Manitoba Curriculum Frameworks — Grade 8


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8-1.1.1

Express Ideas - Explore diverse ideas to develop predictions, opinions, conclusions, and understanding.

8-1.1.2

Consider Others' Ideas - Integrate new understanding with previous viewpoints and interpretations.

8-1.1.3

Experiment with Language and Form - Experiment with memorable language to convey personal perceptions, feelings, experiences, thoughts, and ideas in various forms.

8-1.1.4

Express Preferences - Pursue personal interest in specific genres by particular writers, artists, storytellers, and filmmakers.

8-1.1.5

Set Goals - Self-monitor growth in language learning and use, using predetermined criteria.

8-1.2.1

Develop Understanding - Discuss the importance of reflecting on prior experiences and knowledge to revise conclusions and understandings.

8-1.2.2

Explain Opinions - Articulate, represent, and explain personal viewpoints clearly.

8-1.2.4

Extend Understanding - Reconsider initial understanding in light of new information, and ask clarifying questions; listen to diverse opinions and recognize ambiguity.

8-2.1.1

Prior Knowledge - Make connections between previous experiences, prior knowledge, and a variety of texts, and apply them to new contexts.

8-2.1.2

Comprehension Strategies - Use a variety of comprehension strategies [including adjusting reading rate, summarizing main ideas, SQ3R, structured overviews, and checking with peers] to make sense of familiar and unfamiliar texts and remember ideas.

8-2.1.3

Textual Cues - Use textual cues [such as the structures and elements of specific genres...] to construct and confirm meaning and interpret texts.

8-2.1.4

Cueing Systems - Use syntactic, semantic, and graphophonic cueing systems [including word order; sentence structure; context clues; structural analysis to identify foreign roots, prefixes, and suffixes] to construct and confirm meaning and interpret texts [including meaning of specialized and technical vocabulary].

8-2.2.1

Experience Various Texts - Experience texts from a variety of forms and genres [such as magazine articles, diaries, drama, advertisements...] and cultural traditions; compare own interpretations to those of others.

8-2.2.2

Connect Self, Texts, and Culture - Discuss how similar ideas, people, experiences, and traditions are conveyed in various oral, literary, and media texts [including texts about Canada or by Canadian writers].

8-2.2.3

Appreciate the Artistry of Texts - Identify and describe techniques used to create mood in oral, literary, and media texts.

8-2.3.1

Forms and Genre - Demonstrate appreciation for the appropriate use of various forms and genres according to purpose, audience, and content.

8-2.3.2

Techniques and Elements - Identify a variety of techniques [such as characterization, word choice, framing, angle...] used to create particular effects or to portray various cultures in oral, literary, and media texts.

8-2.3.3

Vocabulary - Explore factors [such as history, social trends, geographic isolation...] that influence word families and the evolution of language.

8-2.3.4

Experiment with Language - Identify creative uses of language in popular culture [such as commercials, advertisements, rock videos...]; explain how imagery and figures of speech create tone and mood in texts.

8-2.3.5

Create Original Texts - Create original texts [such as descriptions, panel discussions, impersonations, collages, timelines, documentary videos, journals or diaries...] to communicate and demonstrate understanding of forms and techniques.

8-3.1.1

Use Personal Knowledge - Determine personal knowledge of a topic to generate possible areas of inquiry or research.

8-3.1.3

Contribute to Group Inquiry - Contribute ideas, knowledge and strategies to help identify group information needs and sources.

8-3.1.4

Create and Follow a Plan - Prepare and use a plan to access, gather, and record in own words relevant information.

8-3.2.1

Identify Personal and Peer Knowledge - Access, record, and appraise personal and peer knowledge and understanding of a topic to establish an information base for inquiry or research.

8-3.2.2

Identify Sources - Distinguish between fact and opinion when inquiring or researching using a variety of information sources [such as artifacts, debates, forums, biographies, autobiographies...].

8-3.2.3

Assess Sources - Develop and use criteria for evaluating information sources for a particular inquiry or research plan.

8-3.2.4

Access Information - Recall, expand, and use a variety of skills [including visual and auditory] to access information and ideas from a variety of sources [including subtitles, marginal notes and key words, electronic searches, previews and reviews, visual effects, and sound effects].

8-3.2.5

Make Sense of Information - Construct meaning using direct statements, implied meaning, and inferences; adjust rate of reading or viewing according to purpose, topic, density of information, and organizational patterns of text.

8-3.3.1

Organize Information - Organize information and ideas in order of priority according to topic and task requirements.

8-3.3.2

Record Information - Make notes in point form, summarizing major ideas and supporting details; reference sources.

8-3.3.4

Develop New Understanding - Incorporate new information with prior knowledge and experiences; adjust inquiry and research strategies to accommodate changing perspectives and availability of pertinent information.

8-4.1.1

Generate Ideas - Experiment with several ways to generate ideas and focus a topic.

8-4.1.2

Choose Forms - Compose using specific forms [such as biographies, letters to the editor, newspaper articles, audio-visual presentations...] that ensure a match between content, audience, and purpose.

8-4.1.3

Organize Ideas - Identify and use a variety of organizational patterns [such as rising action, pyramid structure, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, sequence...] in own oral, written, and visual texts; compose effective introductions and conclusions.

8-4.2.1

Appraise Own and Others' Work - Share own work in a variety of ways; appraise particular aspects [such as word choice, description, language usage, organization, audience appeal...] of own and others' work and presentations using pre-established criteria.

8-4.2.2

Revise Content - Revise to enhance meaning and effect according to audience and purpose.

8-4.2.3

Enhance Legibility - Format for legibility and emphasis when composing and revising; enhance the coherence and impact of documents using electronic editing functions [such as cut, paste, copy, insert...].

