Ontario Curriculum — Grade 11


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11-MBF3C.A.1.

Connecting Graphs and Equations of Quadratic Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MBF3C.A.1.1.

Construct tables of values and graph quadratic relations arising from real-world applications (e.g., dropping a ball from a given height; varying the edge length of a cube and observing the effect on the surface area of the cube)

11-MBF3C.A.1.2.

Determine and interpret meaningful values of the variables, given a graph of a quadratic relation arising from a real-world application

11-MBF3C.A.1.3.

Determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of a, h, and k in quadratic relations of the form y = a(x - h) ^2 + k, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graph of y = x ^ 2 (i.e., translations; reflections in the x-axis; vertical stretches and compressions to and from the x-axis)

11-MBF3C.A.1.4.

Sketch graphs of quadratic relations represented by the equation y = a(x - h) ^2 + k (e.g., using the vertex and at least one point on each side of the vertex; applying one or more transformations to the graph of y = x ^ 2)

11-MBF3C.A.1.5.

Expand and simplify quadratic expressions in one variable involving multiplying binomials [e.g., (1/2 x + 1)(3x - 2)] or squaring a binomial [e.g., 5(3x - 1) ^ 2], using a variety of tools (e.g., paper and pencil, algebra tiles, computer algebra systems)

11-MBF3C.A.1.6.

Express the equation of a quadratic relation in the standard form y = ax ^ 2 + bx + c, given the vertex form y = a(x - h) ^2 + k, and verify, using graphing technology, that these forms are equivalent representations

11-MBF3C.A.1.7.

Factor trinomials of the form ax ^ 2+ bx + c, where a = 1 or where a is the common factor, by various methods

11-MBF3C.A.1.8.

Determine, through investigation, and describe the connection between the factors of a quadratic expression and the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding quadratic relation

11-MBF3C.A.1.9.

Solve problems, using an appropriate strategy (i.e., factoring, graphing), given equations of quadratic relations, including those that arise from real-world applications (e.g., break-even point)

11-MBF3C.A.2.

Connecting Graphs and Equations of Exponential Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MBF3C.A.2.1.

Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies (e.g., graphing with technology; looking for patterns in tables of values), and describe the meaning of negative exponents and of zero as an exponent

11-MBF3C.A.2.2.

Evaluate, with and without technology, numeric expressions containing integer exponents and rational bases (e.g., 2 ^-3 , 6^3 , 3456^0 , 1.03^10)

11-MBF3C.A.2.3.

Determine, through investigation (e.g., by patterning with and without a calculator), the exponent rules for multiplying and dividing numerical expressions involving exponents [e.g., ( 1/2) ^ 3 x(1/2) ^ 2], and the exponent rule for simplifying numerical expressions involving a power of a power [e.g., (5 ^3)^2]

11-MBF3C.A.2.4.

Graph simple exponential relations, using paper and pencil, given their equations [e.g., y = 2 ^x , y = 10 ^x , y =(1/2) ^x]

11-MBF3C.A.2.5.

Make and describe connections between representations of an exponential relation (i.e., numeric in a table of values; graphical; algebraic)

11-MBF3C.A.2.6.

Distinguish exponential relations from linear and quadratic relations by making comparisons in a variety of ways (e.g., comparing rates of change using finite differences in tables of values; inspecting graphs; comparing equations), within the same context when possible (e.g., simple interest and compound interest, population growth)

11-MBF3C.A.3.

Solving Problems Involving Exponential Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MBF3C.A.3.1.

Collect data that can be modelled as an exponential relation, through investigation with and without technology, from primary sources, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials such as number cubes, coins; measurement tools such as electronic probes), or from secondary sources (e.g., websites such as Statistics Canada, E-STAT), and graph the data

11-MBF3C.A.3.2.

Describe some characteristics of exponential relations arising from real-world applications (e.g., bacterial growth, drug absorption) by using tables of values (e.g., to show a constant ratio, or multiplicative growth or decay) and graphs (e.g., to show, with technology, that there is no maximum or minimum value)

11-MBF3C.A.3.3.

Pose problems involving exponential relations arising from a variety of real-world applications (e.g., population growth, radioactive decay, compound interest), and solve these and other such problems by using a given graph or a graph generated with technology from a given table of values or a given equation

11-MBF3C.A.3.4.

Solve problems using given equations of exponential relations arising from a variety of real-world applications (e.g., radio active decay, population growth, height of a bouncing ball, compound interest) by substituting values for the exponent into the equations

11-MBF3C.B.1.

Solving Problems Involving Compound Interest: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MBF3C.B.1.1.

Determine, through investigation using technology, the compound interest for a given investment, using repeated calculations of simple interest, and compare, using a table of values and graphs, the simple and compound interest earned for a given principal (i.e., investment) and a fixed interest rate over time

11-MBF3C.B.1.2.

Determine, through investigation (e.g., using spreadsheets and graphs), and describe the relationship between compound interest and exponential growth

11-MBF3C.B.1.3.

Solve problems, using a scientific calculator, that involve the calculation of the amount, A (also referred to as future value, FV), and the principal, P (also referred to as present value, PV), using the compound interest formula in the form A = P(1 + i) ^n [or FV =PV (1 + i) ^n]

11-MBF3C.B.1.4.

Calculate the total interest earned on an investment or paid on a loan by determining the difference between the amount and the principal [e.g., using I = A - P (or I = FV - PV)]

11-MBF3C.B.1.5.

Solve problems, using a TVM Solver on a graphing calculator or on a website, that involve the calculation of the interest rate per compounding period, i, or the number of compounding periods, n, in the compound interest formula A = P(1 + i) ^n [or FV = PV (1 + i) ^n]

11-MBF3C.B.1.6.

Determine, through investigation using technology (e.g., a TVM Solver on a graphing calculator or on a website), the effect on the future value of a compound interest investment or loan of changing the total length of time, the interest rate, or the compounding period

11-MBF3C.B.2.

Comparing Financial Services: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MBF3C.B.2.1.

Gather, interpret, and compare information about the various savings alternatives commonly available from financial institutions (e.g., savings and chequing accounts, term investments), the related costs (e.g., cost of cheques, monthly statement fees, early withdrawal penalties), and possible ways of reducing the costs (e.g., maintaining a minimum balance in a savings account; paying a monthly flat fee for a package of services)

11-MBF3C.B.2.3.

Gather, interpret, and compare information about the costs (e.g., user fees, annual fees, service charges, interest charges on overdue balances) and incentives (e.g., loyalty rewards; philanthropic incentives, such as support for Olympic athletes or a Red Cross disaster relief fund) associated with various credit cards and debit cards

11-MBF3C.B.2.4.

Gather, interpret, and compare information about current credit card interest rates and regulations, and determine, through investigation using technology, the effects of delayed payments on a credit card balance

11-MBF3C.B.2.5.

Solve problems involving applications of the compound interest formula to determine the cost of making a purchase on credit

11-MBF3C.B.3.

Owning and Operating a Vehicle: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MBF3C.B.3.1.

Gather and interpret information about the procedures and costs involved in insuring a vehicle (e.g., car, motorcycle, snowmobile) and the factors affecting insurance rates (e.g., gender, age, driving record, model of vehicle, use of vehicle), and compare the insurance costs for different categories of drivers and for different vehicles

11-MBF3C.B.3.2.

Gather, interpret, and compare information about the procedures and costs (e.g., monthly payments, insurance, depreciation, maintenance, miscellaneous expenses) involved in buying or leasing a new vehicle or buying a used vehicle

11-MBF3C.B.3.3.

Solve problems, using technology (e.g., calculator, spreadsheet), that involve the fixed costs (e.g., licence fee, insurance) and variable costs (e.g., maintenance, fuel) of owning and operating a vehicle

11-MBF3C.C.1.

Representing Two-Dimensional Shapes and Three-Dimensional Figures: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MBF3C.C.1.1.

Recognize and describe real-world applications of geometric shapes and figures, through investigation (e.g., by importing digital photos into dynamic geometry software), in a variety of contexts (e.g., product design, architecture, fashion), and explain these applications (e.g., one reason that sewer covers are round is to prevent them from falling into the sewer during removal and replacement)

11-MBF3C.C.1.2.

Represent three-dimensional objects, using concrete materials and design or drawing software, in a variety of ways (e.g., orthographic projections [i.e., front, side, and top views], perspective isometric drawings, scale models)

11-MBF3C.C.2.

Applying the Sine Law and the Cosine Law in Acute Triangles: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MBF3C.C.2.1.

Solve problems, including those that arise from real-world applications (e.g., surveying, navigation), by determining the measures of the sides and angles of right triangles using the primary trigonometric ratios

11-MBF3C.D.1.

Working With One-Variable Data: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MBF3C.D.1.1.

Identify situations involving one-variable data (i.e., data about the frequency of a given occurrence), and design questionnaires (e.g., for a store to determine which CDs to stock, for a radio station to choose which music to play) or experiments (e.g., counting, taking measurements) for gathering one-variable data, giving consideration to ethics, privacy, the need for honest responses, and possible sources of bias

11-MBF3C.D.1.2.

Collect one-variable data from secondary sources (e.g., Internet databases), and organize and store the data using a variety of tools (e.g., spreadsheets, dynamic statistical software)

11-MBF3C.D.1.3.

Explain the distinction between the terms population and sample, describe the characteristics of a good sample, and explain why sampling is necessary (e.g., time, cost, or physical constraints)

11-MBF3C.D.1.4.

Describe and compare sampling techniques (e.g., random, stratified, clustered, convenience, voluntary); collect one-variable data from primary sources, using appropriate sampling techniques in a variety of real-world situations; and organize and store the data

11-MBF3C.D.1.5.

Identify different types of one-variable data (i.e., categorical, discrete, continuous), and represent the data, with and without technology, in appropriate graphical forms (e.g., histograms, bar graphs, circle graphs, pictographs)

11-MBF3C.D.1.6.

Identify and describe properties associated with common distributions of data (e.g., normal, bimodal, skewed)

11-MBF3C.D.1.7.

Calculate, using formulas and/or technology (e.g., dynamic statistical software, spreadsheet, graphing calculator), and interpret measures of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, mode) and measures of spread (i.e., range, standard deviation)

11-MBF3C.D.1.8.

Explain the appropriate use of measures of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, mode) and measures of spread (i.e., range, standard deviation)

11-MBF3C.D.1.9.

Compare two or more sets of one-variable data, using measures of central tendency and measures of spread solve problems by interpreting and analyzing one-variable data collected from secondary sources

11-MBF3C.D.2.

Determine and represent probability, and identify and interpret its applications.

11-MBF3C.D.2.1.

Identify examples of the use of probability in the media and various ways in which probability is represented (e.g., as a fraction, as a percent, as a decimal in the range 0 to 1)

11-MBF3C.D.2.2.

Determine the theoretical probability of an event (i.e., the ratio of the number of favourable outcomes to the total number of possible outcomes, where all outcomes are equally likely), and represent the probability in a variety of ways (e.g., as a fraction, as a percent, as a decimal in the range 0 to 1)

11-MBF3C.D.2.3.

Perform a probability experiment (e.g., tossing a coin several times), represent the results using a frequency distribution, and use the distribution to determine the experimental probability of an event

11-MBF3C.D.2.4.

Compare, through investigation, the theoretical probability of an event with the experimental probability, and explain why they might differ

11-MBF3C.D.2.5.

Determine, through investigation using class generated data and technology-based simulation models (e.g., using a random-number generator on a spreadsheet or on a graphing calculator), the tendency of experimental probability to approach theoretical probability as the number of trials in an experiment increases (e.g., ''If I simulate tossing a coin1000 times using technology, the experimental probability that I calculate for tossing tails is likely to be closer to the theoretical probability than if I simulate tossing the coin only 10 times'')

11-MBF3C.D.2.6.

Interpret information involving the use of probability and statistics in the media, and make connections between probability and statistics (e.g., statistics can be used to generate probabilities)

11-MCF3M.A.1.

Solving Quadratic Equations: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCF3M.A.1.1.

Pose problems involving quadratic relations arising from real-world applications and represented by tables of values and graphs, and solve these and other such problems (e.g., ''From the graph of the height of a ball versus time, can you tell me how high the ball was thrown and the time when it hit the ground?'')

11-MCF3M.A.1.2.

Represent situations (e.g., the area of a picture frame of variable width) using quadratic expressions in one variable, and expand and simplify quadratic expressions in one variable [e.g., 2x(x + 4) - (x + 3)]

11-MCF3M.A.1.3.

Factor quadratic expressions in one variable, including those for which a does not equal 1 (e.g., 3x + 13x - 10), differences of squares (e.g., 4x - 25), and perfect square trinomials (e.g., 9x + 24x + 16), by selecting and applying an appropriate strategy

11-MCF3M.A.1.4.

Solve quadratic equations by selecting and applying a factoring strategy

11-MCF3M.A.1.5.

Determine, through investigation, and describe the connection between the factors used in solving a quadratic equation and the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding quadratic relation

11-MCF3M.A.1.6.

Explore the algebraic development of the quadratic formula (e.g., given the algebraic development, connect the steps to a numeric example; follow a demonstration of the algebraic development, with technology, such as computer algebra systems, or without technology [student reproduction of the development of the general case is not required]), and apply the formula to solve quadratic equations, using technology

11-MCF3M.A.1.7.

Relate the real roots of a quadratic equation to the x-intercepts of the corresponding graph, and connect the number of real roots to the value of the discriminant (e.g., there are no real roots and no x-intercepts if b - 4ac < 0)

11-MCF3M.A.1.8.

Determine the real roots of a variety of quadratic equations (e.g., 100x = 115x + 35), and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy (i.e., graphing; factoring; using the quadratic formula)

11-MCF3M.A.2.

Connecting Graphs and Equations of Quadratic Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCF3M.A.2.1.

Explain the meaning of the term function, and distinguish a function from a relation that is not a function, through investigation of linear and quadratic relations using a variety of representations (i.e., tables of values, mapping diagrams, graphs, function machines, equations) and strategies (e.g., using the vertical line test)

11-MCF3M.A.2.2.

Substitute into and evaluate linear and quadratic functions represented using function notation [e.g., evaluate f(1/2), given f(x) = 2x + 3x - 1], including functions arising from real-world applications

11-MCF3M.A.2.3.

Explain the meanings of the terms domain and range, through investigation using numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations of linear and quadratic functions, and describe the domain and range of a function appropriately (e.g., for y = x + 1, the domain is the set of real numbers, and the range is y is greater than or equal to 1)

11-MCF3M.A.2.4.

Explain any restrictions on the domain and the range of a quadratic function in contexts arising from real-world applications

11-MCF3M.A.2.5.

Determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of a, h, and k in quadratic functions of the form f (x) = a(x - h) + k, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graph of f(x) = x (i.e., translations; reflections in the x-axis; vertical stretches and compressions to and from the x-axis)

11-MCF3M.A.2.6.

Sketch graphs of g(x) = a(x - h) + k by applying one or more transformations to the graph of f(x) = x

11-MCF3M.A.2.7.

Express the equation of a quadratic function in the standard form f (x) = ax + bx + c, given the vertex form f (x) = a(x - h) + k, and verify, using graphing technology, that these forms are equivalent representations

11-MCF3M.A.2.8.

Express the equation of a quadratic function in the vertex form f(x) = a(x - h) + k, given the standard form f(x) = ax + bx + c, by completing the square (e.g., using algebra tiles or diagrams; algebraically), including cases where is a simple rational number (e.g., , 0.75), and verify, using graphing technology, that these forms are equivalent representations

11-MCF3M.A.2.9.

Sketch graphs of quadratic functions in the factored form f(x) = a(x - r)(x - s) by using the x-intercepts to determine the vertex describe the information (e.g., maximum, intercepts) that can be obtained by inspecting the standard form f(x) = ax + bx + c, the vertex form f(x) = a(x - h) + k, and the factored form f(x) = a(x - r)(x - s) of a quadratic function sketch the graph of a quadratic function whose equation is given in the standard form f(x) = ax + bx + c by using a suitable strategy (e.g., completing the square and finding the vertex; factoring, if possible, to locate the x-intercepts), and identify the key features of the graph (e.g., the vertex, the x- and y-intercepts, the equation of the axis of symmetry, the intervals where the function is positive or negative, the intervals where the function is increasing or decreasing)

11-MCF3M.A.3.

Solving Problems Involving Quadratic Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCF3M.A.3.1.

Collect data that can be modelled as a quadratic function, through investigation with and without technology, from primary sources, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials; measurement tools such as measuring tapes, electronic probes, motion sensors), or from secondary sources (e.g., websites such as Statistics Canada, E-STAT), and graph the data

11-MCF3M.A.3.3.

Solve problems arising from real-world applications, given the algebraic representation of a quadratic function (e.g., given the equation of a quadratic function representing the height of a ball over elapsed time, answer questions that involve the maximum height of the ball, the length of time needed for the ball to touch the ground, and the time interval when the ball is higher than a given measurement)

11-MCF3M.B.1.

Connecting Graphs and Equations of Exponential Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCF3M.B.1.1.

Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., calculator, paper and pencil, graphing technology) and strategies (e.g., patterning; finding values from a graph; interpreting the exponent laws), the value of a power with a rational exponent (i.e., x^(m/n), where x > 0 and m and n are integers)

11-MCF3M.B.1.2.

Evaluate, with and without technology, numerical expressions containing integer and rational exponents and rational bases [e.g., 2 , (-6) , 4 , 1.01]

11-MCF3M.B.1.3.

Graph, with and without technology, an exponential relation, given its equation in the form y = a^x (a > 0, a does not equal 1), define this relation as the function f(x) = a^x , and explain why it is a function

11-MCF3M.B.1.4.

Determine, through investigation, and describe key properties relating to domain and range, intercepts, increasing/decreasing intervals, and asymptotes (e.g., the domain is the set of real numbers; the range is the set of positive real numbers; the function either increases or decreases throughout its domain) for exponential functions represented in a variety of ways [e.g., tables of values, mapping diagrams, graphs, equations of the form f(x) = a^x (a > 0, a does not equal 1), function machines]

11-MCF3M.B.1.5.

Determine, through investigation (e.g., by patterning with and without a calculator), the exponent rules for multiplying and dividing numeric expressions involving exponents [e.g., (1/2)^3 x (1/2)^2], and the exponent rule for simplifying numerical expressions involving a power of a power [e.g., (5)], and use the rules to simplify numerical expressions containing integer exponents [e.g., (2^3)(2^5) = 2^8]

11-MCF3M.B.1.6.

Distinguish exponential functions from linear and quadratic functions by making comparisons in a variety of ways (e.g., comparing rates of change using finite differences in tables of values; identifying a constant ratio in a table of values; inspecting graphs; comparing equations), within the same context when possible (e.g., simple interest and compound interest, population growth)

11-MCF3M.B.2.

Solving Problems Involving Exponential Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCF3M.B.2.1.

Collect data that can be modelled as an exponential function, through investigation with and without technology, from primary sources, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials such as number cubes, coins; measurement tools such as electronic probes), or from secondary sources (e.g., websites such as Statistics Canada, E-STAT), and graph the data

11-MCF3M.B.2.2.

Identify exponential functions, including those that arise from real-world applications involving growth and decay (e.g., radioactive decay, population growth, cooling rates, pressure in a leaking tire), given various representations (i.e., tables of values, graphs, equations), and explain any restrictions that the context places on the domain and range (e.g., ambient temperature limits the range for a cooling curve)

11-MCF3M.B.2.3.

Solve problems using given graphs or equations of exponential functions arising from a variety of real-world applications (e.g., radioactive decay, population growth, height of a bouncing ball, compound interest) by interpreting the graphs or by substituting values for the exponent into the equations

11-MCF3M.B.3.

Solving Financial Problems Involving Exponential Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCF3M.B.3.1.

Compare, using a table of values and graphs, the simple and compound interest earned for a given principal (i.e., investment) and a fixed interest rate over time

11-MCF3M.B.3.2.

Solve problems, using a scientific calculator, that involve the calculation of the amount, A(also referred to as future value, FV), and the principal, P (also referred to as present value, PV), using the compound interest formula in the form A = P(1 + i) [or FV = PV(1 + i)]

11-MCF3M.B.3.3.

