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Click on any standard to search for aligned resources. This data may be subject to copyright. You may download a CSV of the Manitoba Curriculum Frameworks if your intention constitutes fair use.

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Recognize both the power and limitations of science as a way of answering questions about the world and explaining natural phenomena

Recognize that scientific knowledge is based on evidence, models and explanations, and evolves as new evidence appears and new conceptualizations develop

Distinguish critically between science and technology in terms of their respective contexts, goals, methods, products, and values

Identify and appreciate contributions made by women and men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about technological innovations

Recognize that science and technology interact with and advance one another

Describe scientific and technological developments, past and present, and appreciate their impact on individuals, societies and the environment, both locally and globally.

Recognize that scientific and technological endeavors have been and continue to be influenced by human needs and the societal context of the time

Identify the factors that affect health and explain the relationships among personal habits, lifestyle choices, and human health, both individual and social

Demonstrate a knowledge of, and personal consideration for, a range of possible science- and technology-related interests, hobbies, and careers

Identify and demonstrate actions that promote a sustainable environment, society and economy, both locally and globally

Recognize safety symbols and practices related to scientific and technological activities and to their daily lives, and apply this knowledge in appropriate situations

Demonstrate appropriate scientific inquiry skills when seeking answers to questions

Demonstrate appropriate problem-solving skills while seeking solutions to technological challenges

Demonstrate appropriate critical thinking and decision-making skills when choosing a course of action based on scientific and technological information

Demonstrate curiosity, scepticism, creativity, open-mindedness, accuracy, precision, honesty, and persistence, and appreciate their importance as scientific and technological habits of mind

Employ effective communication skills and utilize information technology to gather and share scientific and technological ideas and data

Work cooperatively and value the ideas and contributions of others while carrying out scientific and technological activities

Evaluate, from a scientific perspective, information and ideas encountered during investigations and in daily life

Understand essential life structures and processes pertaining to a wide variety of organisms, including humans

Understand various biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems, as well as their interaction and interdependence within ecosystems and within the biosphere as a whole

Understand the properties and structures of matter as well as various common manifestations and applications of the actions and interactions of matter

Understand how stability, motion, forces, and energy transfers and transformations play a role in a wide range of natural and constructed contexts

Understand the composition of the Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, as well as the processes involved within and between them

Understand the composition of the universe, the interactions within it, and the impacts of humankind's continued attempts to understand and explore it

Describe and appreciate the similarity and diversity of forms, functions, and patterns within the natural and constructed world

Describe and appreciate how the natural and constructed world is made up of systems and how interactions take place within and among these systems

Recognize that characteristics of materials and systems can remain constant or change over time, and describe the conditions and processes involved

Recognize that energy, whether transmitted or transformed, is the driving force of both movement and change, and is inherent within materials and in the interactions among them

Propose questions that could be tested experimentally. (GLO: C2)

Select and justify various methods for finding the answers to specific questions (GLO: C2)

Identify stakeholders and initiate research related to an STSE issue (GLO: C4)

Select and integrate information obtained from a variety of sources (GLO: C2, C4, C6)

Evaluate the reliability, bias, and usefulness of information (GLO: C2, C4, C5, C8)

Summarize and record information in a variety of forms (GLO: C2, C4, C6)

Review effects of past decisions and various perspectives related to an STSE issue (GLO: B1, C4)

State a testable hypothesis or prediction based on background data or on observed events (GLO: C2)

Identify probable mathematical relationships between variables (GLO: C2)

Plan an experiment to answer a specific scientific question. (GLO C1, C2)

Summarize relevant data and consolidate existing arguments and positions related to an STSE issue (GLO: C4)

Determine criteria for the evaluation of an STSE decision. (GLO: B5, C1, C3, C4)

Formulate and develop options which could lead to an STSE decision (GLO: C4)

Demonstrate work habits that ensure personal safety, the safety of others, as well as consideration for the environment. (GLO: B2, B5, C1, C2)

Use various methods for anticipating the impacts of different options. (GLO: C4, C5, C6, C7)

Work cooperatively with group members to carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise. (GLO: C2, C4, C7)

Assume the responsibilities of various roles within a group and evaluate which roles are most appropriate for given tasks. (GLO: C2, C4, C7)

Select and use appropriate methods and tools for collecting data or information (GLO: C2)

Estimate and measure accurately using Systeme International (SI) and other standard units. (GLO: C2)

Record, organize, and display data using an appropriate format. (GLO: C2, C5)

Evaluate, using pre-determined criteria, different STSE options leading to a possible decision. (GLO: B5, C1, C3, C4)

Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer and explain relationships. (GLO: C2, C5)

Identify and suggest explanation for discrepancies in data. (GLO: C2)

Evaluate the original plan for an investigation and suggest improvements. (GLO: C2, C5)

Draw a conclusion that explains the results of an investigation. (GLO: C2, C5, C8)

Select the best option and determine a course of action to implement an STSE decision. (GLO: B5, C4)

Implement an STSE decision and evaluate its effects (GLO: B5, C4, C5, C8)

Reflect on the process used to arrive as or to implement an STSE decision, and suggest improvements. (GLO: C4, C5)

Reflect on prior knowledge and experience to develop new understandings. (GLO: C2, C3, C4)

Explain the importance of using precise language in science and technology. (GLO: A2, A3, C2, C3)

Describe examples of how scientific knowledge has evolved in light of new evidence, and the role of technology in this evolution. (GLO: A2, A5)

Describe examples of how technologies have evolved in response to changing needs and scientific advances. (GLO: A5)

Discuss how peoples of various cultures have contributed to the development of science and technology (GLO: A4, A5)

Relate personal activities and possible career choices to specific science disciplines. (GLO: B4)

Discuss social and environmental effects of past scientific and technological endeavours. (GLO B1)

Demonstrating Scientific and Technological Attitudes and Habits of Mind

Appreciate and respect that science and technology have evolved from different views held by women and men from a variety of societies and cultural backgrounds. (GLO: A4)

Express interest in a broad scope of science and technology-related fields and issues. (GLO: B4)

Demonstrate confidence in their ability to carry out investigations in science and to address STSE issues. (GLO: C2, C4, C5)

Value skepticism, honesty, accuracy, precision, perseverance, and open-mindedness as scientific and technological habits of mind. (GLO: C2, C3, C4, C5)

Be sensitive and responsible in maintaining a balance between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment. (GLO: B5, C4)

Demonstrate personal involvement and be proactive with respect to STSE issues. (GLO: B5, C4)

Illustrate and explain how carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are cycled through an ecosystem. (GLO: D2, D3, D5, E2)

Discuss factors that may disturb biogeochemical cycles. (GLO: A2, C8, D2, D5)

Describe bioaccumulation and explain its potential impact on consumers. (GLO: B1, D2)

Describe the carrying capacity of an ecosystem. (GLO: D2, E2, E3)

Investigate and discuss various limiting factors that influence population dynamics. (GLO: C2, D2, E2, E3)

Construct and interpret graphs of population dynamics. (GLO: C2, C6, C8, D2)

Describe potential consequences of introducing new species and species extinction on an ecosystem. (GLO: E1, E2)

Observe and document a range of organisms that illustrate the biodiversity within a local or regional ecosystem. (GLO: D2, E2, E3)

Explain how the biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to its sustainability. (GLO: B5, E1)

Investigate how human activities affect an ecosystem and use the decision-making process to propose a course of action to enhance its sustainability. (GLO: B5, C4, C5, C8)

Relate an element's position on the periodic table to its combining capacity (valence). (GLO: D3, D4, E1)

Explain, using the periodic table, how and why elements combine in specific ratios to form compounds. (GLO: D3, E2)

Write formulas and names of binary ionic compounds. (GLO: A2, C2, D3, E1)

Write formulas and names for covalent compounds using prefixes. (GLO: C2, D3, E1)

Investigate the Law of Conservation of Mass, and recognize that mass is conserved in chemical reactions. (GLO: A2, D3, D4, E3)

Investigate and classify chemical reactions as synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, or combustion. (GLO: B1, D4, E4)

Experiment to classify acids and bases using their characteristic properties. (GLO: D3, E1)

Discuss the occurrence of acids and bases in biological systems, industrial processes, and domestic applications. (GLO: B2, B3, C1, C8)

Explain how acids and bases interact to form a salt and water in the process of neutralization. (GLO: D3, E2)

Describe the formation and the environmental impact of various types of air pollution. (GLO: B5, C6, D2, D5)

Investigate technologies that are used to reduce emissions of potential air pollutants. (GLO: A5, B5, C8, E2)

Analyze the relationship among displacement, time, and velocity for an object in uniform motion. (GLO: C5, C8, D4, E3)

Collect displacement data to calculate and graph velocity versus time for an object that is accelerating at a constant rate. (GLO: C5, C8, D4, E3)

Analyze the relationships among velocity, time, and acceleration for an object that is accelerating at a constant rate. (GLO: C5, C8, D4, E3)

Outline the historical development of the concepts of force and 'natural' motion. (GLO: A2, A4, B1)

Experiment to illustrate the effects of inertia in car collisions. (GLO: C2, C6, C7, E3)