8-4.2.4

Enhance Artistry - Experiment with figures of speech and compound and complex sentences to clarify and combine ideas; provide effective descriptions.

8-4.2.5

Enhance Presentation - Prepare compositions, reports, presentations, and inquiry or research projects using a variety of organizers [such as chapters, table of contents, headings, introduction, conclusion...].

8-4.3.1

Grammar and Usage - Edit for sentence variety, word choice, and tone appropriate to audience and purpose, and to eliminate misplaced modifiers.

8-4.3.2

Spelling (see Strategies) - Know spelling conventions and apply them to familiar and unfamiliar words; use appropriate resources when editing and proofreading.

8-4.3.3

Punctuation and Capitalization - Know and apply capitalization and punctuation conventions consistently in a variety of sentence structures and written forms when editing and proofreading.

8-4.4.1

Share Ideas and Information - Plan and facilitate small-group activities and short, whole-class sessions to share information on a topic using a variety of engaging methods [such as mini-lessons, role-plays, visual aids...].

8-4.4.2

Effective Oral Communication - Explain, share, and present orally using appropriate conventions of public speaking in a variety of settings [such as small-group and whole-class presentations...]; use visual aids to enhance the effectiveness of oral presentations.

8-4.4.3

Attentive Listening and Viewing - Demonstrate critical listening and viewing skills and strategies [such as activating prior knowledge, integrating new information, evaluating the effectiveness of the introduction and conclusion...] and show respect for presenter(s).

8-5.1.1

Compare Responses - Express personal reactions to a variety of experiences and texts and compare them with the reactions of others.

8-5.1.2

Relate Texts to Culture - Recognize ways in which oral, literary, and media texts capture specific elements of a culture or period in history.

8-5.1.3

Appreciate Diversity - Interpret the choices and motives of individuals encountered in oral, literary and media texts and examine how they relate to self and others; discuss personal participation and responsibility in communities.

8-5.1.4

Celebrate Special Occasions - Use appropriate language to participate in public events, occasions, or traditions.

8-5.2.1

Cooperate with Others - Engage in dialogue to understand the feelings and viewpoints of others and contribute to group harmony.

8-5.2.2

Work in Groups - Organize and complete tasks cooperatively and collaboratively; evaluate group productivity and efficiency.

8-5.2.3

Use Language to Show Respect - Demonstrate respect for other people's language, history, and culture.

8-5.2.4

Evaluate Group Process - Evaluate the quality of own contributions to group process and set goals and plans for development of personal skills; evaluate group process and plan for growth.

8-8-0-1a.

Formulate specific questions that lead to investigations. (GLO: A1, C2)

8-8-0-1b.

Select and justify a method to be used in finding the answer to a specific question. (GLO: C2)

8-8-0-1c.

Identify practical problems to solve. (GLO: C3)

8-8-0-1d.

Select and justify a method to be used in finding a solution to a practical problem. (GLO: C3)

8-8-0-2a.

Access information using a variety of sources. (GLO: C6)

8-8-0-2b.

Develop and use criteria for evaluating information. (GLO: C6, C8)

8-8-0-2c.

Make notes in point form, summarizing major ideas and supporting details and reference sources. (GLO: C6)

8-8-0-3a.

Formulate a prediction/hypothesis that identifies a cause and effect relationship between the dependent and independent variables. (GLO: A2, C2)

8-8-0-3b.

Identify the independent and dependent variables in an experiment. (GLO: A2, C2)

8-8-0-3c.

Create a written plan to answer a specific question. (GLO: C2)

8-8-0-3d.

Develop criteria to evaluate a prototype or consumer product. (GLO: C3)

8-8-0-3e.

Create a written plan to solve a problem. (GLO: C3, C6)

8-8-0-4b.

Construct a prototype. (GLO: C3)

8-8-0-4c.

Work cooperatively with group members to carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise. (GLO: C7)

8-8-0-4d.

Identify and assume various roles to achieve group goals. (GLO: C7)

8-8-0-4e.

Demonstrate work habits that ensure personal safety and the safety of others and consideration for the environment. (GLO: C1)

8-8-0-4f.

Identify WHMIS hazard symbols that provide information on the safety of substances. (GLO: C1)

8-8-0-5a.

Make observations that are relevant to a specific question. (GLO: A1, A2, C2)

8-8-0-5b.

Test a prototype or consumer product with respect to pre-determined criteria. (GLO: C3, C5)

8-8-0-5c.

Select and use tools to observe, measure, and construct. (GLO: C2, C3, C5)

8-8-0-5d.

Use conversions among commonly used SI units. (GLO: C2, C5)

8-8-0-5e.

Estimate and measure accurately using SI and other standard units. (GLO: C2, C5)

8-8-0-5f.

Record, compile and display observations and data using an appropriate format. (GLO: C2, C6)

8-8-0-6a.

Construct graphs to display data, and interpret and evaluate these and other graphs. (GLO: C2, C6)

8-8-0-6b.

Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer and explain relationships. (GLO: A1, A2, C2, C5)

8-8-0-6c.

Identify strengths and weaknesses of different methods of collecting and displaying data and potential sources of error. (GLO: A1, A2, C2, C5)

8-8-0-6d.

Identify and make improvements to a prototype and explain the rationale for the changes. (GLO: C3, C4)

8-8-0-6e.

Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a consumer product based on pre-determined criteria. (GLO: C3, C4)

8-8-0-6f.

Identify how the original plan evolved and justify the changes. (GLO: C2, C3)

8-8-0-7a.

Draw a conclusion that explains investigation results. (GLO: A1, A2, C2)

8-8-0-7b.

Critically evaluate conclusions, basing arguments on fact rather than opinion. (GLO: C2, C4)

8-8-0-7c.

