describe pressure as a force per unit area by using the formula p = F/A, and describe applications of pressure in fluids and everyday situations (e.g., describe pressure exerted by water in hoses, air in tires, carbon dioxide in fire extinguishers; explain the effects of flat heels and stiletto heels, using the concept of pressure)


Investigate and compare the compressibility of liquids and gases


Identify, interpret and apply technologies based on properties of fluids


Describe technologies based on the solubility of materials (e.g., mining salt or potash by dissolving)


Describe and interpret technologies based on flow rate and viscosity (e.g., heavy oil extraction from tar sands, development of motor oils for different seasons, ketchup/mustard squeeze bottles)


Describe and interpret technologies for moving fluids from one place to another (e.g., intravenous lines, pumps and valves, oil and gas pipelines)


Construct a device that uses the transfer of fluids to apply a force or to control motion (e.g., construct a model hydraulic lift; construct a submersible that can be made to sink or float by transfer of a fluid; construct a model of a pump)


Analyzing and Interpreting - Students will:


Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations


Identify strengths and weaknesses of different methods of collecting and displaying data (e.g., compare methods of measuring heart rate)


Identify and suggest explanations for discrepancies in data (e.g., explain variations in the heart rate and blood pressure of the same individual at different times during the day)


Compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs and line graphs (e.g., prepare charts that compare structures of different organisms)


Identify new questions and problems that arise from what was learned


Initiating and Planning - Students will:


Ask questions about the relationships between and among observable variables, and plan investigations to address those questions


Formulate operational definitions of major variables and other aspects of their investigations (e.g., define body systems in terms of the functions they perform)


Performing and Recording - Students will:


Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among observations, and gather and record qualitative and quantitative data


Use instruments"""including microscopes"""effectively and accurately for collecting data (e.g., use a microscope to produce a clear image of cells)


Observe and record data, and produce simple line drawings (e.g., draw cells and organisms)


Organize data, using a format that is appropriate to the task or experiment (e.g., compare the structure and function of two or more organisms, using charts and drawings)


Investigate living things; and identify and apply scientific ideas used to interpret their general structure, function and organization


Investigate and describe example scientific studies of the characteristics of living things (e.g., investigate and describe an ongoing scientific study of a locally-found organism)


Apply the concept of system in describing familiar organisms and analyzing their general structure and function


Illustrate and explain how different organisms have similar functions that are met in a variety of ways (e.g., recognize food gathering as a common function of animals, and note a variety of food-gathering structures)


Investigate and describe the role of cells within living things


Describe the role of cells as a basic unit of life


Analyze similarities and differences between single-celled and multicelled organisms (e.g., compare, in general terms, an amoeba and a grizzly bear, a single-celled alga and a poplar tree)


Distinguish between plant and animal cells (e.g., distinguish between cell walls and cell membranes)


Describe the movement of gases and liquids into and out of cells during diffusion and osmosis, based on concentration differences [Note: This outcome requires a general understanding of processes, not a detailed analysis of mechanisms.]


Examine plant and animal structures; and identify contributing roles of cells, tissues and organs


Interpret the healthy function of human body systems, and illustrate ways the body reacts to internal and external stimuli


Describe, in general terms, body systems for respiration, circulation, digestion, excretion and sensory awareness (e.g., describe how blood is circulated throughout the body to carry oxygen and nutrients to the body"s various tissues and organs)


Describe, in general terms, the role of individual organs and tissues in supporting the healthy functioning of the human body (e.g., the role of lungs in exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide, the role of bronchia in providing a passageway for air)


Describe ways in which various types of cells contribute to the healthy functioning of the human body (e.g., describe the roles of individual cells in nerves, muscle, blood, skin and bone)


Describe changes in body functions in response to changing conditions (e.g., changes in heart rate in response to exercise, change in metabolism in response to lower temperature, reflex responses to stimuli)


Describe areas of scientific investigation leading to new knowledge about body systems and to new medical applications


Identify examples of research into functions and dysfunctions of human cells, organs or body systems


Describe ways in which research about cells, organs and systems has brought about improvements in human health and nutrition (e.g., development of medicines; immunization procedures; diets based on the needs of organs, such as the heart)


Investigate and describe factors that affect the healthy function of the human respiratory, circulatory and digestive systems (e.g., investigate the effect of illness, aging or air quality on the function of the respiratory system)


Analyzing and Interpreting - Students will:


Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations


Predict the value of a variable by interpolating or extrapolating from graphical data (e.g., predict the angle of a refracted beam of light)


Identify strengths and weaknesses of different ways of collecting and displaying data (e.g., evaluate different approaches to testing a lens)


State a conclusion, based on experimental data, and explain how evidence gathered supports or refutes an initial idea (e.g., write a conclusion on the effect of dissolved materials on the refraction of light through water)