Determine, through investigation (e.g., using spreadsheets and graphs), that compound interest is an example of exponential growth [e.g., the formulas for compound interest, A = P(1 + i) , and present value, PV = A(1 + i) , are exponential functions, where the number of compounding periods, n, varies]

11-MCF3M.B.3.4.

Solve problems, using a TVM Solver on a graphing calculator or on a website, that involve the calculation of the interest rate per compounding period, i, or the number of compounding periods, n, in the compound interest formula A = P(1 + i) [or FV = PV(1 + i)]

11-MCF3M.C.1.

Applying the Sine Law and the Cosine Law in Acute Triangles: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCF3M.C.1.1.

Solve problems, including those that arise from real-world applications (e.g., surveying, navigation), by determining the measures of the sides and angles of right triangles using the primary trigonometric ratios

11-MCF3M.C.1.2.

Solve problems involving two right triangles in two dimensions

11-MCF3M.C.2.

Connecting Graphs and Equations of Sine Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCF3M.C.2.1.

Describe key properties (e.g., cycle, amplitude, period) of periodic functions arising from real-world applications (e.g., natural gas consumption in Ontario, tides in the Bay of Fundy), given a numeric or graphical representation

11-MCF3M.C.2.2.

Predict, by extrapolating, the future behaviour of a relationship modelled using a numeric or graphical representation of a periodic function (e.g., predicting hours of daylight on a particular date from previous measurements; predicting natural gas consumption in Ontario from previous consumption)

11-MCF3M.C.2.3.

Make connections between the sine ratio and the sine function by graphing the relationship between angles from 0 degrees to 360 degrees and the corresponding sine ratios, with or without technology (e.g., by generating a table of values using a calculator; by unwrapping the unit circle), defining this relationship as the function f(x) = sinx, and explaining why the relationship is a function

11-MCF3M.C.2.4.

Sketch the graph of f(x) = sin x for angle measures expressed in degrees, and determine and describe its key properties (i.e., cycle, domain, range, intercepts, amplitude, period, maximum and minimum values, increasing/ decreasing intervals)

11-MCF3M.C.2.5.

Make connections, through investigation with technology, between changes in a real-world situation that can be modelled using a periodic function and transformations of the corresponding graph (e.g., investigate the connection between variables for a swimmer swimming lengths of a pool and transformations of the graph of distance from the starting point versus time)

11-MCF3M.C.2.6.

Determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters a, c, and d in functions in the form f(x) = a sinx, f(x) = sinx + c, and f(x) = sin(x - d), and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graph of f(x) = sinx with angles expressed in degrees (i.e., translations; reflections in the x-axis; vertical stretches and compressions to and from the x-axis)

11-MCF3M.C.2.7.

Sketch graphs of f(x) = a sinx, f(x) = sinx + c, and f(x) = sin(x - d) by applying transformations to the graph of f(x) = sinx, and state the domain and range of the transformed functions

11-MCF3M.C.3.

Solving Problems Involving Sine Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCF3M.C.3.1.

Collect data that can be modelled as a sine function (e.g., voltage in an AC circuit, sound waves), through investigation with and without technology, from primary sources, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, measurement tools such as motion sensors), or from secondary sources (e.g., websites such as Statistics Canada, E-STAT), and graph the data

11-MCF3M.C.3.2.

Identify periodic and sinusoidal functions, including those that arise from real-world applications involving periodic phenomena, given various representations (i.e., tables of values, graphs, equations), and explain any restrictions that the context places on the domain and range

11-MCF3M.C.3.3.

Pose problems based on applications involving a sine function, and solve these and other such problems by using a given graph or a graph generated with technology from a table of values or from its equation

11-MCR3U.A.1.

Representing Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.A.1.1.

Explain the meaning of the term function, and distinguish a function from a relation that is not a function, through investigation of linear and quadratic relations using a variety of representations (i.e., tables of values, mapping diagrams, graphs, function machines, equations) and strategies (e.g., identifying a one-to-one or many-to-one mapping; using the vertical line test)

11-MCR3U.A.1.2.

Represent linear and quadratic functions using function notation, given their equations, tables of values, or graphs, and substitute into and evaluate functions [e.g., evaluate f( 1/2), given f(x) = 2x ^ 2 +3x - 1]

11-MCR3U.A.1.4.

Relate the process of determining the inverse of a function to their understanding of reverse processes (e.g., applying inverse operations)

11-MCR3U.A.1.5.

Determine the numeric or graphical representation of the inverse of a linear or quadratic function, given the numeric, graphical, or algebraic representation of the function, and make connections, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., graphing technology, Mira, tracing paper), between the graph of a function and the graph of its inverse (e.g., the graph of the inverse is the reflection of the graph of the function in the line y = x)

11-MCR3U.A.1.6.

Determine, through investigation, the relationship between the domain and range of a function and the domain and range of the inverse relation, and determine whether or not the inverse relation is a function

11-MCR3U.A.1.7.

Determine, using function notation when appropriate, the algebraic representation of the inverse of a linear or quadratic function, given the algebraic representation of the function [e.g., f(x) = (x - 2) ^ 2 - 5], and make connections, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., graphing technology, Mira, tracing paper), between the algebraic representations of a function and its inverse (e.g., the inverse of a linear function involves applying the inverse operations in the reverse order)

11-MCR3U.A.1.8

Determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters a, k, d, and c in functions of the form y = af (k(x - d)) + c, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graphs of f(x) = x, f(x) = x ^ 2 , f(x) = the square root of x, an f(x) = 1/x (i.e., translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes)

11-MCR3U.A.1.9.

Sketch graphs of y = af(k(x - d)) + c by applying one or more transformations to the graphs of f(x) = x, f(x) = x , f(x) = the square root of x, and f(x) = 1/x and state the domain and range of the transformed functions

11-MCR3U.A.2.

Solving Problems Involving Quadratic Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.A.2.1.

Determine the number of zeros (i.e., x-intercepts) of a quadratic function, using a variety of strategies (e.g., inspecting graphs; factoring; calculating the discriminant)

11-MCR3U.A.2.2.

Determine the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function whose equation is given in the form f(x) = ax ^ 2 + bx + c, using an algebraic method (e.g., completing the square; factoring to determine the zeros and averaging the zeros)

11-MCR3U.A.2.3.

Solve problems involving quadratic functions arising from real-world applications and represented using function notation

11-MCR3U.A.2.5.

Solve problems involving the intersection of a linear function and a quadratic function graphically and algebraically (e.g., determine the time when two identical cylindrical water tanks contain equal volumes of water, if one tank is being filled at a constant rate and the other is being emptied through a hole in the bottom)

11-MCR3U.A.3.

Determining Equivalent Algebraic Expressions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.A.3.1.

Simplify polynomial expressions by adding, subtracting, and multiplying

11-MCR3U.A.3.2.

Verify, through investigation with and without technology, that the square root of ab = the square root of a x the square root of b, a greater than or equal to 0, b greater than or equal to 0, and use this relationship to simplify radicals (e.g., the square root of 24) and radical expressions obtained by adding, subtracting, and multiplying [e.g., (2 + the square root of 6)(3 - the square root of 12)]

11-MCR3U.A.3.3.

Simplify rational expressions by adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing, and state the restrictions on the variable values

11-MCR3U.A.3.4.

Determine if two given algebraic expressions are equivalent (i.e., by simplifying; by substituting values)

11-MCR3U.B.1.

Representing Exponential Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.B.1.1.

Graph, with and without technology, an exponential relation, given its equation in the form y = a^x (a>0, a does not equal 1), define this relation as the function f(x) = a ^x , and explain why it is a function

11-MCR3U.B.1.2.

Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., calculator, paper and pencil, graphing technology) and strategies (e.g., patterning; finding values from a graph; interpreting the exponent laws), the value of a power with a rational exponent (i.e., x ^ (m/n) , where x > 0 and m and n are integers)

11-MCR3U.B.1.3.

Simplify algebraic expressions containing integer and rational exponents [e.g., (x ^ 3) / (x ^ 1/2), (x ^ 6y ^3) ^ 1/3], and evaluate numeric expressions containing integer and rational exponents and rational bases [e.g., 2 ^ -3, (-6) ^ 3 , 4 ^ 2, 1.01 ^ 120]

11-MCR3U.B.1.4.

Determine, through investigation, and describe key properties relating to domain and range, intercepts, increasing/decreasing intervals, and asymptotes (e.g., the domain is the set of real numbers; the range is the set of positive real numbers; the function either increases or decreases throughout its domain) for exponential functions represented in a variety of ways [e.g., tables of values, mapping diagrams, graphs, equations of the form f(x) = a ^x (a greater than 0, a does not equal 1), function machines]

11-MCR3U.B.2.

Connecting Graphs and Equations of Exponential Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.B.2.1.

Distinguish exponential functions from linear and quadratic functions by making comparisons in a variety of ways (e.g., comparing rates of change using finite differences in tables of values; identifying a constant ratio in a table of values; inspecting graphs; comparing equations)

11-MCR3U.B.2.2.

Determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters a, k, d, and c in functions of the form y = af (k(x - d)) + c, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graph of f(x) = a ^ x (a greater than 0, a does not equal 1) (i.e., translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes)

11-MCR3U.B.2.5.

Represent an exponential function with an equation, given its graph or its properties

11-MCR3U.B.3.

Solving Problems Involving Exponential Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.B.3.1.

Collect data that can be modelled as an exponential function, through investigation with and without technology, from primary sources, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials such as number cubes, coins; measurement tools such as electronic probes), or from secondary sources (e.g., websites such as Statistics Canada, E-STAT), and graph the data

11-MCR3U.B.3.2.

Identify exponential functions, including those that arise from real-world applications involving growth and decay (e.g., radioactive decay, population growth, cooling rates, pressure in a leaking tire), given various representations (i.e., tables of values, graphs, equations), and explain any restrictions that the context places on the domain and range (e.g., ambient temperature limits the range for a cooling curve)

11-MCR3U.B.3.3.

Solve problems using given graphs or equations of exponential functions arising from a variety of real-world applications (e.g., radioactive decay, population growth, height of a bouncing ball, compound interest) by interpreting the graphs or by substituting values for the exponent into the equations

11-MCR3U.C.1.

Representing Sequences: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.C.1.2.

Determine and describe (e.g., in words; using flow charts) a recursive procedure for generating a sequence, given the initial terms (e.g., 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, ...), and represent sequences as discrete functions in a variety of ways (e.g., tables of values, graphs)

11-MCR3U.C.1.3.

Connect the formula for the nth term of a sequence to the representation in function notation, and write terms of a sequence given one of these representations or a recursion formula

11-MCR3U.C.1.4.

Represent a sequence algebraically using a recursion formula, function notation, or the formula for the nth term [e.g., represent 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, ... as t sub 1 = 2; t sub n = 2t sub n - 1, as f(n) = 2 ^ n , or as t sub n = 2 ^ n , or represent 1/2 , 2/3, 3/4 , 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, ...as t sub 1 =1/2; t sub n=t sub n-1 +1/n(n+1), as f(n) = n/n+1, or as t sub n= n/n+1, where n is a natural number], and describe the information that can be obtained by inspecting each representation (e.g., function notation or the formula for the nth term may show the type of function; a recursion formula shows the relationship between terms)

11-MCR3U.C.1.5.

Determine, through investigation, recursive patterns in the Fibonacci sequence, in related sequences, and in Pascal's triangle, and represent the patterns in a variety of ways (e.g., tables of values, algebraic notation)

11-MCR3U.C.1.6.

Determine, through investigation, and describe the relationship between Pascal's triangle and the expansion of binomials, and apply the relationship to expand binomials raised to whole-number exponents [e.g., (1 + x) ^ 4 , (2x -1) ^ 5 , (2x - y) ^6 , (x + 1) ^5]

11-MCR3U.C.2.

Investigating Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and Series: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.C.2.1.

Identify sequences as arithmetic, geometric, or neither, given a numeric or algebraic representation

11-MCR3U.C.2.2.

Determine the formula for the general term of an arithmetic sequence [i.e., tn = a + (n -1)d] or geometric sequence (i.e., tn = ar ^ n - 1), through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., linking cubes, algebra tiles, diagrams, calculators) and strategies (e.g., patterning; connecting the steps in a numerical example to the steps in the algebraic development), and apply the formula to calculate any term in a sequence

11-MCR3U.C.2.3.

Determine the formula for the sum of an arithmetic or geometric series, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., linking cubes, algebra tiles, diagrams, calculators) and strategies (e.g., patterning; connecting the steps in a numerical example to the steps in the algebraic development), and apply the formula to calculate the sum of a given number of consecutive terms

11-MCR3U.C.2.4.

Solve problems involving arithmetic and geometric sequences and series, including those arising from real-world applications

11-MCR3U.C.3.

Solving Problems Involving Financial Applications: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.C.3.1.

Make and describe connections between simple interest, arithmetic sequences, and linear growth, through investigation with technology (e.g., use a spreadsheet or graphing calculator to make simple interest calculations, determine first differences inthe amounts over time, and graph amount versus time)

11-MCR3U.C.3.2.

Make and describe connections between compound interest, geometric sequences, and exponential growth, through investigation with technology (e.g., use a spreadsheet to make compound interest calculations, determine finite differences in the amounts over time, and graph amount versus time)

11-MCR3U.C.3.3.

Solve problems, using a scientific calculator, that involve the calculation of the amount, A (also referred to as future value, FV), the principal, P (also referred to as present value, PV), or the interest rate per compounding period, i, using the compound interest formula in the form A = P(1 + i) [or FV = PV(1 + i)]

11-MCR3U.C.3.4.

Determine, through investigation using technology (e.g., scientific calculator, the TVM Solver on a graphing calculator, online tools), the number of compounding periods, n, using the compound interest formula in the form A = P(1 + i) ^ n [or FV = PV(1 + i) ^ n]; describe strategies (e.g., guessing and checking; using the power of a power rule for exponents; using graphs) for calculating this number; and solve related problems

11-MCR3U.D.1.

Determining and Applying Trigonometric Ratios: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.D.1.1.

Determine the exact values of the sine, cosine, and tangent of the special angles: 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees

11-MCR3U.D.1.2.

Determine the values of the sine, cosine, and tangent of angles from 0 degrees to 360 degrees, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, graphing tools) and strategies (e.g., applying the unit circle; examining angles related to special angles)

11-MCR3U.D.1.4.

Define the secant, cosecant, and cotangent ratios for angles in a right triangle in terms of the sides of the triangle (e.g., sec A = hypotenuse / adjacent), and relate these ratios to the cosine, sine, and tangent ratios (e.g., sec A = 1/ cosA)

11-MCR3U.D.1.5.

Prove simple trigonometric identities, using the Pythagorean identity sin ^ 2 x + cos ^2 x = 1; the quotient identity tanx = sinx / cosx; and the reciprocal identities secx = , 1 / cosx, cscx = 1/sinx , and cotx = 1/tanx

11-MCR3U.D.1.6.

Pose problems involving right triangles and oblique triangles in two-dimensional settings, and solve these and other such problems using the primary trigonometric ratios, the cosine law, and the sine law (including the ambiguous case)

11-MCR3U.D.2.

Connecting Graphs and Equations of Sinusoidal Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.D.2.1.

Describe key properties (e.g., cycle, amplitude, period) of periodic functions arising from real-world applications (e.g., natural gas consumption in Ontario, tides in the Bay of Fundy), given a numeric or graphical representation

11-MCR3U.D.2.2.

Predict, by extrapolating, the future behaviour of a relationship modelled using a numeric or graphical representation of a periodic function (e.g., predicting hours of daylight on a particular date from previous measurements; predicting natural gas consumption in Ontario from previous consumption)

11-MCR3U.D.2.3.

Make connections between the sine ratio and the sine function and between the cosine ratio and the cosine function by graphing the relationship between angles from 0 degrees to 360 degrees and the corresponding sine ratios or cosine ratios, with or without technology (e.g., by generating a table of values using a calculator; by unwrapping the unit circle), defining this relationship as the function f(x) =sinx or f(x) =cosx, and explaining why the relationship is a function

11-MCR3U.D.2.4.

Sketch the graphs of f(x) =sin x and f(x) =cos x for angle measures expressed in degrees, and determine and describe their key properties (i.e., cycle, domain, range, intercepts, amplitude, period, maximum and minimum values, increasing/decreasing intervals)

11-MCR3U.D.2.5.

Determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters a, k, d, and c in functions of the form y =af (k(x - d)) + c, where f(x) =sinx or f(x) =cosx with angles expressed in degrees, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graphs of f(x) =sinx and f(x) =cosx (i.e., translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes)

11-MCR3U.D.2.6.

Determine the amplitude, period, phase shift, domain, and range of sinusoidal functions whose equations are given in the form f(x) = asin(k(x - d)) + c or f(x) = acos(k(x - d)) + c

11-MCR3U.D.2.7.

Sketch graphs of y = af(k(x - d)) + c by applying one or more transformations to the graphs of f(x) =sinx and f(x) =cosx, and state the domain and range of the transformed functions

11-MCR3U.D.3.

Solving Problems Involving Sinusoidal Functions: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MCR3U.D.3.1.

Collect data that can be modelled as a sinusoidal function (e.g., voltage in an AC circuit, sound waves), through investigation with and without technology, from primary sources, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, measurement tools such as motion sensors), or from secondary sources (e.g., websites such as Statistics Canada, E-STAT), and graph the data

11-MCR3U.D.3.2.

Identify periodic and sinusoidal functions, including those that arise from real-world applications involving periodic phenomena, given various representations (i.e., tables of values, graphs, equations), and explain any restrictions that the context places on the domain and range

11-MCR3U.D.3.5.

Pose problems based on applications involving a sinusoidal function, and solve these and other such problems by using a given graph or a graph generated with technology from a table of values or from its equation

11-MEL3E.A.1.

Earning: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MEL3E.A.1.1.

Gather, interpret, and compare information about the components of total earnings (e.g., salary, benefits, vacation pay, profit-sharing) in different occupations

11-MEL3E.A.1.2.

Gather, interpret, and describe information about different remuneration methods (e.g., hourly rate, overtime rate, job or project rate, commission, salary, gratuities) and remuneration schedules (e.g., weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly)

11-MEL3E.A.1.3.

Describe the effects of different remuneration methods and schedules on decisions related to personal spending habits (e.g., the timing of a major purchase, the scheduling of mortgage payments and other bill payments)

11-MEL3E.A.2.

Describing Purchasing Power: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MEL3E.A.2.1.

Gather, interpret, and describe information about government payroll deductions (i.e., CPP, EI, income tax) and other payroll deductions (e.g., contributions to pension plans other than CPP; union dues; charitable donations; benefit-plan contributions)

11-MEL3E.A.2.3.

Describe the relationship between gross pay, net pay, and payroll deductions (i.e., net pay is gross pay less government payroll deductions and any other payroll deductions), and estimate net pay in various situations

11-MEL3E.A.2.4.

Describe and compare the purchasing power and living standards associated with relevant occupations of interest

11-MEL3E.A.3.

Purchasing: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MEL3E.A.3.3.

Describe and compare a variety of strategies for estimating sales tax (e.g., estimate the sales tax on most purchases in Ontario by estimating 10% of the purchase price and adding about a third of this estimate, rather than estimating the PST and GST separately), and use a chosen strategy to estimate the after-tax cost of common items

11-MEL3E.A.3.4.

Calculate discounts, sale prices, and after-tax costs, using technology

11-MEL3E.A.3.6.

Estimate the change from an amount offered to pay a charge

11-MEL3E.A.3.7.

Make the correct change from an amount offered to pay a charge, using currency manipulatives

11-MEL3E.A.3.8.

Compare the unit prices of related items to help determine the best buy

11-MEL3E.B.1.

Comparing Financial Services: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MEL3E.B.1.1.

Gather, interpret, and compare information about the various savings alternatives commonly available from financial institutions (e.g., savings and chequing accounts, term investments), the related costs (e.g., cost of cheques, monthly statement fees, early withdrawal penalties), and possible ways of reducing the costs (e.g., maintaining a minimum balance in a savings account; paying a monthly flat fee for a package of services)

11-MEL3E.B.1.2.