Identify a new prediction/hypothesis based on results of investigations. (GLO: A1, C2)

8-8-0-7d.

Propose and justify a solution to the initial problem. (GLO: C3)

8-8-0-7e.

Identify new practical problems to solve. (GLO: C3)

8-8-0-7f.

Reflect on prior knowledge and experiences to construct new understanding and apply this new knowledge in other contexts. (GLO: A2, C4)

8-8-0-7g.

Communicate methods, results, conclusions, and new knowledge in a variety of ways. (GLO: C6)

8-8-0-7h.

Identify and evaluate potential applications of investigation results. (GLO: C4)

8-8-0-8a.

Distinguish between science and technology. (GLO: A3)

8-8-0-8b.

Describe examples of how scientific knowledge has evolved in light of new evidence, and the role of technology in this evolution. (GLO: A2, A5, B1)

8-8-0-8d.

Describe examples of how technologies have evolved over time in response to changing needs and scientific advances. (GLO: A5, B1, B2)

8-8-0-8f.

Relate personal activities to specific science disciplines. (GLO: A1, B4)

8-8-0-8g.

Discuss societal, environmental, and economic impacts of scientific and technological endeavours. (GLO: A1, B1, B3, B5)

8-8-0-9a.

Appreciate and respect that science has evolved from different views held by women and men from a variety of societies and cultural backgrounds. (GLO: A4)

8-8-0-9b.

Express interest in a broad scope of science and technology-related fields and issues. (GLO: B4)

8-8-0-9c.

Demonstrate confidence in their ability to carry out investigations in science and technology. (GLO: C5)

8-8-0-9d.

Value skepticism, accuracy, precision, and open-mindedness as scientific and technological habits of mind. (GLO: C5)

8-8-0-9e.

Be sensitive and responsible in maintaining a balance between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment. (GLO: B5)

8-8-0-9f.

Consider the cause and effects relationships of actions and decisions. (GLO: B5, C4, E3)

8-8-1-01.

Use appropriate vocabulary related to their investigations of cells and systems. (GLO: C6, D1)

8-8-1-02.

Identify characteristics of living things, and describe how different living things exhibit these characteristics. (GLO: D1, E1)

8-8-1-03.

Describe cell theory. (GLO: A2, D1, E2)

8-8-1-04.

Identify major events and technological innovations that have enabled scientists to increase our understanding of cell biology. (GLO: A2, A4, B1, B2)

8-8-1-05.

Identify and compare major structures in plants and animal cells, and explain their function. (GLO: D1, E1)

8-8-1-06.

Demonstrate proper use and care of the microscope to observe the general structure of plant and animal cells. (GLO: C1, C2, D1)

8-8-1-07.

Describe the movement of nutrients and wastes across cell membranes and explain its importance. (GLO: D1)

8-8-1-08.

Differentiate between unicellular and multicellular organisms. (GLO: D1, E1)

8-8-1-09.

Describe why cells and tissues are specialized in multicellular organisms, and observe examples. (GLO: C2, D1)

8-8-1-10.

Describe structural and functional relationship among cells, tissues, organs, and systems. (GLO: D1, E2)

8-8-1-11.

Describe the structure and function of the heart and the path of blood to and from the heart through its four chambers. (GLO: D1, E1)

8-8-1-12.

Compare and contrast the structure and function of arteries, veins, and capillaries. (GLO: D1, E1)

8-8-1-13.

Identify components of blood and describe the function of each. (GLO: D1)

8-8-1-14.

Describe, using examples, how individual systems in the human body function interdependently. (GLO: D1, E2)

8-8-1-15.

Compare heart rate and respiratory rate before, during, and after various physical activities; explain the observed variations; and discuss implications for overall health. (GLO: B3, C2, D1, E3)

8-8-1-16.

Identify components of the primary and secondary defense systems of the body and describe their roles. (GLO: D1, E2)

8-8-1-17.

Identify medical advances that enhance the human body's defence mechanisms and describe their effects on society. (GLO: A5, B1, B2, B3)

8-8-1-18.

Research and describe disorders/diseases that affect body systems, and identify possible preventative measures. (GLO: B3, C6, D1)

8-8-1-19.

Describe functional similarities and differences of comparable structures and systems in different groups of living things. (GLO: D1, E1)

8-8-2-01.

Use appropriate vocabulary related to their investigations of optics. (GLO: C6, D3)

8-8-2-02.

Differentiate between incandescent and luminescent sources of light. (GLO: D3, D4, E1)

8-8-2-03.

Demonstrate that light is a form of energy, that light travels in a straight line, and can be separated into the visible light spectrum. (GLO: A1, C1, C2, D4)

8-8-2-04.

Explain, using the additive theory, how colours are produced, and identify applications of this theory in daily life. (GLO: A1, A2, B1, D4)

8-8-2-05.

Explain how the human eye detects colour, and how the ability to perceive colour may vary from person to person. (GLO: A2, E1)

8-8-2-06.

Demonstrate, using the subtractive theory, how colours are produced, and identify applications of this theory in daily life. (GLO: A2, B1, E1)

8-8-2-07.

Compare and contrast various types of electromagnetic radiation, with respect to relative energy, frequency, wavelength, and human perception. (GLO: D4, E1)

8-8-2-08.

Provide examples of technologies that use electromagnetic radiation, and describe potential positive and negative impacts of their uses. (GLO: A5, B1, D4)

8-8-2-09.

Conduct experiments to determine the law of reflection, and provide examples of the use of reflection in daily life. (GLO: A2, C1, C2, D4)

8-8-2-10.

Conduct experiments to compare the refraction of light through substances of different densities. (GLO: C1, C2, D4)

8-8-2-11.