Describe qualitatively how force is related to motion. (GLO: D4, E3)

Investigate and describe qualitatively Newton's Third Law. (GLO: C2, C6, C7, E3)

Define momentum and impulse and qualitatively relate impulse to change in momentum for everyday situations. (GLO: A5, B1, B2, D4)

Investigate the conservation of energy in a motor vehicle collision. (GLO: B2, D4, E4)

Investigate conditions that illustrate the effects of friction on motion. (GLO: C2, C5, D4, E2)

Investigate the factors that influence braking distance. (GLO: C2, C3, C6, D4)

Using the relationship among displacement, velocity, and friction, calculate the braking distance of a motor vehicle. (GLO: C2, C3, C5, C8)

Illustrate the composition and organization of the hydrosphere and the atmosphere. (GLO: D5, E2)

Outline factors influencing the Earth's radiation budget. (GLO: D4, D5, E2, E3)

Explain effects of heat transfer within the atmosphere and hydrosphere on the development and movement of wind and ocean currents. (GLO: A2, D5, E2, E4)

Explain the formation and dynamics of selected severe weather phenomena. (GLO: A2, D5, E1, E4)

Collect, interpret, and analyze meteorological data related to a severe weather event. (GLO: C2, C6, C8, D5)

Investigate the social, economic, and environmental impacts of a recent severe weather event. (GLO: B2, B3, B4, C6)

Investigate and evaluate evidence that climate change occurs naturally and can be influenced by human activities. (GLO: A1, A4, D5, E3)

Discuss potential consequences of climate change. (GLO: A1, A2, C5, C8)

Analyze puzzles and games that involve spatial reasoning, using problem-solving strategies. [C, CN, PS, R]

Solve problems that require the manipulation and application of formulas related to perimeter; area [C, CN, ME, PS, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of the Systme International (SI) by describing relationships of the units for length, area, volume, capacity, and mass. [C, CN, ME, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of the imperial system by describing the relationships of the units for length, area, volume, capacity, and mass; comparing the American and British imperial units for capacity; applying strategies to convert between imperial and SI units [C, CN, ME, V]

Solve and verify problems that involve SI and imperial linear measurements, including decimal and fractional measurements. [CN, ME, PS, V]

Solve problems that require the manipulation and application of formulas related to converting measurement. [C, CN, ME, PS, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of calculations for gross pay and net pay earned through income sources, including wages; salary; contracts; commissions; piecework [C, CN, R, T]

Solve problems that require the manipulation and application of formulas related to income. [C, CN, ME, PS, R]

Analyze puzzles and games that involve spatial reasoning, using problem-solving strategies. [C, CN, PS, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of angles, including acute, right, obtuse, straight, and reflex, by drawing; replicating and constructing; bisecting; solving problems [C, ME, PS, T, V]

Solve problems that involve parallel, perpendicular, and transversal lines, and pairs of angles formed between them. [C, CN, PS, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of transformations on a 2-D shape, including translations; rotations; reflections; dilations [C, CN, R, T, V]

Solve problems involving right triangles using the Pythagorean theorem. [C, CN, PS, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of primary trigonometric ratios (sine, cosine, tangent) by applying similarity to right triangles; generalizing patterns from similar right triangles; solving problems [CN, PS, R, T, V]

Solve problems that require the manipulation and application of formulas related to the Pythagorean theorem; primary trigonometric ratios [C, CN, ME, PS, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of factors of whole numbers by determining; prime factors; greatest common factor; least common multiple; square root; cube root [CN, ME, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of irrational numbers by representing, identifying, and simplifying irrational numbers; ordering irrational numbers [CN, ME, R, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of powers with integral and rational exponents. [C, CN, PS, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of the multiplication of polynomial expressions (limited to monomials, binomials, and trinomials), concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of common factors and trinomial factoring, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V]

Solve problems that involve linear measurement, using SI and imperial units of measure; estimation strategies; measurement strategies [ME, PS, V]

Apply proportional reasoning to problems that involve conversions within and between SI and imperial units of measure. [C, ME, PS, T]

Solve problems, using SI and imperial units, that involve the surface area and volume of 3-D objects, including right cones; right cylinders; right prisms; right pyramids; spheres [CN, PS, R, T, V]

Develop and apply the primary trigonometric ratios (sine, cosine, tangent) to solve problems that involve right triangles. [C, CN, PS, R, T, V]

Interpret and explain the relationships among data, graphs, and contexts. [C, CN, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve the distance between two points and the midpoint of a line segment. [C, CN, PS, T, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of relations and functions. [C, R, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of slope with respect to rise and run; line segments and lines; rate of change; parallel lines; perpendicular lines [PS, R, V]

Describe and represent linear relations, using words; ordered pairs; tables of values; graphs; equations [C, CN, R, V]

Determine the characteristics of the graphs of linear relations, including the intercepts; slope; domain; range [CN, PS, R, T, V]

Relate linear relations expressed in slope-intercept form (y = mx + b); general form (Ax + By + C = 0); slope-point form (y -y1) = m(x - x1)) to their graphs. [C, CN, R, T, V]

Determine the equation of a linear relation, given a graph; a point and the slope; two points; a point and the equation of a parallel or perpendicular line; a scatterplot [C, CN, PS, R, T, V]

Represent a linear function, using function notation. [CN, ME, V]

Solve problems that involve systems of linear equations in two variables, graphically and algebraically. [CN, PS, R, T, V]

Identify and explore a current health issue. (GLOs: C2, C4, C6)

Evaluate implications of possible alternatives or positions related to an issue. (GLOs: B1, C4, C5, C8)

Recognize that decisions reflect values and consider personal values and those of others when making a decision. (GLOs: C4, C5)

Recommend an alternative or identify a position, and provide justification. (GLO: C4)

Propose a course of action related to an issue. (GLOs: C4, C5, C8)

Evaluate the process used by self or others to arrive at a decision. (GLOs: C4, C5)

Collaborate with others to achieve group goals and responsibilities. (GLOs: C2, C4, C7)

Elicit, clarify, and respond to questions, ideas, and diverse points of view in discussions. (GLOs: C2, C4, C7)

Evaluate individual and group process used. (GLOs: C2, C4, C7)

Synthesize information obtained from a variety of sources. (GLOs: C2, C4, C6)

Evaluate the quality of sources of information, as well as the information itself. (GLOs: C2, C4, C5, C8)

Quote from or refer to sources as required, and reference sources according to accepted practice. (GLOs: C2, C6)

Communicate information in a variety of forms appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context. (GLOs: C5, C6)

Demonstrate confidence in their ability to carry out investigations. (GLOs: C2, C5)

Demonstrate a willingness to reflect on personal wellness. (GLO: B3)

Appreciate the impact of personal lifestyle choices on general health and make decisions that support a healthy lifestyle. (GLOs: B3, C4)

Demonstrate an understanding of, and respect for, a diversity of cultural perspectives and approaches to maintaining health and treating illness. (GLOs: A4, B3)

State a testable hypothesis or prediction based on background knowledge or on observed events. (GLO: C2)

Plan an experiment to answer a specific scientific question. (GLOs: C1, C2)

Demonstrate work habits that ensure personal safety, the safety of others, and concern for the environment. (GLOs: B3, B5, C1, C2)

Select and use scientific equipment appropriately and safely. (GLOs: C1, C2)

Demonstrate sensitivity toward, and respect for, living and non-living tissues, specimens, and organisms utilized for biological research. (GLOs B5, C1)

Make detailed observations and/or collect data; organize and display this information using an appropriate format. (GLOs: C2, C5)

Evaluate the relevance, reliability, and adequacy of data and data collection methods. (GLOs: C2, C4, C5, C8)

Analyze data and/or observations in order to identify patterns or draw conclusions. (GLOs: C2, C5, C8)

Use appropriate strategies and skills to develop an understanding of biological concepts. (GLO: D1)

Demonstrate an in-depth understanding of biological concepts. (GLO: D1)

Demonstrate a continuing, increasingly informed interest in biology and biology-related careers and issues. (GLO: B4)

Appreciate the contributions of scientists, including Canadians, to the field of human biology. (GLOs: A4, B4)

Increase awareness of personal wellness, as well as personal and family health history. (GLO: B3)

Recognize how individual wellness choices affect others. (GLOs: B3, B5)

Describe how the body attempts to maintain an internal balance called homeostasis, recognizing that the conditions in which life processes can occur are limited. (GLOs: D1, E2, E3)

Explain the principle of negative feedback and identify how the body stabilizes systems against excessive change. (GLOs: D1, E2, E3)

Identify life processes that individual cells, as well as complex organisms, need to manage. (GLOs: D1, E1)

Explain how cell membranes regulate movement of materials into and out of cells, and recognize the importance of this regulation in managing life processes and maintaining homeostasis. (GLOs: D1, E2, E3)

Identify factors that influence movement of substances across a membrane, recognizing that movement of these substances is important for the internal balance of the cell. (GLOs: D1, E2, E3)

Explain the role of energy in maintaining an internal balance in the cell. (GLOs: D1, D4, E4)