Gather, interpret, and compare information about the costs (e.g., user fees, annual fees, service charges, interest charges on overdue balances) and incentives (e.g., loyalty rewards; philanthropic incentives, such as support for Olympic athletes or a Red Cross disaster relief fund) associated with various credit cards and debit cards

11-MEL3E.B.1.3.

Read and interpret transaction codes and entries from various financial statements (e.g., bank statement, credit card statement, passbook, automated banking machine printout, online banking statement, account activity report), and explain ways of using the information to manage personal finances

11-MEL3E.B.2.

Saving and Investing: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MEL3E.B.2.1.

Determine, through investigation using technology (e.g., calculator, spreadsheet), the effect on simple interest of changes in the principal, interest rate, or time, and solve problems involving applications of simple interest

11-MEL3E.B.2.2.

Determine, through investigation using technology, the compound interest for a given investment, using repeated calculations of simple interest for no more than 6 compounding periods

11-MEL3E.B.2.3.

Describe the relationship between simple interest and compound interest in various ways (i.e., orally, in writing, using tables and graphs)

11-MEL3E.B.2.4.

Determine, through investigation using technology (e.g., a TVM Solver on a graphing calculator or on a website), the effect on the future value of a compound interest investment of changing the total length of time, the interest rate, or the compounding period

11-MEL3E.B.2.5.

Solve problems, using technology, that involve applications of compound interest to saving and investing

11-MEL3E.B.3.

Borrowing: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MEL3E.B.3.1.

Gather, interpret, and compare information about the effects of carrying an outstanding balance on a credit card at current interest rates

11-MEL3E.B.3.2.

Gather, interpret, and compare information describing the features (e.g., interest rates, flexibility) and conditions (e.g., eligibility, required collateral) of various personal loans (e.g., student loan, car loan, ''no interest'' deferred-payment loan, loan to consolidate debt, loan drawn on a line of credit, payday or bridging loan)

11-MEL3E.B.3.3.

Calculate, using technology (e.g., calculator, spreadsheet), the total interest paid over the life of a personal loan, given the principal, the length of the loan, and the periodic payments, and use the calculations to justify the choice of a personal loan

11-MEL3E.B.3.4.

Determine, using a variety of tools (e.g., spreadsheet template, online amortization tables), the effect of the length of time taken to repay a loan on the principal and interest components of a personal loan repayment

11-MEL3E.B.3.5.

Compare, using a variety of tools (e.g., spreadsheet template, online amortization tables), the effects of various payment periods (e.g., monthly, biweekly) on the length of time taken to repay a loan and on the total interest paid

11-MEL3E.B.3.6.

Gather and interpret information about credit ratings, and describe the factors used to determine credit ratings and the consequences of a good or bad rating

11-MEL3E.B.3.7.

Make and justify a decision to borrow, using various criteria (e.g., income, cost of borrowing, availability of an item, need for an item) under various circumstances (e.g., having a large existing debt, wanting to pursue an education or training opportunity, needing transportation to a new job, wanting to set up a business)

11-MEL3E.C.1.

Owning and Operating a Vehicle: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MEL3E.C.1.1.

Gather and interpret information about the procedures (e.g., in the graduated licensing system) and costs (e.g., driver training; licensing fees) involved in obtaining an Ontario driver's licence, and the privileges and restrictions associated with having a driver's licence

11-MEL3E.C.1.2.

Gather and describe information about the procedures involved in buying or leasing a new vehicle or buying a used vehicle

11-MEL3E.C.1.3.

Gather and interpret information about the procedures and costs involved in insuring a vehicle (e.g., car, motorcycle, snowmobile) and the factors affecting insurance rates (e.g., gender, age, driving record, model of vehicle, use of vehicle), and compare the insurance costs for different categories of drivers and for different vehicles

11-MEL3E.C.1.4.

Gather and interpret information about the costs (e.g., monthly payments, insurance, depreciation, maintenance, miscellaneous expenses) of purchasing or leasing a new vehicle or purchasing a used vehicle, and describe the conditions that favour each alternative

11-MEL3E.C.1.6.

Identify and describe costs (e.g., gas consumption, depreciation, insurance, maintenance) and benefits (e.g., convenience, increased profit) of owning and operating a vehicle for business

11-MEL3E.C.1.7.

Solve problems, using technology (e.g., calculator, spreadsheet), that involve the fixed costs (e.g., licence fee, insurance) and variable costs (e.g., maintenance, fuel) of owning and operating a vehicle

11-MEL3E.C.2.

Travelling by Automobile: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MEL3E.C.2.1.

Determine distances represented on maps (e.g., provincial road map, local street map, Web-based maps), using given scales

11-MEL3E.C.3.

Comparing Modes of Transportation: By the end of this course, students will:

11-MEL3E.C.3.2.

Gather, interpret, and compare information about the costs (e.g., insurance, extra charges based on distance travelled) and conditions (e.g., one-way or return, drop-off time and location, age of the driver, required type of driver's licence) involved in renting a car, truck, or trailer, and use the information to justify a choice of rental vehicle

11-SBI3C.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.A1.1.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Formulate relevant scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, or issues, make informed predictions, and/or formulate educated hypotheses to focus inquiries or research

11-SBI3C.A1.10.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions with reference to scientific knowledge

11-SBI3C.A1.11.

Communicating [C]: Communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)

11-SBI3C.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation (e.g., biological diagrams, Punnett squares), and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)

11-SBI3C.A1.13.

Communicating [C]: Express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely, to the appropriate number of decimal places and significant figures

11-SBI3C.A1.2.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Select appropriate instruments (e.g., a microscope, a stethoscope, plant-propagation instruments, dissection instruments) and materials (e.g., prepared slides, agar plates, plants), and identify appropriate methods, techniques, and procedures, for each inquiry

11-SBI3C.A1.3.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Identify and locate a variety of print and electronic sources that enable them to address research topics fully and appropriately

11-SBI3C.A1.4.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Apply knowledge and understanding of safe laboratory practices and procedures when planning investigations by correctly interpreting Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) symbols; by using appropriate techniques for handling and storing laboratory equipment and materials and disposing of laboratory and biological materials (e.g., preserved specimens); and by using appropriate personal protection

11-SBI3C.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling relevant variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using appropriate materials and equipment safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

11-SBI3C.A1.6.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Compile accurate data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data, using appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams

11-SBI3C.A1.7.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from a variety of appropriate sources, including electronic, print, and/or human sources, using suitable formats and an accepted form of academic documentation

11-SBI3C.A1.8.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Synthesize, analyse, interpret, and evaluate qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis and whether it is consistent with scientific theory; identify sources of bias and/or error; and suggest improvements to the inquiry to reduce the likelihood of error

11-SBI3C.A1.9.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse the information gathered from research sources for logic, accuracy, reliability, adequacy, and bias

11-SBI3C.A2.

Career Exploration: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., food science technologist, medical laboratory technologist, dental hygienist, outpost clinic/primary care nurse, respiratory therapist, veterinary technician, water or wastewater technician) and the education and training necessary for these careers

11-SBI3C.A2.2.

Describe the contributions of scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Julia Levy, Charles Beer, Shirley Tilghman, Walter Lewis, Gail Anderson), to the fields under study

11-SBI3C.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.B1.1.

Evaluate the effectiveness of medical devices and technologies that are intended to aid cellular functions or processes (e.g., insulin infusion pump, chemotherapy) [AI, C]

11-SBI3C.B1.2.

Analyse the effects of environmental factors on cellular processes that occur in the human body (e.g., the effect of lead on nerve cells; the effect of electromagnetic radiation on brain cells) [AI, C]

11-SBI3C.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to cellular biology, including, but not limited to: macromolecule, passive transport, active transport, catalyst, and fluid mosaic model [C]

11-SBI3C.B2.2.

Investigate the effect of various qualitative factors (e.g., temperature) on the rate of diffusion of molecules across a plasma membrane [PR, AI]

11-SBI3C.B2.3.

Using a light microscope, identify visible organelles of a plant cell in a wet mount and an animal cell from a prepared slide, produce an accurate labelled drawing of each cell, and calculate and properly express the magnification of each image [PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3C.B2.4.

Investigate the effects of various qualitative factors on the action of enzymes (e.g., the effect of temperature or pH on the breakdown of starch by salivary enzymes) [PR, AI]

11-SBI3C.B2.5.

Conduct biological tests to identify biochemical compounds found in various food samples (e.g., use a biuret solution to test for proteins in samples of gelatin and albumin), and compare the biochemical compounds found in each food to those found in the others [PR, AI]

11-SBI3C.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.B3.1.

Describe the structures and functions of important biochemical compounds, including carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, and lipids

11-SBI3C.B3.2.

Explain the roles of various organelles, including lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, cell membranes, ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi bodies, in the processes of digestion, cellular respiration, and protein synthesis

11-SBI3C.B3.3.

Explain the chemical changes and energy transformations associated with the process of cellular respiration, and compare the reactants (i.e., glucose, oxygen) to the products (i.e., water, carbon dioxide, ATP)

11-SBI3C.B3.4.

Explain the importance of various cellular processes in human systems (e.g., enzymes act as biological catalysts to regulate chemical processes in the cells of the digestive system)

11-SBI3C.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.C1.1.

Assess some of the effects, both beneficial and harmful, of microorganisms in the environment (e.g., decomposers break down waste, E. coli in water systems poses a severe risk to human health) [AI, C]

11-SBI3C.C1.2.

Analyse ethical issues related to the use of microorganisms in biotechnology (e.g., with respect to the use of bacterial insecticides, the patenting of modified microorganisms) [AI, C]

11-SBI3C.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.C2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to microbiology, including, but not limited to: fission, conjugation, phage, dormancy, morphology, mycelium, spore, pathogen, and plasmid [C]

11-SBI3C.C2.2.

Compare and contrast the cell structures of eukaryotes such as fungi, protozoa, and algae [PR, AI]

11-SBI3C.C2.3.

Prepare a laboratory culture of microorganisms (e.g., acidophilus) on agar, using proper aseptic techniques [PR]

11-SBI3C.C2.4.

Investigate the effect of antibacterial agents on different bacterial cultures (e.g., the effects of antibacterial soap or mouthwash on a bacterial culture) [PR]

11-SBI3C.C2.5.

Investigate and analyse the conditions (e.g., optimal temperature) needed by microorganisms for growth [PR, AI]

11-SBI3C.C3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.C3.1.

Describe the anatomy and morphology of various groups of microorganisms (e.g., eukaryotes, prokaryotes, viruses)

11-SBI3C.C3.2.

Explain the differences between the life cycles of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms in terms of cell division

11-SBI3C.C3.3.

Explain the vital roles of microorganisms in symbiotic relationships with other organisms (e.g., gut bacteria in cows digest cellulose; mycorrhizal fungi penetrate and effectively extend a plant's root system)

11-SBI3C.C3.4.

Explain the different methods of reproduction in various types of bacteria, viruses, and fungi

11-SBI3C.C3.5.

Describe how different viruses, bacteria, and fungi can affect host organisms, and how those effects are normally treated or prevented (e.g., hepatitis viruses can damage the liver, but vaccinations can prevent infections; streptococcus bacteria can cause respiratory infections, which are treated with antibiotics; ringworm is a fungal infection of the skin, treated with fungicides)

11-SBI3C.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.D1.1.

Evaluate, on the basis of research, some of the social and ethical implications of genetic research and reproductive technologies (e.g., sex selection, harvesting umbilical cord cells) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3C.D1.2.

Evaluate, on the basis of research, some of the effects of genetic research and biotechnology (e.g., genetically modified organisms [GMOs]) on the environment [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3C.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to genetics, including, but not limited to: spindle, haploid, diploid, heterozygous, homozygous, hemophilia, gamete, ultraviolet radiation, carcinogen, cancer, trisomy, somatic cell, and zygote [C]

11-SBI3C.D2.2.

Investigate the process of meiosis, using a microscope or computer simulation, and identify, and draw biological diagrams of, the phases of meiosis [PR, C]

11-SBI3C.D2.3.

Solve basic problems in genetics that involve monohybrid crosses, using the Punnett square method [AI, C]

11-SBI3C.D2.4.

Compile and analyse qualitative and quantitative data, through laboratory inquiry or computer simulation, on monohybrid crosses, and communicate the results (e.g., record data obtained while performing a ''virtual fly'' lab, and analyse the results to create a karyotype chart) [PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3C.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.D3.1.

Explain the process of meiosis in terms of cell division and the movement of chromosomes

11-SBI3C.D3.2.

Explain how the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics from generation to generation

11-SBI3C.D3.3.

Explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage

11-SBI3C.D3.4.

Describe some genetic disorders that are caused by chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., non-disjunction) or other genetic mutations

11-SBI3C.D3.5.

Describe reproductive technologies such as cloning, artificial insemination, and in vitro fertilization

11-SBI3C.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.E1.1.

Analyse the social or economic impact of a medical device or technology related to the treatment of the human circulatory, respiratory, or digestive system (e.g., a pacemaker, a heart-lung bypass machine, kidney dialysis) [AI, C]

11-SBI3C.E1.2.

Analyse the impact of various lifestyle choices on human health and body systems (e.g., the impact of excessive alcohol consumption on the liver; of smoking on the respiratory system; of loud noise on the auditory system)

11-SBI3C.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to animal anatomy, including, but not limited to: systolic contraction, diastolic pressure, diffusion gradient, inhalation, exhalation, coronary, cardiac, ulcer, asthma, and constipation [C]

11-SBI3C.E2.2.

Use medical equipment (e.g., a stethoscope, a sphygmomanometer) to monitor a human system, and interpret the data collected [PR, AI]

11-SBI3C.E2.3.

Plan and conduct an inquiry to determine the effects of specific variables on the human body (e.g., the effects of exercise and rest on heart rates) [IP, PR, AI]

11-SBI3C.E2.4.

Perform a laboratory or computer-simulated dissection of a mammal to identify organs, and explain the relationships between the structures and functions of body systems [PR, AI]

11-SBI3C.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.E3.1.

Describe the anatomy and physiology of the circulatory system (including the atrium, ventricles, valves, aorta, pulmonary artery, vena cava, capillaries, veins, arteries, blood cells, and platelets), the mechanisms of blood pressure, and the function of the spleen

11-SBI3C.E3.2.

Describe the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system (including the nasal cavity, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, and oxygenated and deoxygenated blood) and the mechanisms of gas exchange and respiration

11-SBI3C.E3.3.

Describe the anatomy and physiology of the digestive system (including the mouth, epiglottis, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, and pancreas), the mechanisms of peristalsis, absorption, and mechanical and chemical digestion, and the function of the kidneys

11-SBI3C.E3.4.

Explain some of the mechanisms of interaction between a mammal's different body systems (e.g., the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the respiratory and circulatory systems)

11-SBI3C.F1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.F1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, and report on ways in which plants can be used to sustain ecosystems [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3C.F1.2.

Assess the positive and negative impact of human activities on the natural balance of plants (e.g., crop rotation, the use of fertilizers and herbicides, the introduction of new species) [AI, C]

11-SBI3C.F2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.F2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to plants in the environment, including, but not limited to: xylem, phloem, chloroplast, pistil, stamen, nitrogen fixation, and tropism [C]

11-SBI3C.F2.2.

Investigate various techniques of plant propagation (e.g., leaf cutting, stem cutting, root cutting, seed germination, traditional Aboriginal practices) [PR]

11-SBI3C.F2.3.

Investigate how chemical compounds (e.g., fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides) and physical factors (e.g., amount of sun and water, quality of soil, pH of soil) affect plant growth [PR, AI]

11-SBI3C.F2.4.

Investigate plant tropism by growing and observing plants in a variety of natural and human-made environments [PR]

11-SBI3C.F3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3C.F3.1.

Describe the structure and physiology of the specialized plant tissues involved in conduction, support, storage, and photosynthesis

11-SBI3C.F3.2.

Explain the chemical changes and energy transformations associated with the process of photosynthesis, and compare the reactants (i.e., carbon dioxide, radiant energy, water) to the products (i.e., glucose, oxygen)

11-SBI3C.F3.3.

Compare the various means of sexual reproduction (e.g., pollination) and asexual reproduction (e.g., grafting, vegetative propagation, cloning) in plants

11-SBI3C.F3.4.

Explain the various roles of plants in the sustainability of the natural environment (e.g., in nutrient cycles, in the water cycle, in erosion control, in wildlife habitats)

11-SBI3C.F3.5.

Explain the relationship between the structure of a plant and its external environment, and describe the adaptive attributes that result in natural variation in plant structure (e.g., environmental variables cause variation in leaves within a single plant; in the Arctic, the wild crocus grows close to the ground and is covered with fine hairs)

11-SBI3C.F3.6.

Explain the role of plant tropism (e.g., response to stimuli such as light, gravity, and humidity) in a plant's survival

11-SBI3U.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.A1.1.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Formulate relevant scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, or issues, make informed predictions, and/or formulate educated hypotheses to focus inquiries or research

11-SBI3U.A1.10.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions with reference to scientific knowledge

11-SBI3U.A1.11.

Communicating [C]: Communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)

11-SBI3U.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation (e.g., biological diagrams, Punnett squares), and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)

11-SBI3U.A1.13.

Communicating [C]: Express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely, to the appropriate number of decimal places or significant figures

11-SBI3U.A1.2.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Select appropriate instruments (e.g., sampling instruments, a microscope, a stethoscope, dissection instruments) and materials (e.g., dichotomous keys, computer simulations, plant cuttings), and identify appropriate methods, techniques, and procedures, for each inquiry

11-SBI3U.A1.3.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Identify and locate a variety of print and electronic sources that enable them to address research topics fully and appropriately

11-SBI3U.A1.4.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Apply knowledge and understanding of safe laboratory practices and procedures when planning investigations by correctly interpreting Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) symbols; by using appropriate techniques for handling and storing laboratory equipment and materials and disposing of laboratory and biological materials (e.g., preserved specimens); and by using appropriate personal protection

11-SBI3U.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling relevant variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using appropriate materials and equipment safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

11-SBI3U.A1.6.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Compile accurate data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data, using appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams

11-SBI3U.A1.7.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from a variety of appropriate sources, including electronic, print, and/or human sources, using suitable formats and an accepted form of academic documentation

11-SBI3U.A1.8.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Synthesize, analyse, interpret, and evaluate qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis and whether it is consistent with scientific theory; identify sources of bias and/or error; and suggest improvements to the inquiry to reduce the likelihood of error

11-SBI3U.A1.9.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse the information gathered from research sources for logic, accuracy, reliability, adequacy, and bias

11-SBI3U.A2.

Career Exploration: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., zoologist, botanist, geneticist, ecologist, pharmacologist, farmer, forester, horticulturalist) and the education and training necessary for these careers

11-SBI3U.A2.2.

Describe the contributions of scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Colin D'Cunha, Louis Bernatchez, Lap-Chee Tsui, Helen Battle, Memory Elvin-Lewis), to the fields under study

11-SBI3U.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.B1.1.

Analyse some of the risks and benefits of human intervention (e.g., tree plantations; monoculture of livestock or agricultural crops; overharvesting of wild plants for medicinal purposes; using pesticides to control pests; suppression of wild fires) to the biodiversity of aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems [AI, C]

11-SBI3U.B1.2.

Analyse the impact that climate change might have on the diversity of living things (e.g., rising temperatures can result in habitat loss or expansion; changing rainfall levels can cause drought or flooding of habitats) [AI, C]

11-SBI3U.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to biodiversity, including, but not limited to: genetic diversity, species diversity, structural diversity, protists, bacteria, fungi, binomial nomenclature, and morphology [C]

11-SBI3U.B2.2.

Classify, and draw biological diagrams of, representative organisms from each of the kingdoms according to their unifying and distinguishing anatomical and physiological characteristics (e.g., vertebrate or invertebrate organisms, vascular or nonvascular plants) [PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.B2.3.

Use proper sampling techniques to collect various organisms from a marsh, pond, field, or other ecosystem, and classify the organisms according to the principles of taxonomy [PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.B2.4.

Create and apply a dichotomous key to identify and classify organisms from each of the kingdoms [PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.B3.1.