Identify new questions and problems that arise from what was learned (e.g., ask questions about new technologies for improving human vision and about the principles on which these technologies are based)


Communication and Teamwork - Students will:


Work collaboratively on problems; and use appropriate language and formats to communicate ideas, procedures and results


Recommend an appropriate way of summarizing and interpreting their findings (e.g., prepare a drawing and description of an improvised optical device)


Initiating and Planning - Students will:


Ask questions about the relationships between and among observable variables, and plan investigations to address those questions


Identify questions to investigate (e.g., ask about the role of eyeglasses in improving vision)


Define and delimit questions to facilitate investigation (e.g., rephrase a question, such as: """Is plastic the best material to use in eyeglasses?"to become """Which material refracts light the most?)


Formulate operational definitions of major variables and other aspects of their investigations (e.g., operationally define """refraction"and """beam of light)


Performing and Recording - Students will:


Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among observations, and gather and record qualitative and quantitative data


Carry out procedures, controlling the major variables


Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (e.g., measure angles of reflection; use a light sensor to measure light intensity)


Organize data, using a format that is appropriate to the task or experiment (e.g., demonstrate use of a database or spreadsheet for organizing information)


Use tools and apparatus safely (e.g., use lasers only in ways that do not create a risk of light entering anyone"s eyes)


Investigate the nature of light and vision; and describe the role of invention, explanation and inquiry in developing our current knowledge


Identify challenges in explaining the nature of light and vision (e.g., recognize that past explanations for vision involved conflicting ideas about the interaction of eyes and objects viewed; identify challenges in explaining upside-down images, rainbows and mirages)


Investigate the development of microscopes, telescopes and other optical devices; and describe how these developments contributed to the study of light and other areas of science


Investigate light beams and optical devices, and identify phenomena that provide evidence of the nature of light (e.g., evidence provided by viewing the passage of light through dusty air or cloudy water)


Investigate the transmission of light, and describe its behaviour using a geometric ray model


Investigate how light is reflected, transmitted and absorbed by different materials; and describe differences in the optical properties of various materials (e.g., compare light absorption of different materials; identify materials that transmit light; distinguish between clear and translucent materials; identify materials that will reflect a beam of light as a coherent beam)


Measure and predict angles of reflection


Investigate, measure and describe the refraction of light through different materials (e.g., measure differences in light refraction through pure water, salt water and different oils)


Investigate materials used in optical technologies; and predict the effects of changes in their design, alignment or composition


Investigate and explain the science of image formation and vision, and interpret related technologies


Demonstrate the formation of real images, using a double convex lens, and predict the effects of changes in the lens position on the size and location of images (e.g., demonstrate a method to produce a magnified or reduced image by altering the placement of one or more lenses)


Demonstrate and explain the use of microscopes; and describe, in general terms, the function of eyeglasses, binoculars and telescopes


Explain how objects are seen by the eye, and compare eyes with cameras (e.g., compare focusing mechanisms; compare the automatic functions of the eye with functions in an automatic camera)


Compare the function and design of the mammalian eye with that of other vertebrates and invertebrates (e.g., amphibians; fish; squid; shellfish; insects, such as the housefly)


Investigate and describe the development of new technologies to enhance human vision (e.g., laser surgery on eyes, development of technologies to extend night vision)


Analyzing and Interpreting - Students will:


Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations


Identify and correct practical problems in the way a prototype or constructed device functions


Evaluate designs and prototypes in terms of function, reliability, safety, efficiency, use of materials and impact on the environment (e.g., test and evaluate the efficiency and reliability of a prototype device to lift a given mass from the floor to a tabletop)


Identify and evaluate potential applications of findings (e.g., identify possible applications of a simple machine or mechanical system they have studied)


Communication and Teamwork - Students will:


Work collaboratively on problems; and use appropriate language and formats to communicate ideas, procedures and results


Use specific language that is scientifically and technologically appropriate (e.g., use such terms as """system,""""subsystem,""""component"and """function"in describing a mechanical system)


Initiating and Planning - Students will:


Ask questions about the relationships between and among observable variables, and plan investigations to address those questions


Identify practical problems (e.g., identify problems related to the effectiveness or efficiency of a mechanical device)


Identify questions to investigate arising from practical problems (e.g., """What is the efficiency of this device?)