Identify major structures and functions of the human digestive system from a diagram, model, or specimen. (GLO: D1)

Describe the processes of mechanical digestion that take place at various sites along the alimentary canal. (GLO: D1)

Identify functions of secretions along the digestive tract. (GLO: D1)

Identify sites of chemical digestion along the alimentary canal, as well as the type of nutrient being digested. (GLO: D1)

Explain the role of enzymes in the chemical digestion of nutrients and identify factors that influence their action. (GLOs: D1, E2)

Describe the processes of absorption that take place at various sites along the alimentary canal. (GLO: D1)

Describe the homeostatic role of the liver with respect to the regulation of nutrient levels in the blood and nutrient storage. (GLOs: D1, E2, E3)

Describe the functions of each of the six basic types of nutrients, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. (GLOs: B3, D1)

Identify dietary sources for each of the six basic types of nutrients carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. (GLOs: B3, D1)

Evaluate personal food intake and related food decisions. (GLOs: B3, C4, C8)

Investigate and describe conditions/disorders that affect the digestive process. (GLOs: B3, C6, D1)

Use the decision-making process to investigate an issue related to digestion and nutrition. (GLOs: B3, C4, C5, C8)

Design and execute an experiment to investigate an aspect of the transportation or respiratory system. (GLOs: C2, D1, E2)

Compare the characteristics of blood components in terms of appearance, origin, numbers, relative size, and function in the body. (GLO: D1)

Compare and contrast the characteristics of different blood groups. (GLO: D1)

Predict the physiological consequences of blood transfusions involving different blood groups. (GLOs: D1, E2)

Describe the blood donation process and investigate related issues. (GLOs: B3, C4, C5, C6, C8)

Compare the structure and function of blood vessels. (GLOs: D1, E1)

Identify the materials transported between cells and capillaries. (GLO: D1)

Describe, in general terms, the nervous and chemical control of heartbeat. (GLOs: D1, E2)

Explain the meaning of blood pressure readings and identify the normal range. (GLOs: B3, D1)

Identify factors that affect blood pressure or cardiac function and describe their effects. (GLOs: B3, D1)

Explain how transport systems help to maintain homeostasis in the body. (GLOs: D1, E2)

Distinguish between cellular respiration, internal respiration, and external respiration. (GLO: D1)

Identify major structures and functions of the human respiratory system from a diagram, model, or specimen. (GLO: D1)

Describe how breathing is controlled to help maintain homeostasis in the human body. (GLOs: D1, E2)

Investigate and describe conditions/disorders associated with transportation and/or respiration in the human body. (GLOs: B3, C6, D1)

Identify personal lifestyle choices that contribute to cardiovascular and respiratory wellness. (GLOs: B3, C4, D1)

Identify the primary metabolic wastes produced in the human body and the source of each. (GLO: D1)

Describe the roles of the major excretory structures in eliminating wastes and helping the body maintain homeostasis. (GLOs: D1, E2)

Describe the important role of the liver in the process of excretion and the maintenance of homeostasis. (GLOs: D1, E2)

Identify structures of the human urinary system from a diagram, model, or specimen, and describe the function of each. (GLO: D1)

Explain the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion in the nephron. (GLO: D1)

Describe the feedback mechanisms associated with water and salt balance and their role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the human body. (GLOs: D1, E2)

Describe what types of information can be gained through urinalysis. (GLOs: B3, D1)

Investigate and describe issues related to kidney failure and treatment options available. (GLOs: B3, C6, C8, D1)

Describe the body's defence mechanisms for protection from foreign agents. (GLO: D1)

Describe the body's response to allergens, vaccines, and viruses/bacteria. (GLO: D1)

Explain the role of the lymphatic system in protecting the human body. (GLO: D1)

Investigate issues related to the immune system and the protection of public health. (GLOs: B3, C4, C5, C6, C8, D1)

Describe the major organization of the nervous system. (GLO: D1)

Explain how a nerve impulse travels a particular pathway using chemical and electrical signals. (GLO: D1)

Compare the general roles of nervous and hormonal controls, recognizing that the nervous and endocrine systems interact to maintain homeostasis in the human body. (GLOs: D1, E2, E3)

Explain the effects of a concussion on brain function and the implications of multiple concussions. (GLOs: B3, C8, D1)

Describe how personal lifestyle choices can influence the functioning of protection and/or control systems. (GLOs: B3, D1)

Investigate and describe conditions/disorders that affect protection and/or control in the human body. (GLOs: B3, C6, D1)

Analyze examples of how different body systems work together to maintain homeostasis under various conditions. (GLOs: D1, E2, E3)

Recognize that aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic responses and describe some changes that take place in different body systems as we age. (GLOs: D1, E2, E3)

Recognize the difficulties faced in defining "death" and identify some of the different definitions in use today. (GLOs: C8, D1)

Identify and analyze social issues related to the process of dying. (GLOs: B3, C4, C5, C8)

Describe how technology has allowed us to control our wellness, and describe the ethical dilemmas that the use of technology can create. (GLOs: B1, B2, B3, C5, C8)

Demonstrate confidence in their ability to carry out investigations in chemistry and to address STSE-related issues.

Value skepticism, honesty, accuracy, precision, perseverance, and open-mindedness as scientific and technological habits of mind.

Demonstrate a continuing, increasingly informed interest in chemistry and chemistry-related careers and issues.

Be sensitive and responsible in maintaining a balance between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment.

Elicit, clarify, and respond to questions, ideas, and diverse points of view in discussions.

Evaluate implications of possible alternatives or positions related to an STSE issue.

Recognize that decisions reflect values and consider their own values and those of others when making a decision.

Reflect on the process used by self or others to arrive at an STSE decision.

Evaluate information obtained to determine its usefulness for information needs.

Demonstrate work habits that ensure personal safety and the safety of others, as well as consideration for the environment.

Select and use scientific equipment appropriately and safely.

Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer and explain relationships.

Draw a conclusion based on the analysis and interpretation of data.

Use appropriate strategies and skills to develop an understanding of chemical concepts.

Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma.

Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.

Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the Kinetic Molecular Theory.

Explain the process of melting, solidification, sublimation, and deposition in terms of the Kinetic Molecular Theory.

Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain the processes of evaporation and condensation.

Operationally define vapour pressure in terms of observable and measurable properties.

Operationally define normal boiling point temperature in terms of vapour pressure.

Interpolate and extrapolate the vapour pressure and boiling temperature of various substances from pressure versus temperature graphs.

Identify the abundances of the naturally occurring gases in the atmosphere and examine how these abundances have changed over geologic time.

Experiment to develop the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas using visual, numeric, and graphical representations.

Experiment to develop the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas using visual, numeric, and graphical representations.

Experiment to develop the relationship between the pressure and temperature of a gas using visual, numeric, and graphical representations.

Solve quantitative problems involving the relationships among the pressure, temperature, and volume of a gas using dimensional analysis.

Identify various industrial, environmental, and recreational applications of gases.

Determine average atomic mass using isotopes and their relative abundance.

Write formulas and names for polyatomic compounds using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature.

Write and classify balanced chemical equations from written descriptions of reactions.

Predict the products of chemical reactions, given the reactants and type of reaction.

Describe the concept of the mole and its importance to measurement in chemistry.

Calculate the volume of a given mass of a gaseous substance from its density at a given temperature and pressure.

Solve problems requiring interconversions between moles, mass, volume, and number of particles.

Interpret a balanced equation in terms of moles, mass, and volumes of gases.

Solve stoichiometric problems involving moles, mass, and volume, given the reactants and products in a balanced chemical reaction.

Identify the limiting reactant and calculate the mass of a product, given the reaction equation and reactant data.

Perform a lab involving mass-mass or mass-volume relations, identifying the limiting reactant and calculating the mole ratio.

Discuss the importance of stoichiometry in industry and describe specific applications.

Describe the structure of water in terms of electronegativity and the polarity of its chemical bonds.

Explain the solution process of simple ionic and covalent compounds, using visual, particulate representations and chemical equations.

Explain heat of solution with reference to specific applications.

Perform a lab to illustrate the formation of solutions in terms of the polar and nonpolar nature of substances.

Construct, from experimental data, a solubility curve of a pure substance in water.

Differentiate among saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions.

Perform a lab to demonstrate freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation.

Explain freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation at the molecular level.

Differentiate among, and give examples of, the use of various representations of concentration.

Solve problems involving calculation for concentration, moles, mass, and volume.

Prepare a solution, given the amount of solute (in grams) and the volume of solution (in millilitres), and determine the concentration in moles/litre.

Describe examples of situations where solutions of known concentration are important.

Describe the process of treating a water supply, identifying the allowable concentrations of metallic and organic species in water suitable for consumption.

Identify the origins and major sources of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds.

Compare and contrast the molecular structures of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.

Name, draw, and construct structural models of the first 10 alkanes.

Name, draw, and construct structural models of branched alkanes.

Name, draw, and construct structural models of isomers for alkanes up to six-carbon atoms.

Outline the transformation of alkanes to alkenes and vice versa.

Name, draw, and construct molecular models of alkenes and branched alkenes.

Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Outline the transformation of alkenes to alkynes and vice versa.

Name, draw, and construct structural models of alkynes and branched alkynes.

Compare and contrast the structure of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Write condensed structural formulas for and name common alcohols.

Write condensed structural formulas for and name organic acids.

Perform a lab involving the formation of esters, and examine the process of esterification.

Describe the process of polymerization and identify important natural and synthetic polymers.

Describe how the products of organic chemistry have influenced quality of life.

Use the decision-making process to investigate an issue related to organic chemistry.

Recognize both the power and limitations of science as a way of answering questions about the world and explaining natural phenomena

Recognize that scientific knowledge is based on evidence, models and explanations, and evolves as new evidence appears and new conceptualizations develop

Distinguish critically between science and technology in terms of their respective contexts, goals, methods, products, and values

Identify and appreciate contributions made by women and men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about technological innovations

Recognize that science and technology interact with and advance one another

Describe scientific and technological developments, past and present, and appreciate their impact on individuals, societies and the environment, both locally and globally.

Recognize that scientific and technological endeavors have been and continue to be influenced by human needs and the societal context of the time

Identify the factors that affect health and explain the relationships among personal habits, lifestyle choices, and human health, both individual and social

Demonstrate a knowledge of, and personal consideration for, a range of possible science- and technology-related interests, hobbies, and careers

Identify and demonstrate actions that promote a sustainable environment, society and economy, both locally and globally

Recognize safety symbols and practices related to scientific and technological activities and to their daily lives, and apply this knowledge in appropriate situations

Demonstrate appropriate scientific inquiry skills when seeking answers to questions

Demonstrate appropriate problem-solving skills while seeking solutions to technological challenges

Demonstrate appropriate critical thinking and decision-making skills when choosing a course of action based on scientific and technological information

Demonstrate curiosity, scepticism, creativity, open-mindedness, accuracy, precision, honesty, and persistence, and appreciate their importance as scientific and technological habits of mind

Employ effective communication skills and utilize information technology to gather and share scientific and technological ideas and data

Work cooperatively and value the ideas and contributions of others while carrying out scientific and technological activities

Evaluate, from a scientific perspective, information and ideas encountered during investigations and in daily life

Understand essential life structures and processes pertaining to a wide variety of organisms, including humans

Understand various biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems, as well as their interaction and interdependence within ecosystems and within the biosphere as a whole

Understand the properties and structures of matter as well as various common manifestations and applications of the actions and interactions of matter

Understand how stability, motion, forces, and energy transfers and transformations play a role in a wide range of natural and constructed contexts

Understand the composition of the Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, as well as the processes involved within and between them

Understand the composition of the universe, the interactions within it, and the impacts of humankind's continued attempts to understand and explore it

Describe and appreciate the similarity and diversity of forms, functions, and patterns within the natural and constructed world

Describe and appreciate how the natural and constructed world is made up of systems and how interactions take place within and among these systems

Recognize that characteristics of materials and systems can remain constant or change over time, and describe the conditions and processes involved

Recognize that energy, whether transmitted or transformed, is the driving force of both movement and change, and is inherent within materials and in the interactions among them

Derive proofs that involve the properties of angles and triangles. [CN, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve the properties of angles and triangles. [CN, PS, T, V]

Analyze and prove conjectures, using inductive and deductive reasoning, to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, R, T]

Analyze puzzles and games that involve spatial reasoning, using problem-solving strategies. [CN, PS, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve the application of rates. [CN, PS, R, T]

Solve problems that involve scale diagrams, using proportional reasoning. [CN, PS, R, T, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of the relationships among scale factors, areas, surface areas, and volumes of similar 2-D shapes and 3-D objects. [C, CN, PS, R, T, V]

Model and solve problems that involve systems of linear inequalities in two variables. [CN, PS, T, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of quadratic functions, including vertex; intercepts; domain and range; axis of symmetry [CN, PS, T, V]

Research and give a presentation on a historical event or an area of interest that involves mathematics. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, T, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of normal distribution, including standard deviation; z-scores [CN, PS, T, V]

Interpret statistical data, using confidence intervals; confidence levels; margin of error [C, CN, R, T]

Solve problems that involve SI and imperial units in surface area measurements. [C, CN, ME, PS, V]

Solve problems that involve SI and imperial units in volume and capacity measurements. [C, CN, ME, PS, V]

Solve problems that require the manipulation and application of formulas related to volume and capacity; surface area [CN, PS, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of compound interest. [CN, ME, PS, T]

Demonstrate an understanding of credit options, including credit cards; loans [CN, ME, PS, R]

Solve problems that require the manipulation and application of formulas related to simple interest; finance charges [CN, PS, R]

Solve problems that involve creating and interpreting graphs, including bar graphs; histograms; line graphs; circle graphs [C, CN, PS, R, T, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of financial institution services used to access and manage finances. [C, CN, R, T]

Demonstrate an understanding of slope as rise over run; as rate of change by solving problems. [C, CN, PS, V]

Solve problems by applying proportional reasoning and unit analysis. [C, CN, PS, R]

Solve problems that require the manipulation and application of formulas related to slope and rate of change. [CN, PS, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of linear relations by recognizing patterns and trends; graphing; creating tables of values; writing equations; interpolating and extrapolating; solving problems [CN, PS, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve two and three right triangles. [CN, PS, T, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of the absolute value of real numbers. [ME, R, V]

Solve problems that involve operations on radicals and radical expressions with numerical and variable radicands. [CN, ME, PS, R, T]

Solve problems that involve radical equations (limited to square roots). [C, CN, PS, R, T]

Determine equivalent forms of rational expressions (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials, binomials, or trinomials). [C, ME, R]

Perform operations on rational expressions (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials, binomials, or trinomials). [C, CN, ME, R]

Solve problems that involve rational equations (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials, binomials, or trinomials). [C, CN, PS, R]

Factor polynomial expressions of the form ax^2 + bx + c, a 0; (a^2)(x^2) - (b^2)(y^2), a 0, b 0; a(f(x))^2 + b(f(x)) + c, a 0; a^2(f(x))^2 - b^2(g(y))^2, a 0, b 0 where a, b, and c are rational numbers. [ME, R]

Analyze geometric sequences and series to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, R, T]

Graph and analyze absolute value functions (limited to linear and quadratic functions) to solve problems. [C, PS, R, T, V]

Analyze quadratic functions of the form y = a(x - p)^2 + q and determine the vertex; domain and range; direction of opening; axis of symmetry; x- and y-intercepts [C, CN, R, T, V]

Analyze quadratic functions of the form y = ax^2 + bx + c to identify characteristics of the corresponding graph, including vertex; domain and range; direction of opening; axis of symmetry; x- and y-intercepts [C, CN, PS, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve quadratic equations. [C, CN, PS, R, T, V]

Solve, algebraically and graphically, problems that involve systems of linear-quadratic and quadratic-quadratic equations in two variables. [C, CN, PS, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve linear and quadratic inequalities in two variables. [C, PS, T, V]

Solve problems that involve quadratic inequalities in one variable. [CN, PS, V]

Analyze arithmetic sequences and series to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, R, T]

Solve problems, using the three primary trigonometric ratios (sine, cosine, and tangent) for angles from 0 degrees to 360 degrees in standard position. [C, ME, PS, R, T, V]

Evaluate implications of possible alternatives or positions related to an issue. (GLOs: B1, C4, C5, C6, C7)

Recognize that decisions reflect values, and consider own and others' values when making a decision. (GLOs: C4, C5)

Recommend an alternative or identify a position, and provide justification for it. (GLO: C4)

Propose a course of action related to an issue. (GLOs: C4, C5, C8)

Evaluate the process used by self or others to arrive at a decision. (GLOs: C4, C5)

Collaborate with others to achieve group goals and responsibilities. (GLOs: C2, C4, C7)

Elicit, clarify, and respond to questions, ideas, and diverse points of view in discussions. (GLOs: C2, C4, C7)

Evaluate individual and group processes used. (GLOs: C2, C4, C7)

Synthesize information obtained from a variety of sources. (GLOs: C2, C4, C6)

Evaluate information to determine its usefulness for specific purposes. (GLOs: C2, C4, C5, C8)

Quote from or refer to sources as required, and reference sources according to accepted practice. (GLOs: C2, C6)

Communicate information in a variety of forms appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context. (GLOs: C5, C6)

Describe the role of evidence in developing scientific understanding and explain how this understanding changes when new evidence is introduced. (GLO: A2)

Understand that development and acceptance of scientific evidence, theories, or technologies are affected by many factors. (GLOs: A2, B2)

Recognize both the power and limitations of science in answering questions about the world and explaining natural phenomena. (GLO: A1)

Demonstrate confidence in ability to carry out investigations. (GLOs: C2, C5)

Demonstrate a continuing, increasingly informed interest in biology and biology-related careers and issues. (GLO: B4)

Recognize the importance of maintaining biodiversity and the role that individuals can play in this endeavour. (GLO: B5)

Recognize that humans have had and continue to have an impact on the environment. (GLO: B1, B2)