Explain how reflection and refraction produce natural phenomena. (GLO: D4, D5)

8-8-2-12.

Investigate to determine how light interacts with concave and convex mirrors and lenses, and provide examples of their use in various optical instruments and systems. (GLO: B1, C2, D3, D4)

8-8-2-13.

Demonstrate the formation of images using a double convex lens, and predict the effects of changes in lens position on the size and location of the image. (GLO: C2, C5, D4)

8-8-2-14.

Compare the functional operation of the human eye to that of a camera in focusing an image. (GLO: A5, C4, D1, D4)

8-8-3-01.

Use appropriate vocabulary related to their investigations of fluids. (GLO: C6, D3, E1)

8-8-3-02.

Distinguish between fluids and non-fluids. (GLO: D3, E1)

8-8-3-03.

Explore and compare the viscosity of various liquids. (GLO: C2, D3, E1)

8-8-3-04.

Identify products in which viscosity is an important property, and evaluate different brands of the same product, using the design process. (GLO: A5, B2, C1)

8-8-3-05.

Plan and conduct experiments to determine factors that affect flow within a given system. (GLO: C1, C2, D3, E2)

8-8-3-06.

Measure, calculate, and compare densities of solids, and liquids, and gases. (GLO: C2, C5, D3)

8-8-3-07.

Illustrate, using the particle theory of matter, the effects of temperature change on the density of solids, liquids, and gases. (GLO: A2, C2, D3, E4)

8-8-3-08.

Compare fluids of different densities to determine how they alter the buoyant force on an object. (GLO: C2, D3)

8-8-3-09.

Recognize that pressure is the relationship between force and area, and describe situations in which pressure can be increased or decreased by altering surface area. (GLO: B1, B2, D4)

8-8-3-10.

Explain, using the particle theory of matter, the relationships among pressure, volume, and temperature of liquid and gaseous fluids. (GLO: A2, D4)

8-8-3-11.

Compare the relative compressibility of water and air, and relate this property to their ability to transmit force in hydraulic and pneumatic devices. (GLO: A5, C2, D4, E1)

8-8-3-12.

Identify a variety of natural and constructed hydraulic and pneumatic systems and describe how they function. (GLO: D4, E2)

8-8-3-13.

Compare hydraulic and pneumatic systems, and identify advantages and disadvantages of each. (GLO: B1, D4, E1, E2)

8-8-3-14.

Use the design process to construct a prototype that uses a pneumatic or hydraulic system to perform a given task. (GLO: C3, D4)

8-8-4-01.

Use appropriate vocabulary related to their investigations of water systems. (GLO: C6, D5)

8-8-4-02.

Demonstrate that water, as compared to other substances, has a high heat capacity and is able to dissolve a wide variety of solutes. (GLO: C1, C2, C5, D3)

8-8-4-03.

Compare and contrast characteristics and properties of fresh water and salt water. (GLO: D3, D5, E1)

8-8-4-04.

Identify factors that can work individually or in combination to affect ocean currents. (GLO: D5, E2)

8-8-4-05.

Describe how the heat capacity of large bodies of water and the movement of ocean currents influence regional climates. (GLO: D3, D5, E2)

8-8-4-06.

Describe the components of the global water cycle and explain how it works. (GLO: D3, D5, E2)

8-8-4-07.

Describe features of the North American drainage system. (GLO: C6, D5)

8-8-4-08.

Describe how erosion and deposition are influenced by the flow rate of a stream or river, and contrast the related characteristics of young and mature streams. (GLO: D5, E3)

8-8-4-09.

Describe how wave action and ice movement in large bodies of water cause erosion and deposition. (GLO: D5, E3)

8-8-4-10.

Explain how tides are caused and describe their effects on shorelines. (GLO: D5, D6)

8-8-4-11.

Describe examples of human interventions to prevent riverbank or coastal erosion. (GLO: B2, B5, D5)

8-8-4-12.

Identify factors that can cause flooding either individually or in combination. (GLO: C8, D5)

8-8-4-13.

Provide examples of the way in which technology is used to contain or prevent damage due to flooding, and discuss related positive and negative impacts. (GLO: A5, B1, D5)

8-8-4-14.

Identify sources of drinking water and describe methods for obtaining water in areas where supply is limited. (GLO: B1, B2, B3, D5)

8-8-4-15.

Explain how and why water may need to be treated for use by humans. (GLO: B1, B3, D5)

8-8-4-16.

Compare the waste-water disposal system within their communities to one used elsewhere. (GLO: B2, B5)

8-8-4-17.

Identify substances that may pollute water, related environmental and societal impacts of pollution, and ways to reduce or eliminate effects of pollution. (GLO: B2, B3, B5, D5)

8-8-4-18.

Identify environmental, social, and economic factors that should be considered in the management of water resources. (GLO: B5, D5)

8-8-4-19.

Use the design process to develop a system to solve a water-related problem. (GLO: B2, B3, C3, D5)

8-GLO-A1.

Recognize both the power and limitations of science as a way of answering questions about the world and explaining natural phenomena

8-GLO-A2.

Recognize that scientific knowledge is based on evidence, models and explanations, and evolves as new evidence appears and new conceptualizations develop

8-GLO-A3.

Distinguish critically between science and technology in terms of their respective contexts, goals, methods, products, and values

8-GLO-A4.

Identify and appreciate contributions made by women and men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about technological innovations

8-GLO-A5.

Recognize that science and technology interact with and advance one another

8-GLO-B1.

Describe scientific and technological developments, past and present, and appreciate their impact on individuals, societies and the environment, both locally and globally.

8-GLO-B2.

Recognize that scientific and technological endeavors have been and continue to be influenced by human needs and the societal context of the time

8-GLO-B3.