Formulate operational definitions of major variables and other aspects of their investigations (e.g., define """frictional force"by identifying a method to be used for measuring it)


Performing and Recording - Students will:


Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among observations, and gather and record qualitative and quantitative data


Research information relevant to a given problem


Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources or from several parts of the same source


Construct and test prototype designs and systems


Carry out procedures, controlling the major variables (e.g., ensure that materials to be tested are of the same size and are tested under identical conditions)


Organize data, using a format that is appropriate to the task or experiment


Use tools and apparatus safely


Illustrate the development of science and technology by describing, comparing and interpreting mechanical devices that have been improved over time


Investigate and provide examples of mechanical devices used in the past to meet particular needs (e.g., describe and interpret devices developed to move water or be moved by water, such as the Persian wheel, Archimedes" screw, mill wheel)


Illustrate how a common need has been met in different ways over time (e.g., development of different kinds of lifting devices)


Illustrate how trial and error and scientific knowledge both play a role in technological development (e.g., development of aircraft)


Analyze machines by describing the structures and functions of the overall system, the subsystems and the component parts


Analyze a mechanical device, by:


Describing the overall function of the device


Describing the contribution of individual components or subsystems to the overall function of the device


Identifying components that operate as simple machines


Identify the source of energy for some familiar mechanical devices


Identify linkages and power transmissions in a mechanical device, and describe their general function (e.g., identify the purpose and general function of belt drives and gear systems within a mechanical device)


Investigate and describe the transmission of force and energy between parts of a mechanical system


Analyze mechanical devices to determine speed ratios and force ratios


Build or modify a model mechanical system to provide for different turning ratios between a driving and driven shaft, or to achieve a given force ratio


Compare theoretical and actual values of force ratios, and propose explanations for discrepancies (e.g., identify frictional forces, and estimate their effect on efficiency)


Identify work input and work output in joules for a simple machine or mechanical system (e.g., use a device to lift a measured mass an identified distance, then calculate the work output)


Describe fluid pressure qualitatively and quantitatively, by:


Explaining how forces are transferred in all directions


Describing pressure in units of force per unit area


Describe how hydraulic pressure can be used to create a mechanical advantage in a simple hydraulic jack (e.g., describe the relationship among force, piston size and distance moved, using different sized syringes linked by tubing)


Describe and interpret technologies based on hydraulics and pneumatics (e.g., applications in hydraulic lifts and air-driven tools)


Analyze the social and environmental contexts of science and technology, as they apply to the development of mechanical devices


Evaluate the design and function of a mechanical device in relation to its efficiency and effectiveness, and identify its impacts on humans and the environment


Develop and apply a set of criteria for evaluating a given mechanical device, and defend those criteria in terms of relevance to social and environmental needs


Illustrate how technological development is influenced by advances in science, and by changes in society and the environment


Communication and Teamwork - Students will:


Work collaboratively on problems; and use appropriate language and formats to communicate ideas, procedures and results


Use appropriate vocabulary, including correct science and technology terminology, to communicate ideas, procedures and results (e.g., use such terms as salinity, currents and basins when describing oceans and their characteristics)


Initiating and Planning - Students will:


Ask questions about the relationships between and among observable variables, and plan investigations to address those questions


Identify science-related issues and problems


Identify questions to investigate, arising from science-related issues


Performing and Recording - Students will:


Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among observations, and gather and record qualitative and quantitative data


Identify strengths and weaknesses of different methods of collecting and displaying data (e.g., identify strengths and weaknesses of technologies used to monitor and map changes in stream flow)


Describe the distribution and characteristics of water in local and global environments, and identify the significance of water supply and quality to the needs of humans and other living things


Describe, in general terms, the distribution of water in Alberta, Canada and the world; and interpret information about water characteristics (e.g., identify glaciers, snow, polar icecaps, ground water and oceans as components of Earth"s water; interpret graphical information on the availability of potable water)


Recognize that fresh water and salt water contain varying amounts of dissolved materials, particulates and biological components; and interpret information on these component materials


Identify major factors used in determining if water is potable, and describe and demonstrate tests of water quality (e.g., investigate and describe the physical characteristics of a sample of water, such as clarity, salinity and hardness; investigate biological tests)


Describe, in general terms, methods for generating fresh water from salt water, based on evaporation, distillation and reverse osmosis


Investigate and interpret linkages among landforms, water and climate


Describe the processes of erosion and deposition resulting from wave action and water flow, by:


Identifying dissolved solids and sediment loads, and identifying sources and endpoints for these materials


Describing how waves and tides are generated and how they interact with shorelines


Investigate and describe stream characteristics (e.g., describe the slope, flow rate and stream profile characteristics of a model stream on a stream table)


Describe processes leading to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems (e.g., describe the formation of geological features on the ocean floor, such as continental shelves and trenches)


Identify evidence of glacial action, and analyze factors affecting the growth and attrition of glaciers and polar icecaps (e.g., identify factors that affect the size of polar ice sheets and the Columbia Icefield)


Describe the movement of ocean currents and its impact on regional climates (e.g., effects of the Gulf Stream, Labrador Current, El Nio, La Nia)