Appreciate that developments in and use of technology can create ethical dilemmas that challenge personal and societal decision making. (GLOs: B1, B2)

Use appropriate scientific problem-solving or inquiry strategies when answering a question or solving a problem. (GLOs: C2, C3)

Demonstrate work habits that ensure personal safety, the safety of others, and consideration of the environment. (GLOs: B3, B5, C1, C2)

Record, organize, and display data and observations using an appropriate format. (GLOs: C2, C5)

Evaluate the relevance, reliability, and adequacy of data and data-collection methods. (GLOs: C2, C4, C5, C8)

Analyze data and/or observations in order to explain the results of an investigation, and identify implications of these findings. (GLOs: C2, C4, C5, C8)

Use appropriate strategies and skills to develop an understanding of biological concepts. (GLO: D1)

Demonstrate an in-depth understanding of biological concepts. (GLO: D1)

Outline Gregor Mendel's principles of inheritance, stating their importance to the understanding of heredity. (GLOs: A1, A2, B1, D1)

Explain what is meant by the terms heterozygous and homozygous. (GLO: D1)

Distinguish between genotype and phenotype, and use these terms appropriately when discussing the outcomes of genetic crosses. (GLO: D1)

Use Punnett squares to solve a variety of autosomal inheritance problems, and justify the results using appropriate terminology. (GLOs: D1, E1)

Describe examples of and solve problems involving the inheritance of phenotypic traits that do not follow a dominant-recessive pattern. (GLO: D1)

Explain the basis for sex determination in humans. (GLO: D1)

Describe examples of and solve problems involving sex-linked genes. (GLO: D1)

Use pedigree charts to illustrate the inheritance of genetically determined traits in a family tree and to determine the probability of certain offspring having particular traits. (GLOs: C8, D1)

Discuss ethical issues that may arise as a result of genetic testing for inherited conditions or disorders. (GLOs: A3, B1, B2, C4)

Discuss the role of meiosis and sexual reproduction in producing genetic variability in offspring. (GLOs: D1, E3)

Explain how chromosome mutations may arise during meiosis. (GLOs: D1, E3)

Identify monosomy and trisomy chromosome mutations from karyotypes. (GLO: D1)

Outline significant scientific contributions/discoveries that led to the current understanding of the structure and function of the DNA molecule. (GLOs: A2, A4, A5, B1, B2)

Compare DNA and RNA in terms of their structure, use, and location in the cell. (GLOs: D1, D3)

Outline the steps involved in protein synthesis. (GLOs: D1, D3)

Relate the consequences of gene mutation to the final protein product. (GLOs: D1, D3)

Discuss implications of gene mutation for genetic variation. (GLOs: D1, E1, E3)

Investigate an issue related to the application of gene technology in bioresources. (GLOs: A3, A5, B1, B2, C4, C5)

Investigate an issue related to the application of gene technology in humans. (GLOs: A3, A5, B1, B2, C4, C5)

Define the term evolution, explaining how evolution has led to biodiversity by altering populations and not individuals. (GLOs: D1, E3)

Describe and explain the process of discovery that led Charles Darwin to formulate his theory of evolution by natural selection. (GLOs: A2, A4, B1, B2)

Outline the main points of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. (GLO: D1)

Demonstrate, through examples, what the term fittest means in the phrase "survival of the fittest" (GLO: D1)

Explain how natural selection leads to changes in populations. (GLOs: D1, E3)

Describe how disruptive, stabilizing, and directional natural selection act on variation. (GLOs: D1, E3)

Distinguish between natural selection and artificial selection. (GLOs: D1, E1, E3)

Outline how scientists determine whether a gene pool has changed, according to the criteria for genetic equilibrium. (GLOs: D1, E3)

Discuss how genetic variation in a gene pool can be altered. (GLOs: D1, E1, E3)

Describe how populations can become reproductively isolated. (GLOs: D1, E2)

With the use of examples, differentiate between convergent evolution and divergent evolution (adaptive radiation). (GLOs: D1, E1)

Distinguish between the two models for the pace of evolutionary change: punctuated equilibrium and gradualism. (GLOs: D1, E3)

Define the concept of biodiversity in terms of ecosystem, species, and genetic diversity. (GLOs: D2, E1)

Explain why it is difficult to determine a definition of species. (GLOs: A1, E1)

Describe the dynamic nature of classification. (GLOs: A1, A2)

Describe types of evidence used to classify organisms and determine evolutionary relationships. (GLOs: A2, A5)

Compare the characteristics of the domains of life. (GLOs: D1, E1)

Compare the characteristics of the kingdoms in the Eukarya domain. (GLOs: D1, E1)

Investigate an evolutionary trend in a group of organisms. (GLOs: C2, C5, C6, E1)

Discuss a variety of reasons for maintaining biodiversity. (GLOs: B2, B5, D2)

Describe strategies used to conserve biodiversity. (GLOs: B2, B5, D2)

Select and use appropriate tools or procedures to determine and monitor biodiversity in an area. (GLOs: C1, D2, C7)

Investigate an issue related to the conservation of biodiversity. (GLOs: C4, C6, C8, D2, E2)

Demonstrate confidence in their ability to carry out investigations in chemistry and to address STSE-related issues.

Value skepticism, honesty, accuracy, precision, perseverance, and open-mindedness as scientific and technological habits of mind.

Demonstrate a continuing, increasingly informed interest in chemistry and chemistry-related careers and issues.

Be sensitive and responsible in maintaining a balance between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment.

Elicit, clarify, and respond to questions, ideas, and diverse points of view in discussions.

Explain the roles of theory, evidence, and models in the development of scientific knowledge.

Describe, from a historical perspective, how the observations and experimental work of many individuals led to modern understandings of matter.

Describe how scientific knowledge changes as new evidence emerges and/or new ideas and interpretations are advanced.

Demonstrate work habits that ensure personal safety and the safety of others, as well as consideration for the environment.

Select and use scientific equipment appropriately and safely.

Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer and explain relationships.

Draw a conclusion based on the analysis and interpretation of data.

Describe examples of the relationship between chemical principles and applications of chemistry.

Explain how scientific research and technology interact in the production and distribution of beneficial materials.

Provide examples of how chemical principles are applied in products and processes, in scientific studies, and in daily life.

Use appropriate strategies and skills to develop an understanding of chemical concepts.

Explain examples of solubility and precipitation at the particulate and symbolic levels.

Perform a laboratory activity to develop a set of solubility rules.

Use a table of solubility rules to predict the formation of a precipitate.

Write balanced neutralization reactions involving strong acids and bases.

Perform a laboratory activity to demonstrate the stoichiometry of a neutralization reaction between a strong base and a strong acid.

Calculate the concentration or volume of an acid or a base from the concentration and volume of an acid or a base required for neutralization.

Design and test a procedure to determine the identity of a variety of unknown solutions.

Outline the development of scientific understanding of oxidation and reduction reactions.

Determine the oxidation numbers for atoms in compounds and ions.

Describe qualitatively the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of frequency, wavelength, and energy.

Recognize, through direct observation, that elements have unique line spectra.

Describe applications and/or natural occurrences of line spectra.

Outline the historical development of the quantum mechanical model of the atom.

Write electron configurations for elements of the periodic table.

Relate the electron configuration of an element to its valence electron(s) and its position on the periodic table.

Identify and account for periodic trends among the properties of elements, and relate the properties to electron configuration.

Identify variables used to monitor reaction rates (i.e., change per unit of time, Dx/Dt).

Perform a laboratory activity to measure the average and instantaneous rates of a chemical reaction.

Relate the rate of formation of a product to the rate of disappearance of a reactant, given experimental rate data and reaction stoichiometry.

Perform a laboratory activity to identify factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

Use the collision theory to explain the factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions.

Draw potential energy diagrams for endothermic and exothermic reactions.

Describe qualitatively the relationship between factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions and the relative rate of a reaction, using the collision theory.

Relate the concept of equilibrium to physical and chemical systems.

Write equilibrium law expressions from balanced chemical equations for heterogeneous and homogeneous systems.

Use the value of the equilibrium constant (K_eq) to explain how far a system at equilibrium has gone towards completion.

Perform a laboratory activity to determine the equilibrium constant of an equilibrium system.

Use Le Chtelier's principle to predict and explain shifts in equilibrium.

Perform a laboratory activity to demonstrate Le Chtelier's principle.

Write solubility product (K_sp) expressions from balanced chemical equations for salts with low solubility.

Describe examples of the practical applications of salts with low solubility.

Perform a laboratory activity to determine the Ksp of a salt with low solubility.

Describe the relationship between the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in water.

Perform a laboratory activity to formulate an operational definition of pH.

Describe how an acid-base indicator works in terms of colour shifts and Le Chtelier's principle.

Write the equilibrium expression (K_a or K_b) from a balanced chemical equation.

Use K_a or K_b to solve problems for pH, percent dissociation, and concentration.

Perform a laboratory activity to determine the concentration of an unknown acid or base, using a standardized acid or base.

Predict whether an aqueous solution of a given ionic compound will be acidic, basic, or neutral, given the formula.