Explain the fundamental principles of taxonomy and phylogeny by defining concepts of taxonomic rank and relationship, such as genus, species, and taxon

11-SBI3U.B3.2.

Compare and contrast the structure and function of different types of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses (e.g., compare and contrast genetic material, metabolism, organelles, and other cell parts)

11-SBI3U.B3.3.

Describe unifying and distinguishing anatomical and physiological characteristics (e.g., types of reproduction, habitat, general physical structure) of representative organisms from each of the kingdoms

11-SBI3U.B3.4.

Explain key structural and functional changes in organisms as they have evolved over time (e.g., the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes, of plants from unicellular organisms)

11-SBI3U.B3.5.

Explain why biodiversity is important to maintaining viable ecosystems (e.g., biodiversity helps increase resilience to stress and resistance to diseases or invading species)

11-SBI3U.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.C1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, the economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of an artificial selection technology (e.g., livestock and horticultural breeding) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.C1.2.

Evaluate the possible impact of an environmental change on natural selection and on the vulnerability of species (e.g., adaptation to environmental changes can affect reproductive success of an organism) [AI, C]

11-SBI3U.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.C2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to evolution, including, but not limited to: extinction, natural selection, phylogeny, speciation, niche, mutation, mimicry, adaptation, and survival of the fittest [C]

11-SBI3U.C2.2.

Use a research process to investigate some of the key factors that affect the evolutionary process (e.g., genetic mutations, selective pressures, environmental stresses) [IP, PR]

11-SBI3U.C2.3.

Analyse, on the basis of research, and report on the contributions of various scientists to modern theories of evolution (e.g., Charles Lyell, Thomas Malthus, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Charles Darwin, Stephen Jay Gould, Niles Eldredge) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.C2.4.

Investigate, through a case study or computer simulation, the processes of natural selection and artificial selection (e.g., selective breeding, antibiotic resistance in microorganisms), and analyse the different mechanisms by which they occur [PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.C3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.C3.1.

Explain the fundamental theory of evolution, using the evolutionary mechanism of natural selection to illustrate the process of biological change over time

11-SBI3U.C3.2.

Explain the process of adaptation of individual organisms to their environment (e.g., some disease-causing bacteria in a bacterial population can survive exposure to antibiotics due to slight genetic variations from the rest of the population, which allows successful surviving bacteria to pass on antibiotic resistance to the next generation)

11-SBI3U.C3.3.

Define the concept of speciation, and explain the process by which new species are formed

11-SBI3U.C3.4.

Describe some evolutionary mechanisms (e.g., natural selection, artificial selection, sexual selection, genetic variation, genetic drift, biotechnology), and explain how they affect the evolutionary development and extinction of various species (e.g., Darwin's finches, giraffes, pandas)

11-SBI3U.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.D1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, some of the social and ethical implications of research in genetics and genomics (e.g., genetic screening, gene therapy, in vitro fertilization) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.D1.2.

Evaluate, on the basis of research, the importance of some recent contributions to knowledge, techniques, and technologies related to genetic processes (e.g., research into the cystic fibrosis gene; the use of safflowers to produce insulin for human use) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to genetic processes, including, but not limited to: haploid, diploid, spindle, synapsis, gamete, zygote, heterozygous, homozygous, allele, plasmid, trisomy, non-disjunction, and somatic cell [C]

11-SBI3U.D2.2.

Investigate the process of meiosis, using a microscope or similar instrument, or a computer simulation, and draw biological diagrams to help explain the main phases in the process [PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.D2.3.

Use the Punnett square method to solve basic genetics problems involving monohybrid crosses, incomplete dominance, codominance, dihybrid crosses, and sex-linked genes [PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.D2.4.

Investigate, through laboratory inquiry or computer simulation, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, and use the Punnett square method and probability rules to analyse the qualitative and quantitative data and determine the parent genotype [PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.D3.1.

Explain the phases in the process of meiosis in terms of cell division, the movement of chromosomes, and crossing over of genetic material

11-SBI3U.D3.2.

Explain the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis, and how they account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics according to Mendelian laws of inheritance

11-SBI3U.D3.3.

Explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage according to Mendelian laws of inheritance

11-SBI3U.D3.4.

Describe some genetic disorders caused by chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., non-disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis) or other genetic mutations in terms of chromosomes affected, physical effects, and treatments

11-SBI3U.D3.5.

Describe some reproductive technologies (e.g., cloning, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, recombinant DNA), and explain how their use can increase the genetic diversity of a species (e.g., farm animals, crops)

11-SBI3U.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.E1.1.

Evaluate the importance of various technologies, including Canadian contributions, to our understanding of internal body systems (e.g., endoscopes can be used to locate, diagnose, and surgically remove digestive system tumours; lasers can be used during surgery to destroy lung tumours; nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] imaging can be used to diagnose injuries and cardiovascular disorders, such as aneurysms) [AI, C]

11-SBI3U.E1.2.

Assess how societal needs (e.g., the need for healthy foods; the need to counteract the effects of sedentary lifestyles) lead to scientific and technological developments related to internal systems (e.g., advances in dietary products and fitness equipment; improved standards for transplanting organs) [AI, C]

11-SBI3U.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to animal anatomy, including, but not limited to: systolic, diastolic, diffusion gradient, inhalation, exhalation, coronary, cardiac, ulcer, asthma, and constipation [C]

11-SBI3U.E2.2.

Perform a laboratory or computer-simulated dissection of a representative animal, or use a mounted anatomical model, to analyse the relationships between the respiratory, circulatory, and digestive systems [PR, AI]

11-SBI3U.E2.3.

Use medical equipment (e.g., a stethoscope, a sphygmomanometer) to monitor the functional responses of the respiratory and circulatory systems to external stimuli (e.g., measure the change in breathing rate and heart rate after exercise) [PR, AI]

11-SBI3U.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.E3.1.

Explain the anatomy of the respiratory system and the process of ventilation and gas exchange from the environment to the cell (e.g., the movement of oxygen from the atmosphere to the cell; the roles of ventilation, hemoglobin, and diffusion in gas exchange)

11-SBI3U.E3.2.

Explain the anatomy of the digestive system and the importance of digestion in providing nutrients needed for energy and growth (e.g., the body's mechanical and chemical processes digest food, which provides the proteins needed to build muscle, and the fibre, water, vitamins, and minerals needed to regulate body processes)

11-SBI3U.E3.3.

Explain the anatomy of the circulatory system (e.g., blood components, blood vessels, the heart) and its function in transporting substances that are vital to health

11-SBI3U.E3.4.

Describe some disorders related to the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems (e.g., asthma, emphysema, ulcers, colitis, cardiac arrest, arteriosclerosis)

11-SBI3U.F1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.F1.1.

Evaluate, on the basis of research, the importance of plants to the growth and development of Canadian society (e.g., as a source of food, pharmaceuticals, Aboriginal medicines, building materials, flood and erosion control; as a resource for recreation and ecotourism) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.F1.2.

Evaluate, on the basis of research, ways in which different societies or cultures have used plants to sustain human populations while supporting environmental sustainability (e.g., sustainable agricultural practices in developing countries such as crop rotation and seed saving; traditional Aboriginal corn production practices) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SBI3U.F2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.F2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to plants, including, but not limited to: mesophyll, palisade, aerenchyma, epidermal tissue, stomata, root hair, pistil, stamen, venation, auxin, and gibberellin [C]

11-SBI3U.F2.2.

Design and conduct an inquiry to determine the factors that affect plant growth (e.g., the effects on plant growth of the quantity of nutrients, the quantity and quality of light, and factors such as temperature and water retention or percolation rate) [IP, PR, AI]

11-SBI3U.F2.3.

Identify, and draw biological diagrams of, the specialized plant tissues in roots, stems, and leaves (e.g., xylem, phloem), using a microscope and models [PR, AI]

11-SBI3U.F2.4.

Investigate various techniques of plant propagation (e.g., leaf cutting, stem cutting, root cutting, seed germination) [PR]

11-SBI3U.F3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SBI3U.F3.1.

Describe the structures of the various types of tissues in vascular plants, and explain the mechanisms of transport involved in the processes by which materials are distributed throughout a plant (e.g., transpiration, translocation, osmosis)

11-SBI3U.F3.2.

Compare and contrast monocot and dicot plants in terms of their structures (e.g., seeds, stem, flower, root) and their evolutionary processes (i.e., how one type evolved from the other)

11-SBI3U.F3.3.

Explain the reproductive mechanisms of plants in natural reproduction and artificial propagation (e.g., germination of seeds, leaf cuttings, grafting of branches onto a host tree)

11-SBI3U.F3.4.

Describe the various factors that affect plant growth (e.g., growth regulators, sunlight, water, nutrients, acidity, tropism)

11-SBI3U.F3.5.

Explain the process of ecological succession, including the role of plants in maintaining biodiversity and the survival of organisms after a disturbance to an ecosystem

11-SCH3U.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.A1.10.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions with reference to scientific knowledge

11-SCH3U.A1.11.

Communicating [C]: Communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)

11-SCH3U.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)

11-SCH3U.A1.2.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Select appropriate instruments (e.g., a balance, glassware, titration instruments) and materials (e.g., molecular model kits, solutions), and identify appropriate methods, techniques, and procedures, for each inquiry

11-SCH3U.A1.4.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Apply knowledge and understanding of safe laboratory practices and procedures when planning investigations by correctly interpreting Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) symbols; by using appropriate techniques for handling and storing laboratory equipment and materials and disposing of laboratory materials; and by using appropriate personal protection (e.g., wearing safety goggles)

11-SCH3U.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling relevant variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using appropriate materials and equipment safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

11-SCH3U.A1.6.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Compile accurate data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data, using appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams

11-SCH3U.A1.8.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Synthesize, analyse, interpret, and evaluate qualitative and quantitative data; solve problems involving quantitative data; determine whether the evidence supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis and whether it is consistent with scientific theory; identify sources of bias and error; and suggest improvements to the inquiry to reduce the likelihood of error

11-SCH3U.A2.

Career Exploration: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., pharmacist, forensic scientist, chemical engineer, food scientist, environmental chemist, occupational health and safety officer, water quality analyst, atmospheric scientist) and the education and training necessary for these careers

11-SCH3U.A2.2.

Describe the contributions of scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Carol Ann Budd, Edgar Steacie, Raymond Lemieux, Louis Taillefer, F. Kenneth Hare), to the fields under study

11-SCH3U.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.B1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, the properties of a commonly used but potentially harmful chemical substance (e.g., fertilizer, pesticide, a household cleaning product, materials used in electronics and batteries) and how that substance affects the environment, and propose ways to lessen the harmfulness of the substance (e.g., by reducing the amount used, by modifying one of its chemical components) or identify alternative substances that could be used for the same purpose [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SCH3U.B1.2.

Evaluate the risks and benefits to human health of some commonly used chemical substances (e.g., chemical additives in foods; pharmaceuticals; cosmetics and perfumes; household cleaning products) [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to chemical trends and chemical bonding, including, but not limited to: atomic radius, effective nuclear charge, electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity [C]

11-SCH3U.B2.2.

Analyse data related to the properties of elements within a period (e.g., ionization energy, atomic radius) to identify general trends in the periodic table [AI]

11-SCH3U.B2.3.

Use an inquiry process to investigate the chemical reactions of elements (e.g., metals, non-metals) with other substances (e.g., oxygen, acids, water), and produce an activity series using the resulting data [PR, AI]

11-SCH3U.B2.4.

Draw Lewis structures to represent the bonds in ionic and molecular compounds [PR, C]

11-SCH3U.B2.5.

Predict the nature of a bond (e.g., non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic), using electronegativity values of atoms [AI]

11-SCH3U.B2.6.

Build molecular models, and write structural formulae, for molecular compounds containing single and multiple bonds (e.g., CO2, H2O, C2H4), and for ionic crystalline structures (e.g., NaCl) [PR, AI, C]

11-SCH3U.B2.7.

Write chemical formulae of binary and polyatomic compounds, including those with multiple valences, and name the compounds using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature system [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.B3.1.

Explain the relationship between the atomic number and the mass number of an element, and the difference between isotopes and radioisotopes of an element

11-SCH3U.B3.2.

Explain the relationship between isotopic abundance of an element's isotopes and the relative atomic mass of the element

11-SCH3U.B3.3.

State the periodic law, and explain how patterns in the electron arrangement and forces in atoms result in periodic trends (e.g., in atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity) in the periodic table

11-SCH3U.B3.4.

Explain the differences between the formation of ionic bonds and the formation of covalent bonds

11-SCH3U.B3.5.

Compare and contrast the physical properties of ionic and molecular compounds (e.g., NaCl and CH4; NaOH and H2O)

11-SCH3U.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.C1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, chemical reactions used in various industrial processes (e.g., pulp and paper production, mining, chemical manufacturing) that can have an impact on the health and safety of local populations [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SCH3U.C1.2.

Assess the effectiveness of some applications of chemical reactions that are used to address social and environmental needs and problems [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.C2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to chemical reactions, including, but not limited to: neutralization, precipitate, acidic, and basic [C]

11-SCH3U.C2.2.

Write balanced chemical equations to represent synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, and combustion reactions, using the IUPAC nomenclature system [PR, AI, C]

11-SCH3U.C2.3.

Investigate synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, and double displacement reactions, by testing the products of each reaction (e.g., test for products such as gases, the presence of an acid, or the presence of a base) [PR, AI]

11-SCH3U.C2.4.

Predict the products of different types of synthesis and decomposition reactions (e.g., synthesis reactions in which simple compounds are formed; synthesis reactions of metallic or non-metallic oxides with water; decomposition reactions, in which a chemical compound is separated into several compounds) [AI]

11-SCH3U.C2.6.

Predict the products of double displacement reactions (e.g., the formation of precipitates or gases; neutralization) [AI]

11-SCH3U.C2.7.

Design an inquiry to demonstrate the difference between a complete and an incomplete combustion reaction [IP, C]

11-SCH3U.C2.8.

Plan and conduct an inquiry to compare the properties of non-metal oxide solutions and metal oxide solutions (e.g., carbon dioxide reacts with water to make water acidic; magnesium oxide reacts with water to make water basic) [IP, PR, AI]

11-SCH3U.C2.9.

Investigate neutralization reactions (e.g., neutralize a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide with a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid, and isolate the sodium chloride produced) [PR]

11-SCH3U.C3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.C3.1.

Identify various types of chemical reactions, including synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, and combustion

11-SCH3U.C3.2.

Explain the difference between a complete combustion reaction and an incomplete combustion reaction (e.g., complete and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels)

11-SCH3U.C3.3.

Explain the chemical reactions that result in the formation of acids and bases from metal oxides and non-metal oxides (e.g., calcium oxide reacts with water to produce a basic solution; carbon dioxide reacts with water to produce an acidic solution)

11-SCH3U.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.D1.1.

Analyse processes in the home, the workplace, and the environmental sector that involve the use of chemical quantities and calculations (e.g., mixing household cleaning solutions, calculating chemotherapy doses, monitoring pollen counts) [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.D1.2.

Assess, on the basis of research, the importance of quantitative accuracy in industrial chemical processes and the potential impact on the environment if quantitative accuracy is not observed [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SCH3U.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to quantities in chemical reactions, including, but not limited to: stoichiometry, percentage yield, limiting reagent, mole, and atomic mass [C]

11-SCH3U.D2.3.

Solve problems related to quantities in chemical reactions by performing calculations involving quantities in moles, number of particles, and atomic mass [AI]

11-SCH3U.D2.4.

Determine the empirical formulae and molecular formulae of various chemical compounds, given molar masses and percentage composition or mass data [AI]

11-SCH3U.D2.5.

Calculate the corresponding mass, or quantity in moles or molecules, for any given reactant or product in a balanced chemical equation as well as for any other reactant or product in the chemical reaction [AI]

11-SCH3U.D2.6.

Solve problems related to quantities in chemical reactions by performing calculations involving percentage yield and limiting reagents [AI]

11-SCH3U.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.D3.1.

Explain the law of definite proportions

11-SCH3U.D3.2.

Describe the relationships between Avogadro's number, the mole concept, and the molar mass of any given substance

11-SCH3U.D3.3.

Explain the relationship between the empirical formula and the molecular formula of a chemical compound

11-SCH3U.D3.4.

Explain the quantitative relationships expressed in a balanced chemical equation, using appropriate units of measure (e.g., moles, grams, atoms, ions, molecules)

11-SCH3U.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.E1.1.

Analyse the origins and cumulative effects of pollutants that enter our water systems (e.g., landfill leachates, agricultural run-off, industrial effluents, chemical spills), and explain how these pollutants affect water quality [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.E1.2.

Analyse economic, social, and environmental issues related to the distribution, purification, or use of drinking water (e.g., the impact on the environment of the use of bottled water) [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to aqueous solutions and solubility, including, but not limited to: concentration, solubility, precipitate, ionization, dissociation, pH, dilute, solute, and solvent [C]

11-SCH3U.E2.2.

Solve problems related to the concentration of solutions by performing calculations involving moles, and express the results in various units (e.g., moles per litre, grams per 100 mL, parts per million or parts per billion, mass, volume per cent) [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.E2.3.

Prepare solutions of a given concentration by dissolving a solid solute in a solvent or by diluting a concentrated solution [PR]

11-SCH3U.E2.4.

Conduct an investigation to analyse qualitative and quantitative properties of solutions (e.g., perform a qualitative analysis of ions in a solution) [PR, AI]

11-SCH3U.E2.5.

Write balanced net ionic equations to represent precipitation and neutralization reactions [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.E2.6.

Use stoichiometry to solve problems involving solutions and solubility [AI]

11-SCH3U.E2.7.

Determine the concentration of an acid or a base in a solution (e.g., the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar), using the acid-base titration technique [PR, AI]

11-SCH3U.E2.8.

Conduct an investigation to determine the concentrations of pollutants in their local treated drinking water, and compare the results to commonly used guidelines and standards (e.g., provincial and federal standards) [PR, AI]

11-SCH3U.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.E3.1.

Describe the properties of water (e.g., polarity, hydrogen bonding), and explain why these properties make water such a good solvent

11-SCH3U.E3.2.

Explain the process of formation for solutions that are produced by dissolving ionic and molecular compounds (e.g., salt, oxygen) in water, and for solutions that are produced by dissolving non-polar solutes in non-polar solvents (e.g., grease in vegetable oil)

11-SCH3U.E3.3.

Explain the effects of changes in temperature and pressure on the solubility of solids, liquids, and gases (e.g., explain how a change in temperature or atmospheric pressure affects the solubility of oxygen in lake water)

11-SCH3U.E3.4.

Identify, using a solubility table, the formation of precipitates in aqueous solutions (e.g., the use of iron or aluminum compounds to precipitate and remove phosphorus from wastewater)

11-SCH3U.E3.5.

Explain the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases

11-SCH3U.E3.6.

Explain the difference between strong and weak acids, and between strong and weak bases, in terms of degree of ionization

11-SCH3U.F1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.F1.1.

Analyse the effects on air quality of some technologies and human activities (e.g., smelting; driving gas-powered vehicles), including their own activities, and propose actions to reduce their personal carbon footprint [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.F1.2.

Assess air quality conditions for a given Canadian location, using Environment Canada's Air Quality Health Index, and report on some Canadian initiatives to improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases (e.g., Ontario's Drive Clean program to control vehicle emissions) [AI, C]

11-SCH3U.F2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.F2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to gases and atmospheric chemistry, including, but not limited to: standard temperature, standard pressure, molar volume, and ideal gas [C]

11-SCH3U.F2.2.

Determine, through inquiry, the quantitative and graphical relationships between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas [PR, AI]

11-SCH3U.F2.3.

Solve quantitative problems by performing calculations based on Boyle's law, Charles's law, Gay-Lussac's law, the combined gas law, Dalton's law of partial pressures, and the ideal gas law [AI]

11-SCH3U.F2.4.

Use stoichiometry to solve problems related to chemical reactions involving gases (e.g., problems involving moles, number of atoms, number of molecules, mass, and volume) [AI]

11-SCH3U.F2.5.