Identify the factors that affect health and explain the relationships among personal habits, lifestyle choices, and human health, both individual and social

8-GLO-B4.

Demonstrate a knowledge of, and personal consideration for, a range of possible science- and technology-related interests, hobbies, and careers

8-GLO-B5.

Identify and demonstrate actions that promote a sustainable environment, society and economy, both locally and globally

8-GLO-C1.

Recognize safety symbols and practices related to scientific and technological activities and to their daily lives, and apply this knowledge in appropriate situations

8-GLO-C2.

Demonstrate appropriate scientific inquiry skills when seeking answers to questions

8-GLO-C3.

Demonstrate appropriate problem-solving skills while seeking solutions to technological challenges

8-GLO-C4.

Demonstrate appropriate critical thinking and decision-making skills when choosing a course of action based on scientific and technological information

8-GLO-C5.

Demonstrate curiosity, scepticism, creativity, open-mindedness, accuracy, precision, honesty, and persistence, and appreciate their importance as scientific and technological habits of mind

8-GLO-C6.

Employ effective communication skills and utilize information technology to gather and share scientific and technological ideas and data

8-GLO-C7.

Work cooperatively and value the ideas and contributions of others while carrying out scientific and technological activities

8-GLO-C8.

Evaluate, from a scientific perspective, information and ideas encountered during investigations and in daily life

8-GLO-D1.

Understand essential life structures and processes pertaining to a wide variety of organisms, including humans

8-GLO-D2.

Understand various biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems, as well as their interaction and interdependence within ecosystems and within the biosphere as a whole

8-GLO-D3.

Understand the properties and structures of matter as well as various common manifestations and applications of the actions and interactions of matter

8-GLO-D4.

Understand how stability, motion, forces, and energy transfers and transformations play a role in a wide range of natural and constructed contexts

8-GLO-D5.

Understand the composition of the Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, as well as the processes involved within and between them

8-GLO-D6.

Understand the composition of the universe, the interactions within it, and the impacts of humankind's continued attempts to understand and explore it

8-GLO-E1.

Describe and appreciate the similarity and diversity of forms, functions, and patterns within the natural and constructed world

8-GLO-E2.

Describe and appreciate how the natural and constructed world is made up of systems and how interactions take place within and among these systems

8-GLO-E3.

Recognize that characteristics of materials and systems can remain constant or change over time, and describe the conditions and processes involved

8-GLO-E4.

Recognize that energy, whether transmitted or transformed, is the driving force of both movement and change, and is inherent within materials and in the interactions among them

8-KC-001.

Describe the social organization of ancient Greece.

8-KC-002.

Describe the rise of democracy in ancient Greece.

8-KC-003.

Compare criteria for citizenship and participation in government in ancient Greece and in contemporary Canada.

8-KC-004.

Identify the origins and significance of the rule of law.

8-KE-054.

Describe technologies and tools in an early society of Mesopotamia, Egypt, or the Indus Valley.

8-KE-055.

Describe the influence of trade on the exchange of ideas within the Roman Empire and between Rome and other places in the world.

8-KE-056.

Describe technologies and achievements in ancient Greece and Rome.

8-KE-057.

Identify how work and education were organized in medieval Europe.

8-KE-058.

Describe the impact of technological developments from the fifth to fifteenth centuries.

8-KE-059.

Describe the impact of advances in science and technology on societies from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries.

8-KE-060.

Describe the impact of the Industrial Revolution on individuals and societies.

8-KE-061.

Give examples of the continuing influence of ideas and technologies of past societies.

8-KG-038.

Identify defining characteristics of societies in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and China, from 3500 to 500 BCE.

8-KG-039.

Identify defining characteristics of the ancient civilizations of China, Greece, Rome, Persia, and the Mayans from 500 BCE to 500 CE.

8-KG-040.

Identify major events in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the Americas from the fifth to fifteenth centuries.

8-KG-041.

Describe the significance of the spread of ideas and technologies between societies from the fifth to fifteenth centuries.

8-KG-042.

Give examples of achievements in art, architecture, literature, and science in diverse societies from the fifth to fifteenth centuries.

8-KG-043.

Identify major events in Europe, Africa, Asia, Australasia, and the Americas during the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries.

8-KG-044.

Explain the motivations for and the impact of global exploration and territorial expansion from the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries.

8-KH-027.

Identify various sources of historical evidence and information and explain how each enhances understanding of the past. Include: archeology, artifacts, literature, art, music, biographies, journals, photographs, oral histories.

8-KH-028.

Explain the importance of knowing the past and understanding history.

8-KH-029.

Identify people, events, and ideas in an early society of Mesopotamia, Egypt, or the Indus Valley.

8-KH-030.

Describe the impact and significance of the development of writing in an early society of Mesopotamia, Egypt, or the Indus Valley.

8-KH-031.

Identify significant people, events, and ideas in ancient Greece and Rome.

8-KH-032.

Identify ways in which today's world has been influenced by the ideas of ancient Greece and Rome.

8-KH-033.

Identify the consequences of the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

8-KH-034.

Identify motivations for and consequences of the Crusades.

8-KH-035.

Describe characteristics of medieval Europe.

8-KH-036.

Identify individuals and ideas of the Renaissance and describe the historical significance of this period.

8-KH-037.

Identify individuals and ideas of the Protestant Reformation during the sixteenth century and describe the historical significance of this movement.

8-KI-005.

Explain the concept of world view.

8-KI-006.

Describe influences that create differences in world views.

8-KI-007.

Compare and contrast the concepts of society and civilization.

8-KI-008.

Give reasons why societies may stay the same or change over time.

8-KI-009.

Describe ways in which societies organize, maintain, and perpetuate themselves.

8-KI-010.

Relate various stories and theories of the origin and development of human life.