Outline the historical development of voltaic (galvanic) cells.

Explain the operation of a voltaic (galvanic) cell at the visual, particulate, and symbolic levels.

Construct a functioning voltaic (galvanic) cell and measure its potential.

Calculate standard cell potentials, given standard electrode potentials.

Predict the spontaneity of reactions using standard electrode potentials.

Compare and contrast voltaic (galvanic) and electrolytic cells.

Explain the operation of an electrolytic cell at the visual, particulate, and symbolic levels.

Solve problems related to electrolytic cells, using Faraday's law.

Recognize both the power and limitations of science as a way of answering questions about the world and explaining natural phenomena

Recognize that scientific knowledge is based on evidence, models and explanations, and evolves as new evidence appears and new conceptualizations develop

Distinguish critically between science and technology in terms of their respective contexts, goals, methods, products, and values

Identify and appreciate contributions made by women and men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about technological innovations

Recognize that science and technology interact with and advance one another

Describe scientific and technological developments, past and present, and appreciate their impact on individuals, societies and the environment, both locally and globally.

Recognize that scientific and technological endeavors have been and continue to be influenced by human needs and the societal context of the time

Identify the factors that affect health and explain the relationships among personal habits, lifestyle choices, and human health, both individual and social

Demonstrate a knowledge of, and personal consideration for, a range of possible science- and technology-related interests, hobbies, and careers

Identify and demonstrate actions that promote a sustainable environment, society and economy, both locally and globally

Recognize safety symbols and practices related to scientific and technological activities and to their daily lives, and apply this knowledge in appropriate situations

Demonstrate appropriate scientific inquiry skills when seeking answers to questions

Demonstrate appropriate problem-solving skills while seeking solutions to technological challenges

Demonstrate appropriate critical thinking and decision-making skills when choosing a course of action based on scientific and technological information

Demonstrate curiosity, scepticism, creativity, open-mindedness, accuracy, precision, honesty, and persistence, and appreciate their importance as scientific and technological habits of mind

Employ effective communication skills and utilize information technology to gather and share scientific and technological ideas and data

Work cooperatively and value the ideas and contributions of others while carrying out scientific and technological activities

Evaluate, from a scientific perspective, information and ideas encountered during investigations and in daily life

Understand essential life structures and processes pertaining to a wide variety of organisms, including humans

Understand various biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems, as well as their interaction and interdependence within ecosystems and within the biosphere as a whole

Understand the properties and structures of matter as well as various common manifestations and applications of the actions and interactions of matter

Understand how stability, motion, forces, and energy transfers and transformations play a role in a wide range of natural and constructed contexts

Understand the composition of the Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, as well as the processes involved within and between them

Understand the composition of the universe, the interactions within it, and the impacts of humankind's continued attempts to understand and explore it

Describe and appreciate the similarity and diversity of forms, functions, and patterns within the natural and constructed world

Describe and appreciate how the natural and constructed world is made up of systems and how interactions take place within and among these systems

Recognize that characteristics of materials and systems can remain constant or change over time, and describe the conditions and processes involved

Recognize that energy, whether transmitted or transformed, is the driving force of both movement and change, and is inherent within materials and in the interactions among them

Nature of Science and Technology - Differentiate between science and technology, recognizing their strengths and limitations in furthering our understanding of the world, and appreciate the relationship between culture and technology.

Science, Technology, Society, and the Environment - Explore problems and issues that demonstrate interdependence among science, technology, society, and the environment.

Scientific and Technological Skills and Attitudes - Demonstrate appropriate inquiry, problem-solving, and decision-making skills and attitudes for exploring scientific and/or technological issues and problems.

Essential Concepts - Explore, understand, and use scientific knowledge in a variety of contexts.

Describe, demonstrate, and diagram the characteristics of transverse and longitudinal waves.

Compare and contrast the frequency and period of a periodic wave.

Describe, demonstrate, and diagram the transmission and reflection of waves travelling in one dimension.

Use the principle of superposition to illustrate graphically the result of combining two waves.

Investigate the historical development of a significant application of communications technology that uses waves.

Describe, demonstrate, and diagram the reflection of plane (straight) and circular waves.

Describe, demonstrate, and diagram the refraction of plane (straight) waves.

Derive Snell's Law using the relationships between wavelength, velocity, and the angles of incidence and refraction.

Describe, demonstrate, and diagram diffraction of water waves.

Describe, demonstrate, and diagram how constructive and destructive interference produce an interference pattern from two point sources.

Derive the path difference relationship for the interference pattern from two point sources.

Investigate to analyze and explain how sounds are produced, transmitted, and detected, using examples from nature and technology.

Use the decision-making process to analyze an issue related to noise in the environment.

Design, construct (or assemble), test, and demonstrate a technological device to produce, transmit, and/or control sound waves for a useful purpose.

Describe and explain in qualitative terms what happens when sound waves interact (interfere) with one another.

Experiment to analyze the principle of resonance and identify the conditions required for resonance to occur.

Compare the speed of sound in different media, and explain how the type of media and temperature affect the speed of sound.

Explain the Doppler effect, and predict in qualitative terms the frequency change that will occur for a stationary and a moving observer.

Define the decibel scale qualitatively, and give examples of sounds at various levels.

Describe the diverse applications of sound waves in medical devices, and evaluate the contribution to our health and safety of sound-wave-based technologies.

Explain in qualitative terms how frequency, amplitude, and wave shape affect the pitch, intensity, and quality of tones produced by musical instruments.

Examine the octave in a diatonic scale in terms of frequency relationships and major triads.

Use a mystery container activity to outline the relationships among observations, inferences, models, and laws.

Plan and perform an experiment to identify a linear pattern between two variables and state the pattern as a mathematical relationship (law).

Outline several historical models used to explain the nature of light.

Summarize the early evidence for Newton's particle model of light.

Experiment to show the particle model of light predicts that the velocity of light in a refractive medium is greater than the velocity of light in an incident medium.

Outline the historical contribution of Galileo, Roemer, Huygens, Fizeau, Foucault, and Michelson to the development of the measurement of the speed of light.

Describe phenomena that are discrepant to the particle model of light.

Compare the velocity of light in a refractive medium predicted by the wave model with that predicted in the particle model.

Outline the geometry of a two-point-source interference pattern, using the wave model.

Perform Young's experiment for double-slit diffraction of light to calculate the wavelength of light.

Discuss Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect qualitatively.

Evaluate the particle and wave models of light and outline the currently accepted view.

Differentiate between, and give examples of, scalar and vector quantities.

Differentiate between the terms 'an instant' and 'an interval' of time.

Analyze the relationships among position, velocity, acceleration, and time for an object that is accelerating at a constant rate.

Compare and contrast average and instantaneous velocity for non-uniform motion.

Illustrate, using velocity-time graphs of uniformly accelerated motion, that average velocity can be represented as V=d/t and that displacement can be calculated as d=(V1+V2/2)t.

Solve problems, using combined forms of: V=V1+V2/2, V=d/t, a=V/t.

Define the net force as the vector sum of all forces acting on a body.

Construct free-body diagrams to determine the net force for objects in various situations.

Solve problems, using Newton's Second Law and the kinematics equations from S3P-3-07.

Define the gravitational field qualitatively as the region of space around a mass where another point mass experiences a force.

Diagram the Earth's gravitational field, using lines of force.

Define the gravitational field quantitatively as a force per unit mass.

Describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, apparent weight changes in vertically accelerating systems.

Derive the acceleration due to gravity from free fall and Newton's laws.

Perform an experiment to calculate g near the surface of the Earth.

Describe terminal velocity, qualitatively and quantitatively.

Compare the effects of the normal force, materials involved, surface area, and speed on the force of friction.

Define the electric field qualitatively as the region of space around a charge where a positive test charge experiences a force.

Diagram electric fields using lines of force with respect to a positive test charge.

Define the electric field quantitatively as a force per unit charge (E = F/q) and solve problems using the unit field concept (F = qE).

Solve problems for the motion of charges between parallel plates where net force = force of electric field + force of gravity.

Describe a simplified version of Millikan's experiment for the determination of the elementary charge. Solve for charge when electric field force = gravitational force.

Define the elementary charge and convert between elementary charges and coulombs.

Define the magnetic field as the region of space around a magnet where another magnet will experience a force.

Demonstrate and diagram magnetic fields, using lines of force.

Describe the concept of magnetic poles and demonstrate that like poles repel and unlike poles attract.

Investigate the influence and effects of the magnetic field of the Earth.

Describe and demonstrate the phenomenon of electromagnetism.

Diagram and describe qualitatively the magnetic field around a current-carrying wire.

Diagram and describe qualitatively the magnetic field of a solenoid.

Perform a lab to demonstrate that magnetic field (B) is proportional to the current (I) applied for an electromagnetic field.

Describe the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field.

Define the magnetic field quantitatively as a force per unit current element (i.e., B = force of magnetic field/current element).

Solve problems, using force of magnetic field = B x current element.

Derive the impulse-momentum equation from Newton's second law.

Experiment to illustrate the Law of Conservation of Momentum in one and two dimensions.