Determine, through inquiry, the molar volume or molar mass of a gas produced by a chemical reaction (e.g., the molar volume of hydrogen gas from the reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric acid) [PR, AI]

11-SCH3U.F3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SCH3U.F3.1.

Identify the major and minor chemical components of Earth's atmosphere

11-SCH3U.F3.2.

Describe the different states of matter, and explain their differences in terms of the forces between atoms, molecules, and ions

11-SCH3U.F3.3.

Use the kinetic molecular theory to explain the properties and behaviour of gases in terms of types and degrees of molecular motion

11-SCH3U.F3.4.

Describe, for an ideal gas, the quantitative relationships that exist between the variables of pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of substance

11-SCH3U.F3.5.

Explain Dalton's law of partial pressures, Boyle's law, Charles's law, Gay-Lussac's law, the combined gas law, and the ideal gas law

11-SCH3U.F3.6.

Explain Avogadro's hypothesis and how his contribution to the gas laws has increased our understanding of the chemical reactions of gases

11-SPH3U.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.A1.1.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Formulate relevant scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, or issues, make informed predictions, and/or formulate educated hypotheses to focus inquiries or research

11-SPH3U.A1.10.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions with reference to scientific knowledge

11-SPH3U.A1.11.

Communicating [C]: Communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)

11-SPH3U.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric (e.g., SI and imperial units), symbolic, and graphic modes of representation for qualitative and quantitative data (e.g., vector diagrams, free-body diagrams, algebraic equations)

11-SPH3U.A1.13.

Communicating [C]: Express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely, to the appropriate number of decimal places or significant figures

11-SPH3U.A1.2.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Select appropriate instruments (e.g., probeware, calorimeters, pendulums, solenoids) and materials (e.g., drag sleds, electric bells, balls, ramps), and identify appropriate methods, techniques, and procedures, for each inquiry

11-SPH3U.A1.3.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Identify and locate a variety of print and electronic sources that enable them to address research topics fully and appropriately

11-SPH3U.A1.4.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Apply knowledge and understanding of safe laboratory practices and procedures when planning investigations by correctly interpreting Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) symbols; by using appropriate techniques for handling and storing laboratory equipment and materials and disposing of laboratory materials; and by using appropriate personal protection

11-SPH3U.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling relevant variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using appropriate materials and equipment safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

11-SPH3U.A1.6.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Compile accurate data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data, using appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams

11-SPH3U.A1.7.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from a variety of appropriate sources, including electronic, print, and/or human sources, using suitable formats and an accepted form of academic documentation

11-SPH3U.A1.8.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Synthesize, analyse, interpret, and evaluate qualitative and/or quantitative data; solve problems involving quantitative data; determine whether the evidence supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis and whether it is consistent with scientific theory; identify sources of bias and/or error; and suggest improvements to the inquiry to reduce the likelihood of error

11-SPH3U.A1.9.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse the information gathered from research sources for logic, accuracy, reliability, adequacy, and bias

11-SPH3U.A2.

Career Exploration: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., theoretical physicist; communications, networks, and control systems professional; engineer; metallurgist) and the education and training necessary for these careers

11-SPH3U.A2.2.

Describe the contributions of scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Richard E. Taylor, Leonard T. Bruton, Willard S. Boyle, Martha Salcudean, Harriet Brooks, Louis Slotin), to the fields under study

11-SPH3U.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.B1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, a technology that applies concepts related to kinematics (e.g., devices used to measure speed in sports; rocket accelerators; motion-detecting sensors for security systems; speedometers in automobiles) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SPH3U.B1.2.

Assess the impact on society and the environment of a technology that applies concepts related to kinematics (e.g., photo radar helps prevent vehicular accidents and reduces fuel consumption associated with excessive speeding) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to kinematics, including, but not limited to: time, distance, position, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration [C]

11-SPH3U.B2.2.

Analyse and interpret position-time, velocity- time, and acceleration-time graphs of motion in one dimension (e.g., use tangent slopes to create velocity-time graphs from position-time graphs and acceleration-time graphs from velocity-time graphs; use the area under the curve to create position-time graphs from velocity-time graphs and velocity-time graphs from acceleration-time graphs) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.B2.3.

Use a velocity-time graph for constant acceleration to derive the equation for average velocity [e.g., v average = (v1 + v2)/2] and the equations for displacement [e.g., change in d = ((v1 + v2)/2) change in t, change in d = v1(change in t) + 1/2a(change in t^2)], and solve simple problems in one dimension using these equations [AI]

11-SPH3U.B2.4.

Conduct an inquiry into the uniform and non-uniform linear motion of an object (e.g., use probeware to record the motion of a cart moving at a constant velocity or a constant acceleration; view a computer simulation of an object attaining terminal velocity; observe a video of a bouncing ball or a skydiver; observe the motion of a balloon with a small mass suspended from it) [PR]

11-SPH3U.B2.5.

Solve problems involving distance, position, and displacement (e.g., find total displacement using a scale vector diagram and vector components, and compare it to total distance travelled) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.B2.6.

Plan and conduct an inquiry into the motion of objects in one dimension, using vector diagrams and uniform acceleration equations [IP, PR, C]

11-SPH3U.B2.7.

Solve problems involving uniform and non-uniform linear motion in one and two dimensions, using graphical analysis and algebraic equations [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.B2.8.

Use kinematic equations to solve problems related to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of a projectile (e.g., a cannon ball shot horizontally off a cliff, a ball rolling off a table, a golf ball launched at a 45 degree angle to the horizontal) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.B2.9.

Conduct an inquiry into the projectile motion of an object, and analyse, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the relationship between the horizontal and vertical components (e.g., airborne time, range, maximum height, horizontal velocity, vertical velocity) [PR, AI]

11-SPH3U.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.B3.1.

Distinguish between the terms constant, instantaneous, and average with reference to speed, velocity, and acceleration, and provide examples to illustrate each term

11-SPH3U.B3.2.

Distinguish between, and provide examples of, scalar and vector quantities as they relate to the description of uniform and non-uniform linear motion (e.g., time, distance, position, velocity, acceleration)

11-SPH3U.B3.3.

Describe the characteristics and give examples of a projectile's motion in vertical and horizontal planes

11-SPH3U.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.C1.1.

Analyse, with reference to Newton's laws, a technology that applies these laws (e.g., extremely low friction bearings, near frictionless carbon, different types of athletic shoes, roller coasters), and propose ways to improve its performance [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.C1.2.

Evaluate the impact on society and the environment of technologies that use the principles of force (e.g., prosthetics, plastic car bodies) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.C2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to forces, including, but not limited to: mass, time, speed, velocity, acceleration, friction, gravity, normal force, and free-body diagrams [C]

11-SPH3U.C2.2.

Conduct an inquiry that applies Newton's laws to analyse, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the forces acting on an object, and use free-body diagrams to determine the net force and the acceleration of the object [PR, AI, C]

11-SPH3U.C2.3.

Conduct an inquiry into the relationship between the acceleration of an object and its net force and mass (e.g., view a computer simulation of an object attaining terminal velocity; observe the motion of an object subject to friction; use electronic probes to observe the motion of an object being pulled across the floor), and analyse the resulting data [PR, AI]

11-SPH3U.C2.4.

Analyse the relationships between acceleration and applied forces such as the force of gravity, normal force, force of friction, coefficient of static friction, and coefficient of kinetic friction, and solve related problems involving forces in one dimension, using free-body diagrams and algebraic equations (e.g., use a drag sled to find the coefficient of friction between two surfaces) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.C2.5.

Plan and conduct an inquiry to analyse the effect of forces acting on objects in one dimension, using vector diagrams, free-body diagrams, and Newton's laws [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SPH3U.C2.6.

Analyse and solve problems involving the relationship between the force of gravity and acceleration for objects in free fall [AI]

11-SPH3U.C3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.C3.1.

Distinguish between, and provide examples of, different forces (e.g., friction, gravity, normal force), and describe the effect of each type of force on the velocity of an object

11-SPH3U.C3.2.

Explain how the theories and discoveries of Galileo and Newton advanced knowledge of the effects of forces on the motion of objects

11-SPH3U.C3.3.

State Newton's laws, and apply them, in qualitative terms, to explain the effect of forces acting on objects

11-SPH3U.C3.4.

Describe, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the relationships between mass, gravitational field strength, and force of gravity

11-SPH3U.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.D1.1.

Analyse, using the principles of energy transformations, a technology that involves the transfer and transformation of thermal energy (e.g., a power station, an air conditioner, a fuel cell, a laser printer) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.D1.2.

Assess, on the basis of research, how technologies related to nuclear, thermal, or geothermal energy affect society and the environment (e.g., thermal regulating units, radiopharmaceuticals, dry-steam power plants, ground-source heat pumps) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SPH3U.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to energy transformations, including, but not limited to: mechanical energy, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, work, power, fission, fusion, heat, heat capacity, temperature, and latent heat [C]

11-SPH3U.D2.10.

Solve problems involving changes in temperature and changes of state, using algebraic equations (e.g., Q = mc change in T, Q = mLf , Q = mLv) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.D2.11.

Draw and analyse heating and cooling curves that show temperature changes and changes of state for various substances [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.D2.2.

Solve problems relating to work, force, and displacement along the line of force [AI]

11-SPH3U.D2.3.

Use the law of conservation of energy to solve problems in simple situations involving work, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and thermal energy and its transfer (heat) [AI]

11-SPH3U.D2.4.

Plan and conduct inquiries involving transformations between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy (e.g., using a pendulum, a falling ball, an object rolling down a ramp) to test the law of conservation of energy [IP, PR]

11-SPH3U.D2.5.

Solve problems involving the relationship between power, energy, and time [AI]

11-SPH3U.D2.6.

Conduct inquiries and solve problems involving the relationship between power and work (e.g., the power of a student using different types of fitness equipment) [PR, AI]

11-SPH3U.D2.7.

Compare and contrast the input energy, useful output energy, and per cent efficiency of selected energy generation methods (e.g., hydroelectric, thermal, geothermal, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, wind, solar) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.D2.8.

Investigate the relationship between the concepts of conservation of mass and conservation of energy, and solve problems using the mass- energy equivalence [PR, AI]

11-SPH3U.D2.9.

Conduct an inquiry to determine the specific heat capacity of a single substance (e.g., aluminum, iron, brass) and of two substances when they are mixed together (e.g., the heat lost by a sample of hot water and the heat gained by a sample of cold water when the two samples are mixed together) [PR]

11-SPH3U.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.D3.1.

Describe a variety of energy transfers and transformations, and explain them using the law of conservation of energy

11-SPH3U.D3.10.

Compare the characteristics of (e.g., mass, charge, speed, penetrating power, ionizing ability) and safety precautions related to alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays

11-SPH3U.D3.11.

Explain radioactive half-life for a given radioisotope, and describe its applications and their consequences

11-SPH3U.D3.12.

Explain the energy transformations that occur within a nuclear power plant, with reference to the laws of thermodynamics (e.g., nuclear fission results in the liberation of energy, which is converted into thermal energy; the thermal energy is converted into electrical energy and waste heat, using a steam turbine)

11-SPH3U.D3.2.

Explain the concepts of and interrelationships between energy, work, and power, and identify and describe their related units

11-SPH3U.D3.3.

Explain the following concepts, giving examples of each, and identify their related units: thermal energy, kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, heat, specific heat capacity, specific latent heat, power, and efficiency

11-SPH3U.D3.4.

Identify, qualitatively, the relationship between efficiency and thermal energy transfer

11-SPH3U.D3.5.

Describe, with reference to force and displacement along the line of force, the conditions that are required for work to be done

11-SPH3U.D3.6.

Describe and compare nuclear fission and nuclear fusion

11-SPH3U.D3.7.

Explain, using the kinetic molecular theory, the energy transfer that occurs during changes of state

11-SPH3U.D3.8.

Distinguish between and provide examples of conduction, convection, and radiation

11-SPH3U.D3.9.

Identify and describe the structure of common nuclear isotopes (e.g., hydrogen, deuterium, tritium)

11-SPH3U.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.E1.1.

Analyse how properties of mechanical waves and sound influence the design of structures and technological devices (e.g., the acoustical design of a concert hall; the design of headphones, hearing aids, musical instruments, wave pools) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.E1.2.

Analyse the negative impact that mechanical waves and/or sound can have on society and the environment, and assess the effectiveness of a technology intended to reduce this impact [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to mechanical waves and sound, including, but not limited to: longitudinal wave, transverse wave, frequency, period, cycle, amplitude, phase, wavelength, velocity, superposition, constructive interference, destructive interference, standing waves, and resonance [C]

11-SPH3U.E2.2.

Conduct laboratory inquiries or computer simulations involving mechanical waves and their interference (e.g., using a mass oscillating on a spring, a mass oscillating on a pendulum, the oscillation in a string instrument) [PR]

11-SPH3U.E2.3.

Plan and conduct inquiries to determine the speed of waves in a medium (e.g., a vibrating air column, an oscillating string of a musical instrument), compare theoretical and empirical values, and account for discrepancies [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SPH3U.E2.4.

Investigate the relationship between the wavelength, frequency, and speed of a wave, and solve related problems [PR, AI]

11-SPH3U.E2.5.

Analyse the relationship between a moving source of sound and the change in frequency perceived by a stationary observer (i.e., the Doppler effect) [AI]

11-SPH3U.E2.6.

Predict the conditions needed to produce resonance in vibrating objects or air columns (e.g., in a wind instrument, a string instrument, a tuning fork), and test their predictions through inquiry [IP, PR, AI]

11-SPH3U.E2.7.

Analyse the conditions required to produce resonance in vibrating objects and/or in air columns (e.g., in a string instrument, a tuning fork, a wind instrument), and explain how resonance is used in a variety of situations (e.g., to produce different notes in musical instruments; to limit undesirable vibrations in suspension bridges; to design buildings so that they do not resonate at the frequencies produced by earthquakes) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.E3.1.

Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves in different media, and provide examples of both types of waves

11-SPH3U.E3.2.

Explain the components of resonance, and identify the conditions required for resonance to occur in vibrating objects and in various media (e.g., with reference to a musical instrument, a child on a swing, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge)

11-SPH3U.E3.3.

Explain and graphically illustrate the principle of superposition with respect to standing waves and beat frequencies

11-SPH3U.E3.4.

Identify the properties of standing waves, and, for both mechanical and sound waves, explain the conditions required for standing waves to occur

11-SPH3U.E3.5.

Explain the relationship between the speed of sound in various media and the particle nature of the media (e.g., the speed of sound in solids, liquids, and gases; the speed of sound in warm and cold air)

11-SPH3U.E3.6.

Explain selected natural phenomena (e.g., echo location, or organisms that produce or receive infrasonic, audible, or ultrasonic sound) with reference to the characteristics and properties of waves

11-SPH3U.F1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.F1.1.

Analyse the social and economic impact of technologies related to electromagnetism (e.g., particle accelerators, mass spectrometers, magnetic levitation [maglev] trains, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], electromagnetic pulses after nuclear explosions) [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.F1.2.

Analyse the efficiency and the environmental impact of one type of electrical energy production (e.g., from hydroelectric, fossil fuel-burning, wind, solar, geothermal, or nuclear sources), and propose ways to improve the sustainability of electrical energy production [AI, C]

11-SPH3U.F2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.F2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to electricity and magnetism, including, but not limited to: direct current, alternating current, conventional current, electron flow, electrical potential difference, electrical resistance, power, energy, step-up transformer, and step-down transformer [C]

11-SPH3U.F2.2.

Analyse diagrams of series, parallel, and mixed circuits with reference to Ohm's law (V = IR) and Kirchhoff's laws [AI]

11-SPH3U.F2.3.

Design and build real or computer-simulated mixed direct current (DC) circuits, and explain the circuits with reference to direct current, potential difference, and resistance [PR, C]

11-SPH3U.F2.4.

Conduct an inquiry to identify the characteristics and properties of magnetic fields (e.g., using magnetic compasses, iron filings, and electric and magnetic field sensors) [PR]

11-SPH3U.F2.5.

Investigate, through laboratory inquiry or computer simulation, the magnetic fields produced by an electric current flowing through a long straight conductor and a solenoid (e.g., use sensors to map the magnetic field around a solenoid) [PR]

11-SPH3U.F2.6.

Solve problems involving energy, power, potential difference, current, and the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils of a transformer [AI]

11-SPH3U.F2.7.

Investigate electromagnetic induction, and, using Lenz's law, the law of conservation of energy, and the right-hand rule, explain and illustrate the direction of the electric current induced by a changing magnetic field [PR, AI, C]

11-SPH3U.F2.8.

Construct a prototype of a device that uses the principles of electromagnetism (e.g., an electric bell, loudspeaker, ammeter, electric motor, electric generator), and test and refine their device [PR, AI]

11-SPH3U.F3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SPH3U.F3.1.

Describe the properties of magnetic fields in permanent magnets and electromagnets (e.g., the three-dimensional nature of fields, continuous field lines, fields around current-carrying conductors and coils)

11-SPH3U.F3.2.

Explain, by applying the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic field produced when electric current flows through a long straight conductor and through a solenoid

11-SPH3U.F3.3.

Distinguish between conventional current and electron flow in relation to the left- and right-hand rules

11-SPH3U.F3.4.

Explain Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's laws, Oersted's principle, the motor principle, Faraday's law, and Lenz's law in relation to electricity and magnetism

11-SPH3U.F3.5.

Describe the production and interaction of magnetic fields, using diagrams and the principles of electromagnetism (e.g., Oersted's principle, the motor principle, Faraday's law, Lenz's law)

11-SPH3U.F3.6.

Explain the operation of an electric motor and a generator, including the roles of their respective components

11-SPH3U.F3.7.

Distinguish between alternating current (AC) and direct current, and explain why alternating current is presently used in the transmission of electrical energy

11-SPH3U.F3.8.

Describe the components of step-up and step-down transformers, and, using concepts and principles related to electric current and magnetic fields, explain the operation of these transformers

11-SPH3U.F3.9.

Describe and explain safety precautions (e.g., ''call before you dig'', current-limiting outlets in bathrooms) related to electrical circuits and higher transmission voltages (e.g., with reference to transformer substations, buried cables, overhead power lines)

11-SVN3E.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)

11-SVN3E.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling relevant variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using appropriate materials and equipment safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

11-SVN3E.A2.

Career Exploration: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., hydro meter reader, hospitality employee, waste management operator, custodian) and the education and training necessary for these careers

11-SVN3E.A2.2.

Describe the contributions of scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Mark Schacter, Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Marlo Reynolds, J. Ross MacKay, Linda Duncan), to the fields under study

11-SVN3E.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.B1.1.

Propose possible solutions, on the basis of research, to a current practical environmental problem that is caused, directly or indirectly, by human activities [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3E.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology relating to the environmental impact of human activity, including, but not limited to: carbon footprint, carbon neutral, biodegradable, biodiversity, carrying capacity, sustainability, and invasive and native species [C]

11-SVN3E.B2.2.

Plan and conduct an inquiry, using appropriate technology, to compare soil quality in natural and disturbed environments (e.g., compare the phosphorous content, pH, organic matter content, water content, water-holding capacity, nutrient content, porosity, and/or bulk density of soil from a forest or meadow and soil from a garden or farmer's field that has been treated with chemical fertilizer) [IP, PR, AI]

11-SVN3E.B2.3.

Plan and conduct an inquiry, using appropriate technology, to compare water quality in natural and disturbed environments (e.g., compare the pH, ion content, temperature, dissolved oxygen content, hardness, turbidity, biological oxygen demand [BOD], and/or fecal coliform of tap water, water from a pond or stream, and water from a drainage ditch) [IP, PR, AI]

11-SVN3E.B2.4.

Analyse and interpret data on particulate matter in air samples from several different regions of Canada, using prepared data from a variety of sources (e.g., the Ontario Ministry of the Environment - Air Quality Ontario, Environment Canada) [AI]

11-SVN3E.B2.5.

Plan and conduct a waste audit of their home or school [IP, PR]

11-SVN3E.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.B3.1.

Identify the basic components of soil, water, and air, and describe some of the effects of human activity on soil, water, and air quality (e.g., the effects of industrial or vehicle emissions on air quality; of chemical spills on soil quality; of chlorination on water quality)

11-SVN3E.B3.2.