8-KI-011.

Identify the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of a hunter-gatherer way of life.

8-KI-012.

Describe the development of agrarian societies and explain how they differed from hunter-gatherer societies.

8-KI-013.

Describe life for various groups in an early society of Mesopotamia, Egypt, or the Indus Valley.

8-KI-014.

Describe the art, architecture, and science of an early society of Mesopotamia, Egypt, or the Indus Valley.

8-KI-015.

Compare and contrast life in Sparta and Athens.

8-KI-016.

Describe the importance of myths in ancient Greek culture.

8-KI-017.

Identify defining characteristics of world religions that emerged in antiquity.

8-KI-018.

Identify Islamic achievements from the seventh to fifteenth centuries and describe how they influenced other societies.

8-KI-019.

Explain why China may be regarded as one of the most advanced civilizations of the fifth to fifteenth centuries.

8-KI-020.

Give examples of the expression of the Renaissance in its art, architecture, philosophy, literature, science, or technology from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries.

8-KI-021.

Give examples of the impact of interactions between Europeans and indigenous peoples of Africa, Asia, Australasia, and the Americas from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries.

8-KL-022.

Give examples of the influence of the natural environment on the development of societies.

8-KL-023.

Locate on a map the major landforms, bodies of water, and population clusters of a society of Mesopotamia, Egypt, or the Indus Valley.

8-KL-024.

Give examples of the influence of the natural environment on ways of life in an early society of Mesopotamia, Egypt, or the Indus Valley.

8-KL-025.

Illustrate on a map the expansion of the Roman Empire.

8-KL-026.

Illustrate on a world map the voyages of European explorers during the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries.

8-KP-045.

Describe governance in an early society of Mesopotamia, Egypt, or the Indus Valley.

8-KP-046.

Identify factors that influenced the rise and decline of ancient Greece and Rome.

8-KP-047.

Describe structures of governance in ancient Rome.

8-KP-048.

Describe the nature of war and territorial expansion in the Roman Empire.

8-KP-049.

Locate on a map and describe the Arab conquests in the Middle East, North Africa, India, and southern Europe in the seventh and eighth centuries.

8-KP-050.

Locate on a map and describe the impact of the Viking invasions on Europe from the ninth to twelfth centuries.

8-KP-051.

Locate on a map and describe the expansion of the Mongol Empire into China, Europe, and the Middle East in the thirteenth century.

8-KP-052.

Describe the influence of the Catholic Church in medieval Europe.

8-KP-053.

Locate on a map and describe the nature of the Ottoman Empire and its expansion into the Middle East, North Africa, India, and Europe from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries.

8-S-100.

Collaborate with others to establish and carry out group goals and responsibilities.

8-S-101.

Use a variety of strategies to resolve conflicts peacefully and fairly.

8-S-102.

Make decisions that reflect fairness and equality in their interactions with others.

8-S-103.

Make decisions that reflect the principles of sustainable development.

8-S-105.

Recognize bias and discrimination and propose solutions.

8-S-106.

Treat places and objects of historical significance with respect.

8-S-200.

Select information from a variety of oral, visual, material, print, or electronic sources.

8-S-201.

Organize and record information in a variety of formats and reference sources appropriately.

8-S-202.

Interpret primary and secondary information sources for research.

8-S-203.

Select and use appropriate tools and technologies to accomplish tasks.

8-S-204.

Create timelines and other visual organizers to sequence and represent historical periods, figures, relationships, or chronological events.

8-S-205.

Construct maps that include a title, legend, compass rose, scale, and latitude and longitude.

8-S-206.

Select, use, and interpret various types of maps for specific purposes.

8-S-207.

Use latitude and longitude to locate and describe places on maps and globes.

8-S-208.

Orient themselves by observing the landscape, using traditional knowledge, or using a compass or other tools and technologies.

8-S-300.

Plan topics, goals, and methods for historical inquiry and research.

8-S-301.

Consider the context of events, accounts, ideas, and interpretations.

8-S-302.

Draw conclusions based on research and evidence.

8-S-303.

Evaluate personal assumptions based on new information and ideas.

8-S-304.

Distinguish fact from opinion and interpretation.

8-S-305.

Observe and analyze material and visual evidence for research.

8-S-306.

Assess the validity of information sources.

8-S-307.

Compare differing accounts of historical events.

8-S-308.

Compare diverse perspectives in the media and other information sources.

8-S-309.

Interpret information and ideas in a variety of media.

8-S-310.

Recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered or acknowledged.

8-S-311.

Analyze prejudice, racism, stereotyping, or other forms of bias in the media and other information sources.

8-S-400.

Listen to others to understand their perspectives.

8-S-401.

Use language that is respectful of human diversity.

8-S-403.

Present information and ideas orally, visually, concretely, or electronically.

8-S-404.

Elicit and clarify questions and ideas in discussions.

8-S-405.

Articulate their beliefs and perspectives on issues.

8-VC-001.

Appreciate the contributions of ancient Greece to modern concepts of citizenship and democracy.

8-VC-002.

Appreciate the enduring significance of the rule of law.

8-VC-003.

Appreciate the struggles of past societies for their importance in shaping the modern world.

8-VE-017.

Appreciate the ideas and technologies of early societies.

8-VE-018.

Appreciate the benefits afforded to the modern world by ideas and technologies of past societies.

8-VG-014.

Appreciate the enduring qualities of art, architecture, literature, and science of the fifth to fifteenth centuries.

8-VG-015.

Appreciate the importance of world history in understanding the contemporary world.

8-VH-009.

Appreciate the historical significance of early societies.

8-VH-010.

Value the study of early societies as a way of understanding contemporary life.

8-VH-011.

Appreciate stories, legends, and myths of ancient societies as important ways to learn about the past.