Solve problems using the impulse-momentum equation and Law of Conservation of Momentum.

Relate the impulse-momentum equation to real-life situations.

Solve simple free-fall problems using the special equations for constant acceleration.

Draw free-body diagrams for a projectile at various points along its path (with and without air resistance).

Calculate the horizontal and vertical components with respect to velocity and position of a projectile at various points along its path.

Solve problems for projectiles launched horizontally and at various angles to the horizontal to calculate maximum height, range, and overall time of flight of the projectile.

Explain qualitatively why an object moving at constant speed in a circle is accelerating toward the centre of the circle.

Solve problems for objects moving in a straight line with a constant acceleration.

Discuss the centrifugal effects with respect to Newton's laws.

Draw free-body diagrams of an object moving in uniform circular motion.

Experiment to determine the mathematical relationship between period and frequency and one or more of the following: centripetal force, mass, and radius.

Derive an equation for the constant speed and acceleration of an object moving in a circle (e.g., a = vv/R or v = 2(3.14)r/T).

Solve problems for an object moving with a constant speed in a circle using a = vv/R, v = 2(3.14)r/T, F = ma.

Define work as the product of displacement and the component of force parallel to the displacement when the force is constant.

Determine work from the area under the force-position graph for any force.

Give examples of various forms of energy and describe qualitatively the means by which they can perform work.

Derive the equation for kinetic energy using W = Fd (cosine theta) and kinematics equations.

Solve relative motion problems for constant velocities using vectors.

Derive the equation for gravitational potential energy near the surface of the Earth (E = mgh).

Derive an equation for the potential energy of a spring, using Hooke's Law and a force-displacement graph.

Calculate the forces acting on an object resting on an inclined plane.

Calculate the components of gravitational force exerted on an object resting on an inclined plane.

Solve problems with frictional force for objects on a horizontal surface and on an inclined plane.

Solve problems using F = ma where net force = applied force + frictional force and using kinematics equations from above.

Perform an experiment to investigate forces acting on an object.

Describe conditions under which microgravity can be produced.

Outline the factors involved in the re-entry of an object into Earth's atmosphere.

Describe qualitatively some of the technological challenges to exploring deep space.

Compare and contrast the inverse square nature of gravitational and electric fields.

State Coulomb's Law and solve problems for more than one electric force acting on a charge.

Illustrate, using diagrams, how the charge distribution on two oppositely charged parallel plates results in a uniform field.

Derive an equation for the electric potential energy between two oppositely charged parallel plates.

Describe electric potential as the electric potential energy per unit charge.

Define electric potential difference (voltage) and express the electric field between two oppositely charged parallel plates in terms of voltage and the separation between the plates.

Solve problems for charges moving between or through parallel plates.

Use hand rules to describe the directional relationships between electric and magnetic fields and moving charges.

Describe qualitatively various technologies that use electric and magnetic fields.

Outline Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and solve problems using F = Gmm/rr.

State the gravitational potential energy as the area under the force-separation curve and solve problems using E = -Gmm/r.

Compare the Law of Universal Gravitation with the weight (mg) of an object at various distances from the surface of the Earth and describe the gravitational field as g = Gm/rr.

Outline Newton's thought experiment regarding how an artificial satellite can be made to orbit the earth.

Use the Law of Universal Gravitation and circular motion to calculate the characteristics of the motion of a satellite.

Define microgravity as an environment in which the apparent weight of a system is smaller than its actual weight.

Describe the origin of conventional current and relate its direction to the electron flow in a conductor.

Solve problems using the transformer ratio of (primary V/secondary V) = (primary turns/secondary turns).

Describe the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity in Manitoba.

Investigate the relationships among resistance and resistivity, length, cross-section, and temperature.

Demonstrate the ability to construct circuits from schematic diagrams for series, parallel, and combined networks.

Calculate the total resistance for resistors in series and resistors in parallel.

Calculate the resistance, current, voltage, and power for series, parallel, and combined networks.

Calculate the magnitude of the induced voltage in coils using V = turns of wire x magnetic flux/t.

Define radioactivity as a nuclear change that releases energy.

Perform decay calculations using integer numbers of half life.

Describe the following types of radiation: alpha, beta, and electromagnetic radiation.

Compare and contrast sources and characteristics of ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation.

Describe the effects of non-ionizing and ionizing radiation on the human body.

Research, identify, and examine the application of radiation to diagnostic imaging and treatment techniques.

Distinguish critically between science and technology in terms of their respective contexts, goals, methods, products, and values.

Recognize both the power and limitations of science as a way of answering questions about the world and explaining natural phenomena.

Identify and appreciate the manner in which history and culture shape a society's philosophy of science and its creation or use of technology.

Recognize that science and technology interact and evolve, often advancing one another.

Describe and explain disciplinary and interdisciplinary processes used to enable us to investigate and understand natural phenomena and develop technological solutions.

Describe scientific and technological developments, past and present, and appreciate their impact on individuals, societies, and the environment, both locally and globally.

Recognize that scientific and technological endeavours have been, and continue to be, influenced by human needs and by societal and historical contexts.

Identify the factors that affect health and explain the relationships of personal habits, lifestyle choices, and human health, both individual and social.

Demonstrate a knowledge of, and personal consideration for, a range of possible science- and technology-related interests, hobbies, and careers.

Identify and demonstrate actions that promote a sustainable environment, society, and economy, both locally and globally

Demonstrate appropriate scientific inquiry skills, attitudes, and practices when seeking answers to questions.

Demonstrate appropriate technological problem-solving skills and attitudes when seeking solutions to challenges and problems related to human needs.

Demonstrate appropriate critical thinking and decision-making skills and attitudes when choosing a course of action based on scientific and technological information.

Employ effective communication skills and use a variety of resources to gather and share scientific and technological ideas and data.

Work cooperatively with others and value their ideas and contributions.

Use the concepts of similarity and diversity for organizing our experiences with the world.

Recognize that the universe comprises systems and that complex interactions occur within and among these systems at many scales and intervals of time.

Understand the processes and conditions in which change, constancy, and equilibrium occur.

Understand how energy is the driving force in the interaction of materials, processes of life, and the functioning of systems.

Analyze objects, shapes, and processes to solve cost and design problems. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve compound interest in financial decision making. [C, CN, PS, T, V]

Analyze costs and benefits of renting, leasing, and buying. [CN, PS, R, T]

Analyze an investment portfolio in terms of interest rate; rate of return; total return [ME, PS, R, T]

Solve problems that involve the application of set theory. [CN, PS, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve conditional statements. [C, CN, PS, R, T]

Interpret and assess the validity of odds and probability statements. [C, CN, ME, T]

Solve problems that involve the probability of mutually exclusive and non-mutually exclusive events. [CN, PS, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve the probability of independent and dependent events. [CN, PS, R, T]

Solve problems that involve the fundamental counting principle. [PS, R, T, V]

Represent data, using polynomial functions (of degree less than or equal to 3), to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, T, V]

Represent data, using exponential and logarithmic functions, to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, T, V]

Represent data, using sinusoidal functions, to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, T, V]

Research and give a presentation on a current event or an area of interest that involves mathematics. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, T, V]

Create a plan for the future, including possible career choices and their requirements. [C, CN, PS, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of the limitations of measuring instruments, including precision; accuracy; uncertainty; tolerance [C, PS, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve measures of central tendency, including mean; median; mode; weighted mean; trimmed mean [C, CN, PS, R]

Solve problems that involve the acquisition, operation, and maintenance of a vehicle, when buying; leasing; leasing to buy [C, CN, PS, R, T]

Critique the viability of small business options by considering expenses; sales; profit or loss [C, CN, R]

Demonstrate an awareness of the government taxation forms and procedures involved in owning a business. [C, CN]

Solve problems that involve triangles; quadrilaterals; regular polygons [C, CN, PS, V]

Analyze and interpret problems that involve probability. [C, CN, PS, R]

Apply the fundamental counting principle to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, R, V]

Determine the number of permutations of n elements taken r at a time to solve problems. [C, PS, R, V]

Expand powers of a binomial in a variety of ways, including using the binomial theorem (restricted to exponents that are natural numbers). [C, CN, R, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of operations on, and compositions of, functions. [CN, R, T, V]

Solve problems that involve exponential and logarithmic equations. [C, CN, PS, R]

Demonstrate an understanding of factoring polynomials of degree greater than 2 (limited to polynomials of degree less than or equal to 5 with integral coefficients). [C, CN, ME]

Graph and analyze polynomial functions (limited to polynomial functions of degree less than or equal to 5). [C, CN, PS, T, V]

Graph and analyze radical functions (limited to functions involving one radical). [C, CN, R, T, V]

Graph and analyze rational functions (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials, binomials, or trinomials). [C, CN, R, T, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of horizontal and vertical translations on the graphs of functions and their related equations. [C, CN, R, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of horizontal and vertical compressions and stretches on the graphs of functions and their related equations. [C, CN, R, V]

Apply translations, compressions, and stretches to the graphs and equations of functions. [C, CN, R, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of reflections on the graphs of functions and their related equations, including reflections through the x-axis; y-axis; line y = x [C, CN, R, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of inverses of relations. [C, CN, R, V]