Analyze factors affecting productivity and species distribution in marine and freshwater environments


Investigate life forms found in fresh water and salt water, and identify and interpret examples of adaptations to these environments (e.g., describe and interpret examples of fish and invertebrate species found in a local freshwater environment)


Analyze factors that contribute to the development of adaptations in species found in saltwater and freshwater environments


Investigate and interpret examples of seasonal, short-term and long-term change in populations of living things found in aquatic environments (e.g., algal blooms, changes in local freshwater fish populations, cod and salmon stock depletion)


Analyze relationships between water quality and living things, and infer the quality of water based on the diversity of life supported by it


Analyze human impacts on aquatic systems; and identify the roles of science and technology in addressing related questions, problems and issues


Analyze human water uses, and identify the nature and scope of impacts resulting from different uses (e.g., identify pollutants in ground water and surface water systems resulting from domestic and industrial use; analyze the effects of agriculture and forestry practices on stream flow and water quality)


Identify current practices and technologies that affect water quality, evaluate environmental costs and benefits, and identify and evaluate alternatives (e.g., research and analyze alternatives for ensuring safe supplies of potable water; research, analyze and debate alternatives for a specific water quality issue, such as the location and design of a landfill, the protection of a natural waterway, the use of secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment, the salinization of soils due to irrigation, the eutrophication of ponds and streams due to excess use of phosphates in fertilizers and detergents, or a proposal to export water resources)


Illustrate the role of scientific research in monitoring environments and supporting development of appropriate environmental technologies (e.g., describe a local example of aquatic monitoring, and describe how this research contributes to watershed management)


Provide examples of problems that cannot be solved using scientific and technological knowledge alone (e.g., the need to prevent pollutants from entering aquatic environments, the need to avoid damage from ice sheets and icebergs)


Analyze the validity of information based on context, bias, source, objectivity, evidence and reliability to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue.


Evaluate ideas, information and positions from multiple perspectives.


Demonstrate the ability to analyze local and current affairs.


Re-evaluate personal opinions to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue.


Generate creative ideas and strategies in individual and group activities.


Access diverse viewpoints on particular topics by using appropriate technologies.


Distinguish cause, effect, sequence and correlation in historical events, including the long- and short-term causal relations.


Use historical and community resources to organize the sequence of historical events.


Analyze the historical contexts of key events of a given time period.


Create a simulation or a model by using technology that permits the making of inferences.


Identify patterns in organized information.


Interpret historical maps to broaden understanding of historical events.


Use thematic maps to describe cultural and political regions.


Construct and interpret various maps to broaden understanding of given topics.


Define geographic problems and issues and pose geographic questions.


Use geographic tools, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, to assist in preparing graphs and maps.


Access and operate multimedia applications and technologies from stand-alone and online sources; e.g., GIS.


Demonstrate skills of compromise and devise strategies to reach group consensus.


Articulate clearly a plan of action to use technology to solve a problem.


Identify the appropriate materials and tools to use in order to accomplish a plan of action.


Use networks to brainstorm, plan and share ideas with group members.


Identify and use a variety of strategies to resolve conflicts peacefully and fairly.


Consider the needs and perspectives of others.


Demonstrate leadership within groups where appropriate.


Access, retrieve and share information from electronic sources, such as common files.


Volunteer with organizations, projects and activities that ensure the growth and vitality of their community.


Integrate and synthesize concepts to provide an informed point of view on a research question or an issue.


Demonstrate the advanced search skills necessary to limit the number of hits desired for online and offline databases; for example, the use of ''and'' or ''or'' between search topics and the choice of appropriate search engines for the topic.


Develop a process to manage volumes of information that can be made available through electronic sources.


Evaluate the relevance of electronically accessed information to a particular topic.


Make connections among related, organized data, and assemble various pieces into a unified message.


Refine searches to limit sources to a manageable number.


Analyze and synthesize information to create a product.


Access and retrieve information through the electronic network.


Develop a position that is supported by information gathered through research.


Draw conclusions based upon research and evidence.


Determine how information serves a variety of purposes and that the accuracy or relevance of information may need verification.


Organize and synthesize researched information.


Practise the responsible and ethical use of information and technology.


Plan and conduct a search, using a wide variety of electronic sources.


Communicate in a persuasive and engaging manner through speeches, multimedia presentations and written and oral reports, taking particular audiences and purposes into consideration.


Elicit, clarify and respond appropriately to questions, ideas and multiple points of view presented in discussions.


Offer reasoned comments related to a topic of discussion.


Listen to others to understand their points of view.


Examine techniques used to enhance the authority and authenticity of media messages.


Examine the values, lifestyles and points of view represented in a media message.


Analyze the impact of television, the Internet, radio and print media on a particular current affairs issue.