8-VH-012.

Appreciate the contributions of all societies to the development of the modern world.

8-VH-013.

Appreciate the contributions of past societies to the shaping of the modern world.

8-VI-004.

Be willing to consider differing world views.

8-VI-005.

Appreciate the enduring qualities of the arts, architecture, science, and ideas of ancient Greece and Rome.

8-VI-006.

Respect others' ways of life and beliefs.

8-VI-007.

Value the enduring qualities of art, architecture, ideas, literature, and science of the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries.

8-VL-008.

Appreciate the importance of sustaining the natural environment for future societies.

8-VP-016.

Appreciate the benefits of citizenship within a democracy.

8.N.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of perfect squares and square roots, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically (limited to whole numbers). [C, CN, R, V]

8.N.1.1.

Represent a perfect square as a square region using materials, such as grid paper or square shapes.

8.N.1.2.

Determine the factors of a perfect square, and explain why one of the factors is the square root and the others are not.

8.N.1.3.

Determine whether or not a number is a perfect square using materials and strategies such as square shapes, grid paper, or prime factorization, and explain the reasoning.

8.N.1.4.

Determine the square root of a perfect square, and record it symbolically.

8.N.1.5.

Determine the square of a number.

8.N.2.

Determine the approximate square root of numbers that are not perfect squares (limited to whole numbers). [C, CN, ME, R, T]

8.N.2.1.

Estimate the square root of a number that is not a perfect square using the roots of perfect squares as benchmarks.

8.N.2.2.

Approximate the square root of a number that is not a perfect square using technology (e.g., calculator, computer).

8.N.2.3.

Explain why the square root of a number shown on a calculator may be an approximation.

8.N.2.4.

Identify a number with a square root that is between two given numbers.

8.N.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of percents greater than or equal to 0%. [CN, PS, R, V]

8.N.3.1.

Provide a context where a percent may be more than 100% or between 0% and 1%.

8.N.3.10.

Solve a problem that involves finding the percent of a percent (e.g., A population increased by 10% one year and then increased by 15% the next year. Explain why there was not a 25% increase in population over the two years).

8.N.3.2.

Represent a fractional percent using grid paper.

8.N.3.3.

Represent a percent greater than 100% using grid paper.

8.N.3.4.

Determine the percent represented by a shaded region on a grid, and record it in decimal, fractional, or percent form.

8.N.3.5.

Express a percent in decimal or fractional form.

8.N.3.6.

Express a decimal in percent or fractional form.

8.N.3.7.

Express a fraction in decimal or percent form.

8.N.3.8.

Solve a problem involving percents.

8.N.3.9.

Solve a problem involving combined percents (e.g., addition of percents, such as GST + PST).

8.N.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of ratio and rate. [C, CN, V]

8.N.4.1.

Express a two-term ratio from a context in the forms 3:5 or 3 to 5.

8.N.4.2.

Express a three-term ratio from a context in the forms 4:7:3 or 4 to 7 to 3.

8.N.4.3.

Express a part-to-part ratio as a part to whole ratio (e.g., Given the ratio of frozen juice to water is 1 can to 4 cans, this can be written as 1/4 or 1:4 or 1 to 4, [part-to-part ratio]. Related part-to-whole ratios are 1/5 or 1:5 or 1 to 5, which is the ratio of juice to solution, or 4/5, or 4:5 or 4 to 5, which is the ratio of water to solution).

8.N.4.4.

Identify and describe ratios and rates from real-life examples, and record them symbolically.

8.N.4.5.

Express a rate using words or symbols (e.g., 20 L per 100 km or 20 L/100 km).

8.N.4.6.

Express a ratio as a percent, and explain why a rate cannot be represented as a percent.

8.N.5.

Solve problems that involve rates, ratios, and proportional reasoning. [C, CN, PS, R]

8.N.5.1.

Explain the meaning of a/b within a context.

8.N.5.2.

Provide a context in which a/b represents a:

8.N.5.3.

Solve a problem involving rate, ratio, or percent.

8.N.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of multiplying and dividing positive fractions and mixed numbers, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, ME, PS]

8.N.6.2.

Provide a context involving the multiplying of two positive fractions.

8.N.6.3.

Provide a context involving the dividing of two positive fractions.

8.N.6.4.

Express a positive mixed number as an improper fraction and a positive improper fraction as a mixed number.

8.N.6.5.

Model multiplication of a positive fraction by a whole number, concretely or pictorially, and record the process.

8.N.6.6.

Model multiplication of a positive fraction by a positive fraction, concretely or pictorially, and record the process.

8.N.6.7.

Model division of a positive fraction by a whole number, concretely or pictorially, and record the process.

8.N.6.8.

Generalize and apply rules for multiplying and dividing positive fractions, including mixed numbers.

8.N.6.9.

Solve a problem involving positive fractions, taking into consideration order of operations (limited to problems with positive solutions).

8.N.7.

Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division of integers, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]

8.N.7.2.

Provide a context that requires multiplying two integers.

8.N.7.3.

Provide a context that requires dividing two integers.

8.N.7.4.

Model the process of multiplying two integers using concrete materials or pictorial representations, and record the process.

8.N.7.5.

Model the process of dividing an integer by an integer using concrete materials or pictorial representations, and record the process.

8.N.7.6.

Generalize and apply a rule for determining the sign of the product or quotient of integers.

8.N.7.7.

Solve a problem involving integers, taking into consideration order of operations.

8.N.8.

Solve problems involving positive rational numbers. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, T, V]

8.N.8.2.

Determine the reasonableness of an answer to a problem involving positive rational numbers.

8.N.8.4.

Identify and correct errors in the solution to a problem involving positive rational numbers.

8.PR.1.