Demonstrate an understanding of the product, quotient, and power laws of logarithms. [C, CN, R, T]

Graph and analyze exponential and logarithmic functions. [C, CN, T, V]

Solve problems, using the six trigonometric ratios for angles expressed in radians and degrees. [C, ME, PS, R, T, V]

Graph and analyze the trigonometric functions sine, cosine, and tangent to solve problems. [C, CN, PS, T, V]

Solve, algebraically and graphically, first- and second-degree trigonometric equations with the domain expressed in degrees and radians. [C, CN, PS, R, T, V]

Prove trigonometric identities, using reciprocal identities; quotient identities; Pythagorean identities; sum or difference identities (restricted to sine, cosine, and tangent); double-angle identities (restricted to sine, cosine, and tangent) [C, R, T, V]

Distinguish between fact and theory and between main and supporting information to evaluate usefulness, relevance, and completeness; address information gaps for particular forms, audiences, and purposes

Format for legibility and use word processing effectively and efficiently when composing and revising; use electronic design elements to combine print and visuals

Recognize that science and technology interact with and advance one another

Demonstrate appropriate scientific inquiry skills when seeking answers to questions

Demonstrate appropriate problem-solving skills while seeking solutions to technological challenges

Give examples of human rights as defined in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Describe contributions of Canadians whose social and political actions have promoted human rights.

Give examples of ways in which government affects their daily lives.

Describe the responsibilities and processes of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal government.

Describe responsibilities and processes of the justice system in Manitoba.

Identify ways in which democratic ideals have shaped contemporary Canadian society.

Assess the advantages and disadvantages of democratic processes in Canada.

Describe their responsibilities and rights as Aboriginal citizens in Canada and the world.

Describe their responsibilities and rights as francophone citizens of Canada and the world.

Describe characteristics of Canada as an industrialized nation.

Give examples of the cultural, political, and economic impact of globalization on Canada.

Identify poverty issues in Canada and propose ideas for a more equitable society.

Evaluate Canadian perspectives regarding current global issues.

Give examples of Canada's participation within international organizations.

Evaluate Canada's contributions to international aid and development.

Assess the implications of Canada's military role in contemporary conflicts.

Give examples of contributions of various Canadians to the global community.

Describe Canada's responsibilities and potential for leadership regarding current global issues.

Describe factors affecting demographic patterns in Canada since the beginning of the 20th century.

Describe ways in which the status of women in Canada has changed since the early 20th century.

Give examples of social and technological changes that continue to influence quality of life in Canada.

Describe factors that shape personal, regional, and national identities.

Give examples of ways in which First Nations, Inuit, and Metis peoples are rediscovering their cultures.

Evaluate effects of assimilative policies on cultural and linguistic groups in Canada.

Evaluate effects of residential schools on their own and other Aboriginal communities.

Evaluate effects of language and education laws on their francophone community.

Describe effects of stereotyping and discrimination on individuals, communities, and regions.

Evaluate the influence of mass media and pop culture on individuals, groups, and communities.

Evaluate the influence of mass media and pop culture on Aboriginal identities and cultures.

Evaluate the influence of mass media and pop culture on francophone identities and cultures.

Describe ways in which identity, diversity, and culture are protected in Canada.

Analyze current issues surrounding Canadian culture and identity.

Identify possible ways of addressing social injustices in Canada.

Identify on a map distinguishing elements of the physical and human geography of Canada.

Identify on a world map countries in which events of global significance are taking place.

Analyze current Canadian demographics and predict future trends.

Give examples of opportunities and challenges related to First Nations treaties and Aboriginal rights.

Evaluate Canadian concerns and commitments regarding environmental stewardship and sustainability.

Describe the division of power and responsibilities of federal, First Nations, provincial, and municipal governments.

Describe factors related to Aboriginal self-determination in Canada.

Identify opportunities and challenges regarding Canadian-American relationships.

Collaborate with others to achieve group goals and responsibilities.

Make decisions that reflect fairness and equality in their interactions with others.

Promote actions that reflect the principles of sustainable development.

Recognize and take a stand against discriminatory practices and behaviours.

Select information from a variety of oral, visual, material, print, or electronic sources, including primary and secondary.

Organize and record information in a variety of formats and reference sources appropriately.

Select and use appropriate tools and technologies to accomplish tasks.

Construct maps using a variety of information sources and technologies.

Analyze the context of events, accounts, ideas, and interpretations.

Draw conclusions and make decisions based on research and various types of evidence.

Reconsider personal assumptions based on new information and ideas.

Compare diverse perspectives and interpretations in the media and other information sources.

Analyze prejudice, racism, stereotyping, and other forms of bias in the media and in other information sources.

Evaluate information from a variety of sources to determine reliability, validity, authenticity, and perspective. Include: student-gathered data.

Present information and ideas in a variety of formats appropriate for audience and purpose.

Elicit, clarify, and respond to questions, ideas, and diverse points of view in discussions.

Propose questions that could be tested experimentally. (GLO: C2)

Select and justify various methods for finding answers to specific questions. (GLO: C2)

Identify stakeholders and initiate research related to an STSE issue. (GLO: C4)

Select and integrate information obtained from a variety of sources. (GLO: C2, C4, C6)

Evaluate the reliability, bias, and usefulness of information. (GLO: C2, C4, C5, C8)

Summarize and record information in a variety of forms. (GLO: C2, C4, C6)

Review effects of past decisions and various perspectives related to an STSE issue. (GLO: B1, C4)

State a testable hypothesis or prediction based on background data or on observed events. (GLO: C2)

Identify probable mathematical relationships between variables. (GLO: C2)

Plan an investigation to answer a specific scientific question. (GLO: C1, C2)

Summarize relevant data and consolidate existing arguments and positions related to an STSE issue. (GLO: C4)

Determine criteria for the evaluation of an STSE decision. (GLO: B5, C1, C3, C4)

Formulate and develop options which could lead to an STSE decision. (GLO: C4)

Demonstrate work habits that ensure personal safety, the safety of others, as well as consideration for the environment. (GLO: B3, B5, C1, C2)

Use various methods for anticipating the impacts of different options. (GLO: C4, C5, C6, C7)

Work cooperatively with group members to carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise. (GLO: C2, C4, C7)

Assume the responsibilities of various roles within a group and evaluate which roles are most appropriate for given tasks. (GLO: C2, C4, C7)

Select and use appropriate methods and tools for collecting data or information. (GLO: C2)

Estimate and measure accurately using Systeme International (SI) and other standard units. (GLO: C2)

Record, organize, and display data using an appropriate format. (GLO: C2, C5)

Evaluate, using pre-determined criteria, different STSE options leading to a possible decision. (GLO: B5, C1, C3, C4)

Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer and explain relationships. (GLO: C2, C5)

Identify and suggest explanations for discrepancies in data. (GLO: C2)

Evaluate the original plan for an investigation and suggest improvements. (GLO: C2, C5)

Draw a conclusion that explains the results of an investigation. (GLO: C2, C5, C8)

Select the best option and determine a course of action to implement an STSE decision. (GLO: B5, C4)

Implement an STSE decision and evaluate its effects. (GLO: B5, C4, C5, C8)

Reflect on the process used to arrive at or to implement an STSE decision, and suggest improvements. (GLO: C4, C5)

Reflect on prior knowledge and experiences to develop new understanding. (GLO: C2, C3, C4)

Explain the importance of using precise language in science and technology. (GLO: A2, A3, C2, C3)

Describe examples of how scientific knowledge has evolved in light of new evidence, and the role of technology in this evolution. (GLO: A2, A5)

Describe examples of how technologies have evolved in response to changing needs and scientific advances. (GLO: A5)

Discuss how peoples of various cultures have contributed to the development of science and technology. (GLO: A4, A5)

Relate personal activities and possible career choices to specific science disciplines. (GLO: B4)

Discuss social and environmental effects of past scientific and technological endeavours. (GLO: B1)

Appreciate and respect that science and technology have evolved from different views held by women and men from a variety of societies and cultural backgrounds. (GLO: A4)

Express interest in a broad scope of science- and technology-related fields and issues. (GLO: B4)

Demonstrate confidence in their ability to carry out investigations in science and to address STSE issues. (GLO: C2, C4, C5)

Value skepticism, honesty, accuracy, precision, perseverance, and open-mindedness as scientific and technological habits of mind. (GLO: C2, C3, C4, C5)

Be sensitive and responsible in maintaining a balance between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment. (GLO: B5, C4)

Demonstrate personal involvement and be proactive with respect to STSE issues. (GLO: B5, C4)

Illustrate and explain the process of mitotic cell division in plants and animals. (GLO: D1, E1, E2)

Observe and explain the dynamic nature of cell division. (GLO: C2, D1, E3)

Describe various types of asexual reproduction that occur in plant and animal species. (GLO: D1, E1)

Investigate and describe agricultural applications of asexual reproduction. (GLO: A5, B1, B2, D1)

Illustrate and explain the production of male and female gametes by meiosis. (GLO: D1, E1, E2)

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