Explain the concept of the cycling of substances in ecosystems (e.g., fertilizers made from biosolids leach into ground water or run off into rivers and streams, where the chemicals are absorbed by aquatic life, which is in turn consumed by humans)

11-SVN3E.B3.3.

Explain common methods of sampling soil, water, and air for analysis (e.g., soil core sampling, depth integrated sampling, stack sampling systems) and of monitoring soil, water, and air quality over time

11-SVN3E.B3.4.

Explain the concept of a ''carbon footprint'' and how it is used to measure the impact on the environment of a range of human activities

11-SVN3E.B3.5.

Explain the effects of human activity on an aquatic or terrestrial ecosystem (e.g., the impact of fertilizer run-off, acid precipitation, or an oil spill on an aquatic ecosystem)

11-SVN3E.B3.6.

Explain how human activities (e.g., agriculture, travel, the purchase of exotic pets, importing and exporting, releasing domesticated fish into fresh water environments, the use of live bait) have led to the introduction of invasive species, and why it is important to measure and monitor the impact of invasive species on native species

11-SVN3E.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.C1.1.

Assess, on the basis of research, the effects on human health of a significant environmental phenomenon (e.g., the ice storm of 1998 in central Canada, the European heatwave of 2003), and communicate their findings [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3E.C1.2.

Analyse how environmental contaminants can affect the health of different populations in Canada (e.g., mercury contamination in streams and rivers in Northern Ontario where Aboriginal people fish, toxins in Arctic sea mammals hunted by Inuit, smog in large cities) [AI, C]

11-SVN3E.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.C2.1.

Use appropriate vocabulary related to human health and the environment, including, but not limited to: smog, environmental contaminants, pathogens, inhalation, ingestion, and absorption [C]

11-SVN3E.C2.2.

Investigate, using a research process, and report on an environmental factor that can have an impact on human health (e.g., smog, ultraviolet [UV] rays, bacteria, pesticide residue), and explain how their personal lifestyle choices can affect its impact (e.g., avoiding strenuous physical activity on days when there is a smog alert can reduce the severity of respiratory ailments; lying on the beach without sunscreen or sun protective clothing during peak UV hours can increase the risk of skin cancer) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3E.C2.3.

Investigate the characteristics of a personal protective device or substance (e.g., sunscreen, mosquito repellent, respiratory mask, sun protective clothing) and whether the device or substance is effective in protecting a person from an environmental factor that can affect human health [PR, AI]

11-SVN3E.C3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.C3.1.

Describe common environmental factors, including pollution and environmental contaminants (e.g., air, noise, soil, and water pollution; UV rays; heat; heavy metals; workplace chemicals; pathogens), and explain how they can affect human health

11-SVN3E.C3.2.

Describe various ways in which environmental contaminants can enter the human body (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, absorption)

11-SVN3E.C3.3.

Explain how the human body can react to exposure to a variety of environmental factors (e.g., rashes, asthma, mercury poisoning, hearing loss, diseases such as malaria and cancer)

11-SVN3E.C3.4.

Describe medical and non-medical ways to protect oneself from the effects of harmful environmental factors (e.g., vaccination or medication, washing of fruits and vegetables, use of sunscreen or insect repellent, use of personal protective devices)

11-SVN3E.C3.5.

Describe good personal hygiene and household cleanliness practices that reduce health risks resulting from environmental contaminants (e.g., thorough hand washing, use of air filters, reduced use of household chemicals)

11-SVN3E.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.D1.1.

Assess, on the basis of research, the impact that initiatives for reducing energy consumption and waste have on personal lifestyles, societal attitudes, and the environment (e.g., local, provincial, or national initiatives by government, business, or non-governmental organizations) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3E.D1.2.

Evaluate, on the basis of research, some of the advantages or disadvantages of technological innovations that contribute to the production of renewable energy and/or aid in conservation (e.g., bio-oil, biodiesel, wind turbines, improved insulation, programmable thermostats) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3E.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to energy conservation and consumption, including, but not limited to: conventional source, alternative source, efficiency, watt, kilowatt-hour [kWh], joule, BTU, gas meter, electric meter, thermostat, and EnerGuide [C]

11-SVN3E.D2.2.

Determine the energy consumption of their household over a given time period by reading and interpreting gas and/or electric meters, calculate the cost of consumption (e.g., the number of kWh x cost per kWh, cubic meters of gas x cost per cubic meter), and suggest ways in which the household could conserve energy [PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3E.D2.3.

Use a research or inquiry process to compare the efficiency of different types or brands of a common household appliance (e.g., different brands of kettles, fans, or refrigerators; natural gas and electric water heaters) or of audio-visual equipment (e.g., different types of computer monitors), and report their findings [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3E.D2.4.

Conduct a risk-benefit analysis of different types of electricity generation (e.g., fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, wind, and/or solar power) [PR, AI]

11-SVN3E.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.D3.1.

Explain the basic principles and characteristics of various types of power generation from nonrenewable sources (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear) and renewable sources (e.g., hydroelectric, tidal, geothermal, solar, wind, hydrogen fuel cells)

11-SVN3E.D3.2.

Compare and contrast renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, using criteria such as availability, cost, and environmental impact (e.g., compare a fossil fuel and geothermal energy, using a graphic organizer)

11-SVN3E.D3.3.

Describe methods of energy conservation (e.g., the replacement of incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs, the replacement of a manual thermostat with a programmable one, the installation of more energy-efficient windows) and some policies that are intended to manage energy demand in the home and the workplace (e.g., variable pricing, which increases the price of electricity during peak hours)

11-SVN3E.D3.4.

Describe several criteria used in the construction of energy-efficient buildings (e.g., ''smart homes'', in which the use of light, heat, and power for equipment can be programmed; R-2000 homes; straw-bale houses)

11-SVN3E.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.E1.1.

Assess the environmental impact of industrial practices related to the extracting or harvesting of natural resources, and describe ways in which that impact can be monitored and minimized [AI, C]

11-SVN3E.E1.2.

Analyse, on the basis of research, the impact that an environmental contaminant, parasite, or bacteria has on the sustainability of a natural resource in Canada (e.g., the effects of PCBs on Arctic sea mammals, of sea lice on farmed and wild salmon, of E. coli on water resources) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3E.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to natural resources and resource management, including, but not limited to: population, bioamplification, sampling size, sustainability, ore, mineral, tailings, and succession [C]

11-SVN3E.E2.2.

Identify and classify a variety of natural resources found in Canada, using appropriate classification systems (e.g., dichotomous keys, botanical keys, tree identification guides, wildlife guides, mineral tests) [PR, AI]

11-SVN3E.E2.3.

Investigate, through laboratory inquiry, field study, or simulations, some of the methods and procedures used by scientists to monitor biodiversity in different environments (e.g., making plant tallies in forests; tagging or marking ground vegetation species in fields; tagging and tracking wildlife with the global positioning system in remote areas; using aquatic dip nets for sampling organisms in shallow ponds or streams) [PR]

11-SVN3E.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.E3.1.

Describe the main types of natural resources found in Canada (e.g., forests, minerals, fisheries, wildlife, water, fossil fuels)

11-SVN3E.E3.2.

Describe the characteristics and properties that make a natural resource viable for use (e.g., the size, type, and location of trees; the value, location, and extraction and processing costs of minerals), and explain the importance of managing natural resources to ensure sustainability and biodiversity

11-SVN3E.E3.3.

Describe a variety of methods used to extract or harvest natural resources (e.g., drag nets, strip mining, selective cutting of forests)

11-SVN3E.E3.4.

Explain how a variety of sampling techniques (e.g., quadrant sampling, catch-and-release, core sampling to measure tree rings, counting annuli in scales to measure the age of fish) are used to gather information about natural resources

11-SVN3E.E3.5.

Explain the importance of biodiversity to the sustainability of life within an ecosystem (e.g., variability among biotic and abiotic factors within an ecosystem decreases the chance that any organism within that ecosystem will become extinct)

11-SVN3E.E3.6.

Describe some methods that scientists use to monitor biodiversity in aquatic and terrestrial environments (e.g., field data collection, aerial and satellite imagery)

11-SVN3E.F1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.F1.1.

Analyse unsafe working conditions that can affect young workers in various workplace situations (e.g., using information from the Live Safe! Work Smart! website; using information obtained during a co-op placement or through experiential learning), and propose a course of action that would help to improve one such situation [AI, C]

11-SVN3E.F1.2.

Analyse, on the basis of research, and report on the environmental impact of unsafe handling, storage, and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous workplace materials associated with a particular job [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3E.F2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.F2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to safety and environmental responsibility in the workplace, including, but not limited to: Mobius loop, Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), Hazardous Household Product Symbols (HHPS), hazardous material, and personal protective equipment (PPE) [C]

11-SVN3E.F2.2.

Demonstrate proper use of a variety of safety techniques and procedures after completing a recognized safety training program (e.g., a ''virtual WHMIS'' program such as Passport to Safety) [PR]

11-SVN3E.F2.3.

Conduct an inventory of hazardous products, safety equipment, and personal protective equipment found in a workplace, using an accepted tool (e.g., a FireSmart Assessment test from the Ministry of Natural Resources), and communicate the results using a table or checklist [PR, C]

11-SVN3E.F2.4.

Use appropriate techniques for handling, storing, and disposing of teacher-selected materials, drawing on Material Safety Data Sheets and Canadian Environmental Protection Act regulations (e.g., use appropriate personal protective equipment), and outline proper procedures for handling those materials in the workplace [PR, C]

11-SVN3E.F2.5.

Design and report on a plan for reusing, recycling, reducing the volume of, or disposing of a hazardous material found in the workplace (e.g., disposing of batteries, reusing motor or cooking oils for a different purpose) [IP, C]

11-SVN3E.F2.6.

Investigate the effectiveness of a personal protective device or environmental protection device for use in the workplace (e.g., compare two different spill kits for absorbing spills; test the key features of a mask for protection from airborne particulate matter; identify the appropriate types of eye protection for different situations) [PR, AI]

11-SVN3E.F3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3E.F3.1.

Describe some of the ways in which implementation of the 4Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover) in the workplace protects the environment (e.g., by reducing the production of garbage and recycling materials for daily use), and explain the meaning of different symbols used to promote these strategies (e.g., different representations of the Mobius loop [the international recycling symbol])

11-SVN3E.F3.2.

Compare some of the features, uses, and environmental implications of Hazardous Household Product Symbols and WHMIS hazard symbols

11-SVN3E.F3.3.

Identify and describe common types of biological, physical, and chemical hazards in the workplace (e.g., hazards posed by bacteria, noise, work at dangerous heights, use of chemicals and other hazardous materials) and associated accident-prevention methods (e.g., sterilization, soundproofing, use of five-point safety harnesses, use of safe storage cabinets, safe disposal of chemicals)

11-SVN3E.F3.4.

Explain how the use of personal protective equipment (e.g., aluminized gloves, a welding shield, ear plugs, a self-contained breathing apparatus, an air-purifying mask) minimizes exposure to hazardous materials that can enter the body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and injection

11-SVN3E.F3.5.

Identify some current workplace procedures, practices, and protocols that help to protect the environment (e.g., garbage separation, paper recycling, use of recycled products, ''telecommuting'' to workplaces, practices that conserve water and energy)

11-SVN3M.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)

11-SVN3M.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling relevant variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using appropriate materials and equipment safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

11-SVN3M.A2.

Career Exploration: Throughout this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., organic chemist, landscaper, conservationist, air quality technician, personal support worker, environmental lawyer) and the education and training necessary for these careers

11-SVN3M.A2.2.

Describe the contributions of scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Pierre Dansereau, Margaret Newton, Johan F. Dormaar, Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Severn Cullis-Suzuki), to the fields under study

11-SVN3M.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.B1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, social and economic issues related to a particular environmental challenge (e.g., overfishing, deforestation, acid rain, melting of the polar ice cap) and to efforts to address it [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3M.B1.2.

Analyse ways in which societal needs or demands have influenced scientific endeavours related to the environment (e.g., the development of drought- and pest-resistant crops to address the rising global need for food; research into alternative energy sources in response to demands to address the impact on climate change of burning fossil fuels) [AI, C]

11-SVN3M.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to the application of scientific knowledge and procedures to environmental issues, including, but not limited to: fact, inference, paradigm, objectivity, and causality [C]

11-SVN3M.B2.4.

Use a research process to investigate how evidence, theories, and paradigms reflecting a range of perspectives have contributed to our scientific knowledge about the environment (e.g., with respect to debates about climate change; regarding the relationship between the cod moratorium and seal populations in Atlantic Canada), and communicate their findings [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3M.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.B3.1.

Identify some major contemporary environmental challenges (e.g., global warming, acid precipitation), and explain their causes (e.g., deforestation, carbon and sulfur emissions) and effects (e.g., desertification, the creation of environmental refugees, the destruction of aquatic and terrestrial habitats)

11-SVN3M.B3.2.

Describe how scientists use a variety of processes (e.g., environmental impact assessments, environmental scans) to solve problems and answer questions related to the environment

11-SVN3M.B3.3.

Explain how new evidence affects scientific knowledge about the environment and leads to modifications of theory and/or shifts in paradigms (e.g., the impact of evidence of the effects of carbon dioxide emissions on theories of global warming)

11-SVN3M.B3.4.

Explain how an environmental challenge has led to advances in science or technology (e.g., scrubbers on smokestacks to decrease sulfur dioxide emissions, hybrid cars)

11-SVN3M.B3.5.

Describe a variety of human activities that have led to environmental problems (e.g., burning fossil fuels for transportation or power generation; waste disposal) and/or contributed to their solution (e.g., the development of renewable sources of energy; programs to reduce, reuse, and recycle)

11-SVN3M.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.C1.1.

Analyse grassroots initiatives that are intended to reduce the impact of environmental factors on human health (e.g., community cleanup of local aquatic or terrestrial environments; class action lawsuits against major polluters) [AI, C]

11-SVN3M.C1.2.

Evaluate the effectiveness of government initiatives that are intended to reduce the impact of environmental factors on human health (e.g., Ontario Ministry of the Environment smog advisories; provincial laws regulating drinking water; WHMIS regulations on hazardous material) [AI, C]

11-SVN3M.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.C2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to human health and the environment, including, but not limited to: contaminants, heavy metals, air pollution, and pesticide [C]

11-SVN3M.C2.2.

Analyse longitudinal data to determine the impact of various environmental factors that affect human health (e.g., air temperature, atmospheric greenhouse gases, contaminants in drinking water) [AI]

11-SVN3M.C2.3.

Investigate, through laboratory inquiry or field study, water samples from natural and disturbed environments (e.g., tap water; pond, river, or lake water from disturbed and undisturbed areas; water from an outdoor pool), and analyse the resulting data [PR, AI]

11-SVN3M.C2.4.

Analyse, on the basis of a laboratory inquiry, computer simulation, or field study, particulate matter in air (e.g., an air sample from an exhaust pipe or air vent, particles in a filter that cigarette smoke has passed through, particles caught on sticky paper set up in an open area) [PR, AI]

11-SVN3M.C2.5.

Investigate health standards for buildings and methods to retrofit or otherwise improve structures to reduce their negative impact on human health (e.g., the use of materials that do not contain volatile organic compounds, the use of biological air and water filters), and communicate their findings [PR, C]

11-SVN3M.C3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.C3.1.

Identify the main pollutants and environmental contaminants that can affect human health (e.g., air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, and particulates; noise pollution; heavy metals such as lead and mercury; DDT; PCBs; mould; volatile organic compounds such as acetone and chlorinated solvents)

11-SVN3M.C3.2.

Describe the effects of a variety of environmental factors on human health (e.g., air pollutants are associated with disorders such as asthma; consumption of fish products from contaminated water may lead to increased levels of heavy metals in the human body; the thinning of the ozone layer may lead to increased incidence of skin cancer; noise pollution may impair hearing)

11-SVN3M.C3.3.

Describe ways in which a variety of environmental contaminants (e.g., volatile organic compounds in paints, carpets, and cleaning products; mercury in fish; E. coli in the water at public beaches) can enter the human body (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, absorption)

11-SVN3M.C3.4.

Describe measures that can reduce exposure to environmental contaminants (e.g., wearing protective clothing or sunscreen, or remaining indoors during peak UV hours, to prevent exposure to ultraviolet rays; avoiding the use of paints, solvents, and cleaning agents that contain volatile organic compounds)

11-SVN3M.C3.5.

Identify a variety of populations who are particularly vulnerable to the effects of environmental factors, and explain why these populations are vulnerable (e.g., seniors are vulnerable to extreme temperatures because the ability to regulate body temperature diminishes as people age; Inuit who follow a traditional diet are vulnerable to contaminants that accumulate in the fatty tissue of sea mammals because these animals are their main food source)

11-SVN3M.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.D1.1.

Evaluate, on the basis of research, a variety of agricultural and forestry practices (e.g., companion planting, biological pest control, the use of genetically modified seed, forest fire control) with respect to their impact on the economy and the environment (e.g., the use of nematodes eliminates crop damage from grubs, thus contributing to better harvests, while reducing the use of toxic chemical pesticides; under some circumstances, forest thinning can help prevent or reduce the seriousness of forest fire, and its economic and environmental consequences) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3M.D1.2.

Evaluate, on the basis of research, the impact, including the long-term impact, of agricultural and forestry practices on human health (e.g., the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides; the use of growth hormones and antibiotics in livestock; the use of feed containing animal by-products; the clear-cutting of forests) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3M.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to sustainable agriculture and forestry, including, but not limited to: bioremediation, crop rotation, companion planting, organic product, humus, compost, mulch, silviculture, and naturalization [C]

11-SVN3M.D2.2.

Test samples of a variety of types of soil (e.g., clay, loam, commercial potting soil) to determine their nutrients and composition (e.g., pH; the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; porosity; moisture) [PR, AI]

11-SVN3M.D2.3.

Use an inquiry process to investigate the nutrients in and composition of a variety of compost samples (e.g., nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium; composition with respect to pH, porosity), and analyse the findings to determine appropriate uses for each sample [IP, PR, AI]

11-SVN3M.D2.4.

Prepare a soil mixture (e.g., using compost, manure, vermiculite, black earth, top soil, peat moss, loam, and/or sand) for a selected plant species, based on analysis of the criteria for optimal growth for that species (e.g., cactus, tomato plants, wheat, jack pine) [PR, AI]

11-SVN3M.D2.5.

Use a research process to investigate environmentally sustainable methods of managing and maintaining healthy and productive agricultural zones and forests (e.g., companion planting, crop rotation, selective tree-harvesting, planting a diverse canopy) [IP, PR]

11-SVN3M.D2.6.

Design a landscaping project for their local area (e.g., a rooftop garden, a plot in a community garden, a riparian restoration), taking into account local conditions (e.g., zone hardiness, soil composition, amount of sunlight and rainfall), and propose a course of action to ensure the sustainability of the project and its healthy interaction with the surrounding environment (e.g., companion gardening, the use of compost to fertilize the soil, the use of native plants, the inclusion of plants that attract birds or butterflies) [IP, PR, AI]

11-SVN3M.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.D3.1.

Explain the basic principles of various agricultural and forestry practices (e.g., Integrated Pest Management), and identify regulations and regulatory bodies associated with these practices (e.g., Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency [PMRA], the Pest Control Products Act)

11-SVN3M.D3.2.

Describe the basic requirements for plant growth (e.g., growing medium, light, moisture, nutrients)

11-SVN3M.D3.3.

Describe the soil components (e.g., pH, moisture, the percentage of humus, porosity with respect to water and air) needed by a variety of plants for optimal growth

11-SVN3M.D3.4.

Explain different ecologically sound practices for improving and maintaining soil structure and fertility (e.g., crop rotation, fallowing, adding compost or manure, inter-seeding grains and legumes, mulching, tree harvesting using a shelterwood system)

11-SVN3M.D3.5.

Explain agricultural techniques and forestry practices that aim to maintain both biodiversity and long-term productivity (e.g., growing a variety of species, inter-planting crops, planting native and heritage varietals instead of hybrids or transgenic species, saving seeds, maintaining some older trees and snags for animal habitat)

11-SVN3M.D3.6.