Graph and analyze two-variable linear relations. [C, ME, PS, R, T, V]

8.PR.1.1.

Determine the missing value in an ordered pair for an equation of a linear relation.

8.PR.1.2.

Create a table of values for the equation of a linear relation.

8.PR.1.3.

Construct a graph from the equation of a linear relation (limited to discrete data).

8.PR.1.4.

Describe the relationship between the variables of a graph.

8.PR.2.

Model and solve problems using linear equations of the form: ax = b; x/a = b, a0; ax + b = c; x/a + b = c, a0; a(x + b) = c concretely, pictorially, and symbolically, where a, b, and c, are integers. [C, CN, PS, V]

8.PR.2.1.

Model a problem with a linear equation, and solve the equation using concrete models.

8.PR.2.2.

Verify the solution to a linear equation using a variety of methods, including concrete materials, diagrams, and substitution.

8.PR.2.3.

Draw a visual representation of the steps used to solve a linear equation, and record each step symbolically.

8.PR.2.4.

Solve a linear equation symbolically.

8.PR.2.5.

Identify and correct errors in an incorrect solution of a linear equation.

8.PR.2.6.

Solve a linear equation by applying the distributive property [e.g., 2(x + 3) = 5; 2 x + 6 = 5; ...].

8.PR.2.7.

Solve a problem using a linear equation, and record the process.

8.SP.1.

Critique ways in which data are presented. [C, R, T, V]

8.SP.1.1.

Compare the information that is provided for the same data set by a set of graphs, such as circle graphs, line graphs, bar graphs, double bar graphs, or pictographs, to determine the strengths and limitations of each graph.

8.SP.1.2.

Identify the advantages and disadvantages of different graphs, such as circle graphs, line graphs, bar graphs, double bar graphs, or pictographs, in representing a specific set of data.

8.SP.1.3.

Justify the choice of a graphical representation for a situation and its corresponding data set.

8.SP.1.4.

Explain how a formatting choice, such as the size of the intervals, the width of bars, or the visual representation, may lead to misinterpretation of the data.

8.SP.1.5.

Identify conclusions that are inconsistent with a data set or graph, and explain the misinterpretation.

8.SP.2.

Solve problems involving the probability of independent events. [C, CN, PS, T]

8.SP.2.1.

Determine the probability of two independent events and verify the probability using a different strategy.

8.SP.2.2.

Generalize and apply a rule for determining the probability of independent events.

8.SP.2.3.

Solve a problem that involves determining the probability of independent events.

8.SS.1.

Develop and apply the Pythagorean theorem to solve problems. [CN, PS, R, T, V]

8.SS.1.1.

Model and explain the Pythagorean theorem concretely, pictorially, or by using technology.

8.SS.1.2.

Explain, using examples, that the Pythagorean theorem applies only to right triangles.

8.SS.1.3.

Determine whether or not a triangle is a right triangle by applying the Pythagorean theorem.

8.SS.1.4.

Solve a problem that involves determining the measure of the third side of a right triangle, given the measures of the other two sides.

8.SS.1.5.

Solve a problem that involves Pythagorean triples (e.g., 3, 4, 5 or 5, 12, 13).

8.SS.2.

Draw and construct nets for 3-D objects. [C, CN, PS, V]

8.SS.2.1.

Match a net to the 3-D object it represents.

8.SS.2.2.

Construct a 3-D object from a net.

8.SS.2.3.

Draw nets for a right circular cylinder, right rectangular prism, and right triangular prism, and verify by constructing the 3-D objects from the nets.

8.SS.2.4.

Predict 3-D objects that can be created from a net and verify the prediction.

8.SS.3.

Determine the surface area of: right rectangular prisms; right triangular prisms; right cylinders to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, R, V]

8.SS.3.1.

Explain, using examples, the relationship between the area of 2-D shapes and the surface area of a 3-D object.

8.SS.3.2.

Identify all the faces of a prism, including right rectangular and right triangular prisms.

8.SS.3.3.

Describe and apply strategies for determining the surface area of a right rectangular or right triangular prism.

8.SS.3.4.

Describe and apply strategies for determining the surface area of a right cylinder.

8.SS.3.5.

Solve a problem involving surface area.

8.SS.4.

Develop and apply formulas for determining the volume of right prisms and right cylinders. [C, CN, PS, R, V]

8.SS.4.1.

Determine the volume of a right prism, given the area of the base.

8.SS.4.2.

Generalize and apply a rule for determining the volume of right cylinders.

8.SS.4.3.

Explain the relationship between the area of the base of a right 3-D object and the formula for the volume of the object.

8.SS.4.4.

Demonstrate that the orientation of a 3-D object does not affect its volume.

8.SS.4.5.

Apply a formula to solve a problem involving the volume of a right cylinder or a right prism.

8.SS.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of tessellation by: explaining the properties of shapes that make tessellating possible; creating tessellations; identifying tessellations in the environment [C, CN, PS, T, V]

8.SS.6.1.

Identify in a set of regular polygons those shapes and combinations of shapes that will tessellate, and use angle measurements to justify choices.

8.SS.6.2.

Identify in a set of irregular polygons those shapes and combinations of shapes that will tessellate, and use angle measurements to justify choices.

8.SS.6.3.

Identify a translation, reflection, or rotation in a tessellation.

8.SS.6.4.

Identify a combination of transformations in a tessellation.

8.SS.6.5.

Create a tessellation using one or more 2-D shapes, and describe the tessellation in terms of transformations and conservation of area.

8.SS.6.6.

Create a new tessellating shape (polygon or non-polygon) by transforming a portion of a tessellating polygon, and describe the resulting tessellation in terms of transformations and conservation of area.

8.SS.6.7.

Identify and describe tessellations in the environment.