Describe sustainable water-management practices in agricultural and forestry settings (e.g., regulating the frequency of watering, planting species suited to local precipitation levels, limiting run-off and erosion)

11-SVN3M.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.E1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, the impact of economic and political considerations on the development of waste management practices or strategies (e.g., incineration of hazardous waste; biological filtration and reuse of greywater; user fees for garbage disposal; vermicomposting) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3M.E1.2.

Evaluate the short- and long-term impact on the environment of a specific type of waste (e.g., waste products from animal farming; plastic shopping bags; tailings from mines) [AI, C]

11-SVN3M.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to waste management, including, but not limited to: solid, liquid, and gaseous waste; toxic waste; heavy metal; chlorinated hydrocarbons; and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [C]

11-SVN3M.E2.2.

Plan and conduct an inquiry in a microenvironment to treat a solid, liquid, or gaseous waste (e.g., reduce the acidity in a closed bog system in an aquarium; use a vermicomposter to recycle solid organic matter) [IP, PR]

11-SVN3M.E2.3.

Use a research process to investigate the waste generated throughout the life cycle of a product (e.g., the waste associated with all the materials and energy that go into the development and disposal of a computer or a running shoe) [IP, PR]

11-SVN3M.E2.4.

Plan and conduct a waste audit within their school, and propose a plan of action for waste reduction based on their findings (e.g., review the school's policy regarding paper and plastic recycling, monitor actual practices, and propose strategies to improve them) [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3M.E2.5.

Investigate a local, regional, national, or global waste management practice (e.g., local practices such as recycling or charging for residential and/or commercial garbage bags; shipping garbage to landfill sites in another region; disposal of nuclear waste; dumping raw sewage into rivers, lakes, oceans), and communicate their findings [PR, C]

11-SVN3M.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.E3.1.

Describe different categories of waste (e.g., biodegradable, recyclable, toxic, organic, inorganic)

11-SVN3M.E3.2.

Explain some current waste remediation practices used with substances or products that are not environmentally friendly (e.g., ''Toxic Taxi'' for pick-up of household hazardous waste; the recycling of plastic to make furniture and ''lumber'')

11-SVN3M.E3.3.

Describe the scientific principles involved in processing solid, liquid, and gaseous waste (e.g., combustion, decomposition, pyrolysis)

11-SVN3M.E3.4.

Explain common strategies and technologies used in the collection and storage of waste (e.g., strategies such as recycling, composting, dumping in landfill sites; technologies such as compacters, enzyme digesters, flocculation tanks)

11-SVN3M.E3.5.

Explain how scientific knowledge and technological processes have been applied in the development of environmentally sound waste management strategies (e.g., accelerated waste aeration, bioremediation)

11-SVN3M.F1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.F1.1.

Evaluate the impact on the environment of renewable and non-renewable energy sources, and propose an environmentally friendly solution to reduce non-renewable energy consumption (e.g., a plan for broader use of hybrid cars or solar panels) [AI, C]

11-SVN3M.F1.2.

Assess the costs and benefits to society of the use of renewable and non-renewable energy sources, using a variety of criteria (e.g., associated health concerns, reliability, ability to meet demand, start-up and production costs) [AI, C]

11-SVN3M.F2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.F2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to energy conservation, including, but not limited to: renewable resource, non-renewable resource, and R-value

11-SVN3M.F2.2.

Investigate energy consumption and costs in their household over a given period of time, and suggest ways in which their household could conserve energy [PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3M.F2.3.

Plan and conduct an energy audit of a home or business, and propose ways to improve its energy efficiency [IP, PR, AI, C]

11-SVN3M.F2.4.

Design and construct a working model of a device that uses an alternative energy source (e.g., a wind generator, a solar-powered car, a ''fan boat'') [IP, PR]

11-SVN3M.F2.5.

Plan and conduct an inquiry to evaluate the effectiveness of various insulation materials and/or techniques (e.g., straw, foam, fibreglass, blown cellulose) [IP, PR, AI]

11-SVN3M.F3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

11-SVN3M.F3.1.

Explain the historical significance of a variety of energy sources (e.g., whale oil, coal), and describe their long-term impact on the environment

11-SVN3M.F3.2.

Describe the characteristics of a sustainable energy system (e.g., equitable access to the source, long-term availability, limited environmental impact)

11-SVN3M.F3.3.

Explain the basic principles and characteristics of various types of renewable (e.g., tidal, geothermal, solar, wind) and non-renewable (e.g., coal, oil, gas) energy production and their impact on the environment

11-SVN3M.F3.4.

Describe methods of energy production and conservation intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., energy production methods at the Prince Edward Island Wind-Hydrogen Village; charging higher prices for energy used during peak hours)

11-SVN3M.F3.5.

Describe technological advances aimed at reducing energy consumption (e.g., programmable thermostats, improved R-value in insulation, compact fluorescent light bulbs, rechargeable batteries, ''smart meters'')

Economics-CIE3M-11-A1.1

formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into current economic issues in Canada (e.g., factual questions: What are the rights of workers in Canada?; comparative questions: What is the difference between a partnership and a cooperative business model?; causal questions: Why do governments intervene in the economy?)

Economics-CIE3M-11-A1.2

select and organize relevant data, evidence, and information on economic issues in Canada from a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., primary: Bank of Canada forecasts, federal/provincial budgets, financial statements, interviews, Statistics Canada data; secondary: academic or institutional reports based on primary sources, documentaries, government or business websites, newspapers, political cartoons), ensuring that their sources reflect a range of perspectives Sample questions: What questions could you ask a business owner regarding the impact of government regulation on his or her business? What types of data can one gather from personal financial statements? If you were investigating the policies and practices of a multinational corporation, why might it be useful to supplement information from its website with other sources? What other sources might you consult?

Economics-CIE3M-11-A1.3

3 assess the credibility of sources, data, evidence, and information relevant to their investigations (e.g., by considering how the data or information was constructed; the accuracy and/ or context of the evidence; the intended audience; the bias, purpose, values, and/or expertise of the author) Sample questions: Whose point of view is represented in this source? Whose perspective is not included? When analysing information from a government budget, why might it be useful to note which political party is in power? How might you assess the reliability of statistics from online sources?

Economics-CIE3M-11-A1.4

interpret and analyse data, evidence, and information relevant to their investigations, using various tools, strategies, and approaches appropriate for economic inquiry (e.g., create a graph to help them analyse data on income distribution in a Canadian city; use a cost-benefit matrix to help them analyse a real or theoretical business decision; use a Venn diagram to help them compare economic systems; interpret tables of statistics to determine seasonal and regional unemployment rates in Canada; use a supply and demand model to predict the effect on Canadian wheat prices of drought on the Prairies) Sample questions: How will you determine the criteria you will use to assess the impact of globalization on the Canadian economy? What are some tools that can help you analyse raw data? Which type of table or graph might be most appropriate for the purposes of your inquiry?

Economics-CIE3M-11-A1.5

use the concepts of economic thinking (i.e., economic significance, cause and effect, stability and variability, and economic perspective) when The Individual and the Economy CIE3M 79ECONOMIC INQUIRY AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT analysing and evaluating data, evidence, and information and formulating conclusions and/or judgements about economic issues in Canada (e.g., use the concept of economic significance to help them analyse the impact of income taxes in Canada; consider the concept of cause and effect when comparing the costs of fair-trade and conventional goods; apply the concept of stability and variability when investigating the impact of unions on wages over time; use the concept of economic perspective to help them assess the suitability of business models for a new venture) Sample questions: Why would it be appropriate to consider the concept of economic significance when analysing the impact of a free trade agreement on producers and/or consumers? How might applying the concept of economic perspective help you understand why an individual might get a payday loan?

Economics-CIE3M-11-A1.6

evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements and/or predictions about the economic issues they are investigating Sample questions: What criteria did you consider to reach your conclusion about the impact of reduced government regulation of agricultural markets? Did your conclusion match your prediction at the beginning of your investigation? If not, what evidence influenced your position? What conclusions did you reach about the personal savings and investments that would best support your short- and longterm plans?

Economics-CIE3M-11-A1.7

communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the audience and purpose (e.g., a report on a cost-benefit analysis of government subsidies to corporations; a seminar on the impact of consumer choices; a presentation with graphs and/or other diagrams on wages and benefits in different sectors of the Canadian economy; a debate on whether the federal government should pay down the debt or expand social spending; a blog for peers about how to manage personal debt)

Economics-CIE3M-11-A1.8

use accepted forms of documentation (e.g., footnotes or endnotes, author/date citations, reference lists, bibliographies, credits) to reference different types of sources (e.g., articles, blogs, books, documentaries, interviews, statistical tables, websites)

Economics-CIE3M-11-A1.9

use appropriate terminology when communicating the results of their investigations (e.g., vocabulary specific to their inquiry topics; terminology related to economics and the concepts of economic thinking

Economics-CIE3M-11-A2.1

describe ways in which economic investigations can help them develop skills, including the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., skills related to reading texts, writing, document use, computer use, oral communication, numeracy) and skills related to financial literacy, that can be transferred to postsecondary opportunities, the world of work, and everyday life

Economics-CIE3M-11-A2.2

apply in everyday contexts skills and work habits developed through economic investigations (e.g., use skills related to budgeting and cost-benefit analysis to help them determine whether to take a part-time job; use numeracy skills to analyse the implications of statistics in a newspaper article; apply work habits such as initiative to identify strategies that will enable them to successfully complete a task, or organization to help them establish priorities and manage their time both in class and at home)

Economics-CIE3M-11-A2.3

apply the concepts of economic thinking when analysing current events involving economic issues (e.g., costs and benefits of supporting infrastructure development in the First Nations community of Attawapiskat; the closing of a factory in a small community; a proposal to raise the minimum wage in Ontario; air pollution in China from coal-burning factories; debates over North American energy pipelines) in order to enhance their understanding of these events and their role as informed citizens Sample questions: Why is there debate between different stakeholders about the value of carbon taxes or eco fees? What concept or concepts of economic thinking might help you deepen your understanding of this issue?

Economics-CIE3M-11-A2.4

identify various careers in which the skills learned in economics might be useful (e.g., agriculturalist, asset manager, co-op manager, corporate strategist, customer service representative, entrepreneur, financial consultant, policy analyst, small-business owner, wealth manager)

Economics-CIE3M-11-B1.1

explain the concepts of scarcity and opportunity costs, and analyse how individuals, governments, and organizations apply these concepts as they make economic choices (e.g., the opportunity costs of a firm deciding to invest in research and development rather than adding to its immediate profits, or of a government using limited resources to pay down the debt, invest in infrastructure, or increase funding for social programs) Sample questions: What is the opportunity cost of doing your homework this evening instead of going out with friends? What type of scarcity is implicit in this choice? How would you assess the opportunity costs of renting versus buying a home?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B1.2

describe the two major branches of economics (i.e., micro, macro) and the two forms of economic analysis (i.e., normative, positive), demonstrating the understanding that they all consider questions of scarcity and choice B1. Scarcity and Choice SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS Sample questions: What are the main concerns of microeconomics? How are they different from those of macroeconomics? What is the role of normative economics in government policies related to poverty? How do questions of economic fairness compete with those related to the efficient use of scarce resources when such policies are being formulated?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B1.3

analyse how the scarcity of the factors of production (i.e., land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship) influences productivity and specialization

Economics-CIE3M-11-B1.4

explain how needs (e.g., clean water, food, shelter, leisure time), wants (e.g., designer jeans or running shoes, a new smartphone, sweatshop-free clothing, fair-trade produce), and values (e.g., fairness, individualism, community mindedness) influence consumer decisions Sample questions: Which of your own values have the greatest influence on your decisions as a consumer? What impact do these values have on your behaviour as a consumer? Why might an individual pay more for a fair-trade product?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B1.5

compare prices in different communities in Canada (e.g., the price of groceries on a fly-in First Nation reserve, in the North, in large urban centres, in rural communities; housing prices in Toronto and Windsor; the price of gasoline in Calgary and The Individual and the Economy CIE3M 81FUNDAMENTALS OF ECONOMICS Charlottetown), explaining reasons for the variations, and analyse the impact of these variations on individuals choices and decisions Sample questions: How does scarcity affect the cost of living for diverse groups of people? What factors contribute to the relatively higher price of food in St. Johns or Iqaluit compared to southern Ontario? Why might prices contribute to the decision of some people to leave a large city for a smaller town when they retire?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B2.1

explain the purpose of a production possibilities curve (PPC) and apply this model to analyse potential choices with respect to production (e.g., between consumer goods and capital goods, among different types of consumer goods, between a good and a service, between an essential and a non-essential good or service) Sample questions: What types of goods or services might you plot on a PPC? What does the graph show? What are its implications? Who might use a PPC? Why? Why might it be useful to apply a PPC model when trying to determine how an economy should allocate production between defence and education?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B2.2

use cost-benefit analysis to analyse current economic choices facing individuals and organizations in Canada (e.g., a business deciding whether to invest in new technology, a student weighing postsecondary options, a family deciding whether to rent or buy a home, a local government considering how to most effectively invest in public transit) Sample questions: How might a cost-benefit analysis inform an individuals decision regarding whether to collect unemployment insurance and stay in his or her current community, where there are few jobs, or relocate in order to get a job in another community? What factors might you consider in a cost-benefit analysis of whether to attend university or college or seek an apprenticeship?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B2.3

identify economic models that are relevant to specific economic issues/problems in Canada, and apply these models to analyse some of these issues/problems (e.g., use the business cycle model to analyse long-term variations in the economy, a Keynesian model to analyse the impact of unemployment on supply and demand, an accounting model when investigating the implications of the national debt) Sample questions: Where would you position the present Canadian economy on the business cycle? What are the implications of its position? What do consumption behaviour models suggest about consumer spending and savings? Based on your analysis of a consumption behaviour model, what predictions would you make about consumer spending and savings in Canada? What are the implications of your predictions?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B2.4

assess the suitability of various business models (e.g., sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, cooperative, Crown corporation) for different purposes Sample questions: What business model do you think is best suited for Canadian farming? Why? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the business models of banks and credit unions? What are the arguments for and against privatizing Crown corporations?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B3.1

compare how different economic systems (i.e., market, mixed, traditional, command) answer the three fundamental economic questions about production (i.e., what, how, and for whom to produce) Sample questions: How does a market economy differ from a command economy in terms of investment and production? Do pure market systems actually exist? If so, where? How do the means of production differ in a mixed economy and a command economy? How do these differences affect production decisions?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B3.2

analyse how different political-economic systems (e.g., capitalism, socialism) respond to challenges associated with stability and variability Sample questions: How might the government in a socialist country respond to an economic downturn? In what ways might this response be different from that of a government in a capitalist country? How would you account for the differences?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B3.3

3 analyse how governments in Canada prioritize competing economic goals when responding to economic challenges (e.g., unemployment, inflation, recession, increasing public debt) Sample questions: Why might economic development not always be compatible with THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | Canadian and World Studies 82Grade 11, University/College Preparation environmental stewardship? How do governments weigh these competing goals? How do political values affect the economic decisions of governments in Canada? Which do you think should be more important to a government, cutting spending to reduce public debt and/or taxes, or increasing spending on social programs to help alleviate the effects of inequitable distribution of income? Does your answer reflect current government policy? If not, how do the governments priorities differ from your own?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B4.1

describe key personal financial planning principles (e.g., set realistic goals, start to save early, maintain a good credit rating, diversify), and explain how and why financial planning may differ depending on an individuals stage of life and/or personal experiences Sample questions: What are your financial goals in the next five years? Ten years? Twenty years? In what ways do your goals differ from the short- and long-term goals of your parents and/or grandparents? What financial planning principles might you use to best achieve your goals? How might the experience of growing up in a household where job loss or seasonal unemployment was the norm affect an individuals financial planning choices?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B4.2

assess, with reference to specific economic data, the advantages and disadvantages of different financial institutions (e.g., banks, credit unions, mortgage companies, payday loan companies, brokerage firms), specifically with respect to personal savings, investments, and loans Sample questions: Do you use a bank or a credit union? On what criteria did you base your decision to use this type of institution? Does your choice best support your immediate and long-term financial goals? Why might an individual invest through a brokerage firm rather than a bank or credit union? What are the costs of a payday loan? How do the fees charged by these companies differ from those charged by a bank or credit union?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B4.3

assess, with reference to specific economic data, the short- and long-term costs and benefits of personal debt (e.g., credit card debt, student loans, payday loans, lines of credit, mortgages) Sample questions: What is the difference between good debt and bad debt? Why is something like a student loan generally considered to be good debt? What are the benefits of using a credit card? What are its immediate costs? What are the longer term costs if one fails to pay off the monthly balance? What factors can negatively affect ones credit rating? What impact can a poor credit rating have on an individuals ability to secure a loan?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B4.4

4 analyse the choices (e.g., cash, credit, loan, lease) to determine the best method of payment for major consumer purchases (e.g., a home, a car, tuition, a holiday, electronics) Sample questions: How might you determine whether you should use cash, a credit card, or a layaway plan to pay for a new smartphone? Why might an individual lease a car rather than taking out a loan to buy it outright? What are the costs and benefits of each approach? Why might the best method of payment differ depending on the good purchased and the age and economic status of the person making the purchase?

Economics-CIE3M-11-B4.5

compare various investment choices (e.g., stocks, bonds, guaranteed investment certificates, mutual funds, tax-free saving accounts, registered retirement income funds) and explain the importance of diversifying investments Sample questions: What are the differences between stocks and bonds? Why might an individual want to have a combination of stocks, bonds, and mutual funds in an investment portfolio? What is the importance of socially responsible investing? How can you determine if an asset manager is practising such investing?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C1.1

apply supply and demand models to analyse how price is influenced by different factors (e.g., technology, advertising, weather, shortages of raw materials) Sample questions: How has the increase in online shopping affected prices? How and why might effective advertising affect the price of a product? Why might drought in Florida affect the price of oranges in Ontario?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C1.2

analyse how individual choices, including ethical consumerism (e.g., buying fair-trade, local, cruelty-free, and/or green products), influence markets Sample questions: To what degree are you influenced by fair-trade logos when making a purchase? Is a consumer boycott an effective way to influence producers and markets? Why or why not? If members of the public found the name and/or logo of a professional sports team offensive, why might the team choose to change it? Why might it choose to keep it?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C1.3

analyse how consumer and producer participation in the underground economy affects markets (e.g., with reference to grey and black markets, tax evasion, counterfeit products, pirating, illegal downloading) Sample question: What impact do counterfeit products have on prices for producers and consumers in legitimate markets?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C1.4

analyse how, in a market system, different stakeholders value public and collective goods (e.g., fish stocks, air, water, parks) Sample questions: Why might public ground water be valued differently by an adjacent community, a bottling company, and a government department regulating natural resources? Do you think governments should allow private companies to bottle and sell such water? Why or why not? Do you think some public goods should be privatized, whether fully or partially?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C1.5

explain the causes of Canadian government intervention in market systems (e.g., to address economic inequalities or market disadvantages, to generate revenue, to protect consumers, in response to lobbying) Sample questions: How do the competing economic goals of equity and efficiency influence THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | Canadian and World Studies 84Grade 11, University/College Preparation minimum wage legislation in Canada? What are sin taxes? What is their purpose? Why might the government choose to subsidize agricultural production? What are some examples of such subsidies in Canada? Do all stakeholders agree with such subsidies? If not, why not?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C2.1

describe various ways in which workers organize in Canada as well as different categories of unorganized workers (e.g., with reference to professional associations, labour unions, worker-run cooperatives, itinerant workers, foreign domestic workers, temporary foreign workers, contract workers), and explain why different categories of workers may have different perspectives Sample questions: In what ways might the concerns of unionized and temporary foreign workers be similar? In what ways might they differ? How would you account for the differences? What perspectives are evident in efforts, whether historical or contemporary, to unionize the garment industry?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C2.2

compare incomes, benefits, and working conditions of unionized and non-unionized workers in different sectors of the Canadian economy (e.g., resource development, agriculture, manufacturing, service industries, public service)

Economics-CIE3M-11-C2.3

explain the rights and responsibilities of workers in Canada (e.g., rights: to a minimum wage, to refuse unsafe work, to compensation for workplace injuries, to freedom from discrimination and harassment; responsibilities: to be aware of and follow workplace health and safety requirements, to report unsafe working conditions, to use appropriate protective equipment, to treat co-workers in accordance with human rights regulations) Sample questions: Do you think a worker has a responsibility to become a whistleblower if he or she witnesses illegal or unethical behaviour in the workplace? Why or why not?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C2.4

explain various practices and policies (e.g., collective bargaining, arbitration, walkouts, strikes, closed and open shops, right to work laws, backto-work legislation) adopted by workers, firms, and governments to assert their interests with respect to labour-management issues, and assess the impact of these practices/policies on various stakeholders (e.g., workers, business owners, governments, consumers) Sample questions: What is the Rand Formula? What impact has it had on organized labour in Canada? What impact does strike action have on workers and the firms that employ them? How are consumers affected by strikes? What implication does the governments designation of an occupation as an essential service have for labour action?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C3.1

analyse economic data to identify employment/unemployment patterns (e.g., youth unemployment, unemployment among college/ university graduates, unemployment on First Nations reserves, seniors returning to part-time employment, contract work versus full-time employment, use of temporary foreign workers, outsourcing, loss of manufacturing jobs to other countries, regional expansion of energy-sector jobs), and explain how these patterns affect individuals and society Sample questions: What employment patterns are associated with students who have recently graduated from high school? In what ways, if any, do you think these patterns might affect your postsecondary plans? How are changes in the employment rates in manufacturing and service occupations affecting the Canadian economy?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C3.2

identify trends related to workplace technology (e.g., continuing automation, cloud computing, use of big data), and analyse the effects on workers (e.g., changes in employability skills, flexibility in hours and location of work, use of social media to search for jobs) Sample questions: Why are employability skills changing? What are the benefits to workers of increased workplace technology? What are the benefits to employers?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C3.3

explain the causes of specific types of unemployment (e.g., frictional, seasonal, structural, cyclical, regional) and their impact on career choices Sample questions: What impact has the demand for workers in western Canada had on workers in other parts of the country? Has this demand or its impact influenced your career plans? Why or why not?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C4.1

explain how various factors contribute to income inequality (e.g., social background, including class, religion, ethnicity; education; the number and types of jobs available in a region; discrimination based on race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, language; skills; the value that society attaches to different jobs) Sample questions: How might the socioeconomic background of a persons family affect his or her economic opportunities? Why do some jobs have greater social status or remuneration than others? Who decides the salary or status of different jobs? What factors affect these decisions? Do you think there is any bias inherent in these decisions? If so, what underpins these biases? What impact does where you live have on your economic opportunities?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C4.2

explain how governments, firms, and non-governmental organizations respond to economic inequalities (e.g., tax credits, rent controls, minimum wages, social assistance, food banks, corporate-funded or government-subsidized daycare, public and private funding of social programs, programs to upgrade job skills or literacy) Sample questions: What are some similarities and differences in the ways in which charities and governments respond to the issue of homelessness? Why do you think some businesses support community initiatives aimed at youth? What impact do you think minimum wages have on economic equality? What is the significance of different types of tax credits for different socio-economic groups?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C4.3

assess the effectiveness of income taxes and government transfers in reducing income inequality in Canada (e.g., with reference to the Child Tax Benefit, social assistance, employment insurance, old age security) Sample questions: Why are income tax rates in Canada higher for people with higher net incomes? Why do some people advocate a flat income tax? Do you think a flat tax would be more effective than the current progressive tax in addressing income inequality? Why or why not? What impact has the Guaranteed Income Supplement had on the standard of living for seniors? Why are old age security payments subject to a clawback? Why do some groups advocate the establishment of a guaranteed annual income?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C4.4

assess the impact that economic fluctuations have had on different communities in Canada (e.g., Sydney, NS; Athabaska or Calgary, AB; Charlottetown, PEI; Leamington or Oshawa, ON; First Nations reserves across Canada) by analysing measures of poverty and affluence for those communities (e.g., number of people below the low-income cut-off, poverty indices, food bank use, social welfare rolls, housing prices, average income) Sample questions: Why do different communities have different employment rates? How are youth in different communities affected by economic fluctuations? What are some communities in Canada in which the dominant industry closed down or cut production? What happened to those communities?

Economics-CIE3M-11-C4.5

explain how economic models and data are used to measure social need in Canada and to help frame responses to social issues (e.g., issues related to poverty, health, crime, education), and describe challenges associated with the use of these models and data (e.g., the Lorenz curve, the Gini coefficient, poverty indices, gross domestic product, measures of consumer confidence and spending) Sample questions: Are economic models and data value free? If not, what are some assumptions and/or biases that underlie them? What is and is not included in gross domestic product?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D1.1

demonstrate an understanding of competition with respect to markets and firms (e.g., perfect and imperfect competition, the extent of control of the market, the degree of control over price, the extent of barriers to entry or exit from the market), and explain how government regulations relating to competition in Canada affect producers and consumers Sample questions: What are the similarities and differences between monopolistically competitive and perfectly competitive markets? What are the similarities and differences between oligopolies and monopolies? What is the significance of the Competition Act and Competition Bureau? How effective do you think they are in terms of promoting competition? What impact do they have on consumers and producers? How has government regulation with respect to competition affected the telecommunications or banking sector?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D1.2

assess the sources and quality of information available to consumers about products on the market in Canada Sample questions: Can Canadian consumers be confident in the safety of the products they purchase? Why or why not? What information appears on food labels? Do you find this information useful? Is there any other information that should be included? Does the information in advertisements influence what you purchase? How reliable is this information? What factors might affect the quality of the information that Health Canada or other government branches provide about products?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D1.3

describe taxes paid by producers and consumers in Canada (e.g., income tax, sales tax, goods and services tax, property tax, capital gains tax, excise tax, corporate tax), and assess their impact Sample questions: What is the difference between progressive and regressive taxes? What differences are there in the impact of these taxes?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D1.4

assess the role of entrepreneurship in the Canadian economy Sample questions: What is the impact of entrepreneurs in small towns? How does this differ from their impact in cities with a larger population base?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D2.1

analyse government policy initiatives in Canada that respond to scarcity (e.g., progressive taxes, income transfers, carbon credits or carbon taxes, the Temporary Foreign Worker Program) Sample questions: How is the value of externalities, such as pollution arising from consumption and production, determined by the government? How might that valuation affect public policy initiatives related to the environment? What impact do regulations that are intended to reduce electricity use have on consumption and prices?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D2.2

analyse how governments in Canada respond to economic problems (e.g., with reference to changes in taxes, cuts to or increases in spending/ services, wage/price controls, changes to minimum wages or to pension or unemployment benefits), including the problems caused by economic fluctuations (e.g., recession, recovery, boom) Sample questions: What might happen if a government decided to raise minimum wages during a recession? When and why might a government consider lowering sales taxes? Why are governments concerned with the potential effects of inflation? What are some ways in which governments attempt to control inflation?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D2.3

explain various ways in which governments in Canada intervene in the economy (e.g., laws and regulations related to wages and working conditions, food safety, competition, health and safety, environmental protection; farm or corporate subsidies; marketing boards; tariffs; trade agreements; social welfare payments; Crown corporations), and analyse the impact of this intervention Sample questions: Why do some people advocate increasing the minimum wage? Why do others disagree with such a policy? Do you think an increase in minimum wages would be good or bad for the economy? What is the economic and social impact of government spending on health care in Canada?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D3.1

describe economic rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizens (e.g., rights: equality of economic opportunity, mobility rights, eligibility for social assistance, right to private property, free elementary/secondary education, rights associated with copyright and patent laws; responsibilities: to pay taxes; to respect laws relating to business regulations, economic transactions, health and safety; to understand the role of political, economic, and social institutions in their lives and communities; to engage in local, national, and/or global communities for the common good) Sample questions: Why are we legally obliged to pay taxes? In what respect is preservation of public space an economic responsibility? Why might different groups have differing perspectives about the conservation of public space? Is having a job an economic right or responsibility? Why must the government consult Aboriginal peoples before allowing development on their land?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D3.2

explain the responsibilities of individuals, firms, and government with respect to social inequities in Canadian workplaces (e.g., to report discrimination or harassment, to ensure accessibility, to comply with human rights legislation, to enact and enforce regulations that protect workers right to a safe and harassment-free workplace)

Economics-CIE3M-11-D3.3

explain competing perspectives of various economic citizens (e.g., baby boomers, youth, taxpayers, shareholders, business people, people with disabilities, people from different classes) on the value of government services/expenditures in Canada (e.g., expenditures on health care, social services, education, pensions, transportation, parks, infrastructure) Sample questions: What government services have a direct impact on your life? How significant is this impact? How might your life change if these services were not available? Do you think all Canadians place the same value on these services? If not, why not?

Economics-CIE3M-11-D3.4

explain ways in which individuals and groups, including firms, influence the economic policy of governments in Canada, and assess the extent of this influence (e.g., with reference to voting, lobbying, financial support for political parties, media support for or criticism of policy, reports/position papers of think tanks, unethical business practices, promises of investment or threats or withdrawing investment) Sample questions: What are some ways in which firms influence government policy? Do you think they have too much influence, or is it commensurate with their economic importance?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E1.1

compare the perspectives of various stakeholders with respect to scarcity in Canada and explain how these perspectives are reflected in the policies or positions of these stakeholders with respect to economic issues (e.g., with reference to different political parties; conservative and progressive think tanks; the oil and gas industry and the alternative energy sector; corporate and small-scale or organic farmers; First Nations, Mtis, and/or Inuit people; environmental NGOs; advocacy groups for the poor; Chambers of Commerce) Sample questions: What do the positions of different stakeholders on the development of the Alberta oil sands tell you about their views on scarcity and sustainability? What are the key differences between the perspectives of right- and left-wing groups on the allocation of scarce government resources?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E1.2

analyse how First Nations, Mtis, and/or Inuit people have responded to issues relating to scarce resources (e.g., with reference to land claims, fishing rights, resource development on and/or environmental degradation of Aboriginal land), and explain similarities and differences between their responses and those of other groups in Canada, including governments (e.g., environmental groups, mining companies, provincial or federal governments, the courts) Sample questions: What competing beliefs about scarcity and sustainability underpin the Musqueam Nations conflict with the B.C. government over fishing rights? Why are there often differences in the perspectives of governments, corporations, and First Nations, Mtis, and/or Inuit people on the development of natural resources? What are the implications for different stakeholders of court decisions on Aboriginal land claims? Given the scarcity of land/resources, what are some of the advantages of collective ownership of property? What are some of the disadvantages of collective and private ownership of property? Do you think these advantages/disadvantages are the same for First Nations communities as they are for other groups in Canada? Why or why not?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E1.3

compare cooperative and competitive perspectives (e.g., those of cooperatives, multinational corporations, sole proprietorships, social ventures) on the management of scarce resources in Canada Sample questions: How do credit unions and multinational banks distribute profits? What are the similarities and differences between corporations and cooperatives in the allocation of profits?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E1.4

explain how firms in Canada respond to issues relating to scarcity of labour and capital (e.g., by offering apprenticeships and/or internships, using government funds to help them restructure The Individual and the Economy CIE3M 89ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE jobs or retrain workers, hiring contract workers, using temporary foreign workers, outsourcing, merging, seeking foreign investment, taking a private firm public or vice versa, cutting costs of production, moving offshore) Sample questions: Why are there so many migrant farm workers in Canada? What is an initial public offering? How can it help raise capital for a firm that has been held privately?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E2.1

explain criteria that firms use in deciding how to allocate scarce resources (e.g., when to hire or lay off workers, whether to invest in new technology, the amount of funding for research and development, whether to sponsor cultural events or community organizations) Sample questions: What criteria would a business use to determine whether to support a cultural or sports event? What are the potential benefits of such support? What restrictions do cigarette companies face with regard to such sponsorship? Why? In what ways might the commitment to profits for shareholders influence how a corporation allocates its resources?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E2.2

explain why governments provide financial support to corporations, non-governmental organizations, and other groups (e.g., to create jobs and/or prevent loss of jobs, to encourage research and development, to promote cultural events, to increase literacy or enhance skills, to support private programs that provide services to specific groups, to enhance their political support) Sample questions: What criteria might the federal government use to determine how to allocate grant money to companies researching sustainable energy sources? Why might a government help to subsidize a firm that has low profits? Do you think this is a wise investment? Why or why not? Why do governments fund service organizations?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E2.3

explain business decisions (e.g., layoffs, relocation, outsourcing, technological integration, mergers) that may be taken in response to economic challenges and/or fluctuations (e.g., recessions, increased competition, changes in trade, technological change, shortages of skilled workers) Sample questions: What rationale might a company use to continue paying their employees during a closure as a result of a fire or other disaster? Why might a business decide to restructure jobs instead of laying off workers? Why have some manufacturing and services moved to Asia in the past few decades?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E3.1

assess the impact of globalization on the Canadian economy, with particular reference to income inequality in Canada Sample question: What impact has the moving of production from Canada to offshore locations had on Canadian manufacturing and the communities where such industries were located?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E3.2

assess the advantages (e.g., increased capital, potential for increased employment) and disadvantages (e.g., loss of local decision making, loss of profits, corporate decisions that favour head office over subsidiaries) of foreign investment and ownership in Canada Sample questions: Should Ottawa allow other countries to own potash mines in Canada? Why does the Canadian government restrict foreign ownership of telecommunication companies?

Economics-CIE3M-11-E3.3

describe key aspects of Canadian trade policy (e.g., with reference to the North American Free Trade Agreement, the proposed Canada European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, membership in the World Trade Organization, tariffs and subsidies, export of natural resources, largest trading partners), and explain its impact Sample questions: Should Canada sell resources such as asbestos or depleted uranium to countries that could use them in an unethical manner? What are some of the effects of increasing trade with China on Canadian society and the economy?

Geography-CGD3M-11-A1.1

formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into world geographic issues (e.g., factual questions: What is the role of UNESCO in preserving the worlds cultural heritage and protecting the environment?; comparative questions: How does Canadas immigration policy compare to those of other countries in the G8?; causal questions: How does global travel contribute to the spread of disease?)

Geography-CGD3M-11-A1.2

select and organize relevant data and information on geographic issues from a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., primary: raw data from fieldwork, both quantitative and qualitative; photographs; satellite images; secondary: published statistics, newspapers, books, atlases, geographic magazines, websites, graphs, charts, digital and print maps), ensuring that their sources represent a diverse range of perspectives Sample questions: What are some statistical indicators that you could use to analyse patterns and trends in global inequality? Where might you find this data and information? What kinds of data and information would you need to collect in order to assess the impact of globalization on the peoples and economies of various countries? What types of maps and graphs will help you analyse connections between government structures and human rights violations?

Geography-CGD3M-11-A1.3

assess the credibility of sources and information relevant to their investigations (e.g., by considering how the data are constructed to support the authors point of view, the possible bias of the author, the expertise of the author, the accuracy of the text and supporting data, the intended audience, the purpose of the messaging, the context in which the information was presented) Sample questions: What are the authors credentials and affiliations? What are the authors sources, and are they trustworthy? Have you consulted other sources that present other points of view? Can the data and information be interpreted in ways that do not support the authors point of view? Has the author used only data that support his or her argument and ignored data that dont? Are the authors conclusions supported by other, independent sources? If your information comes from an advocacy group, do you know what that organizations goals are? Do its name and mission statement accurately reflect the viewpoint it presents?

Geography-CGD3M-11-A1.4

interpret and analyse data and information relevant to their investigations, using various tools, strategies, and approaches appropriate for geographic inquiry (e.g., apply geographic models; analyse graphs and charts of various statistical indicators for selected countries; use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyse geographic problems or make geographic decisions; use decision-making templates to determine the importance of factors or criteria relating to an 197World Issues: A Geographic Analysis CGW4U GEOGRAPHIC INQUIRY AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT issue; use graphic organizers to outline various perspectives on the impact of colonialism on economically poor countries) Sample questions: How might Rostows theory of economic development help you interpret patterns and trends in global disparity and evaluate the potential effectiveness of policies for change? Is there a correlation between infant mortality and access to improved sanitation? Are there other factors that might be relevant to high infant mortality rates?

Geography-CGD3M-11-A1.5

use the concepts of geographic thinking (i.e., spatial significance, patterns and trends, interrelationships, geographic perspective) when analysing and evaluating data and information about and formulating conclusions and/or judgements regarding world issues (e.g., use the concept of spatial significance to evaluate ways of classifying countries and reasons for doing so; use the concept of patterns and trends to analyse the evolution of sustainable practices among a variety of groups, individuals, or nations; use the concept of interrelationships to assess how technology works as an agent of change; use the concept of geographic perspective to analyse the impact of globalization on various indigenous communities) Sample questions: How might the concept of spatial significance help one understand a countrys reasons for a military action? How might the concept of patterns and trends be useful for assessing human population movements due to natural phenomena or for determining areas of potential population growth? How might the concept of interrelationships be relevant to determining the impact of an oil spill or pipeline break? How might the concept of geographic perspective help in analysing the impact of a political leaders policies?

Geography-CGD3M-11-A1.6

evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements or predictions about the issues they are investigating Sample questions: What did you find out about the impact of the construction of this mega-dam? What did you find out about the interrelationship between globalism and human rights violations? Why might this pattern continue to be an issue? Which theory provides a more useful explanation of population change in Japan: Malthuss theory of population growth or the demographic transition model? What conclusions can you make about the effectiveness of various population and immigration policies? Are some more effective than others? What kinds of events and issues might affect the implementation and impact of these policies?

Geography-CGD3M-11-A1.7

communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the audience and purpose (e.g., a debate for classmates on the merits of an international trade accord; a map for a Grade 9 class showing countries that a specific multinational corporation operates in or is connected to in other ways; an annotated map to accompany a presentation to a local community group about the outsourcing of labour; a webcast or podcast for the general public on threats to the global commons; an essay for a newspaper opinion page on why Canada should or should not forgive the debts it is owed by a specific country) Sample questions: How much does your audience know about your topic? Do they need information summarized in a way that is easy to understand? Do they need more detailed information and arguments or just an overview? What format presents the results of your investigation most effectively? What type of graph or map projection conveys the information and your intended message most accurately and clearly?

Geography-CGD3M-11-A1.8

use accepted forms of documentation (e.g., footnotes, author/date citations, reference lists, bibliographies, annotated bibliographies, credits) to reference different types of sources (e.g., websites, blogs, books, articles, films, data)

Geography-CGD3M-11-A1.9

use appropriate terminology when communicating the results of their investigations (e.g., vocabulary specific to their inquiry; terminology related to geography and to the concepts of geographic thinking)

Geography-CGD3M-11-A2.1

describe several ways in which geographic investigation can help them develop skills, including spatial skills and the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., reading graphic texts, writing, graphing, computer use, use of spatial technologies, oral communication, numeracy, decision making, planning, management, finding information, problem solving), that can be transferred to postsecondary opportunities, the world of work, and everyday life

Geography-CGD3M-11-A2.2

apply in everyday contexts skills and work habits developed through geographic investigation (e.g., ask questions to deepen their understanding of a complex global issue; listen to and consider multiple perspectives when discussing an issue; collaborate with a team to determine the criteria that need to be considered when making a decision; use quantitative data to support an idea; use spatial skills to identify relationships between regions of the world)

Geography-CGD3M-11-A2.3

apply the concepts of geographic thinking when analysing current events involving geographic issues (e.g., use the concept of spatial significance when analysing the reasons for a military alliance with another country; use the concept of patterns and trends when analysing a regions or countrys vulnerabilities to more frequent severe weather conditions; use the concept of interrelationships when analysing the connections between consumer choice and labour conditions; use the concept of geographic perspective when analysing a countrys position on a new trade agreement) in order to enhance their understanding of these issues and their role as informed citizens

Geography-CGD3M-11-A2.4

identify some careers in which a geography background might be an asset (e.g., international development aid worker, policy analyst, environmental assessment officer, entrepreneur, GIS specialist, lobbyist, politician, news reporter)

Geography-CGD3M-11-B1.1

analyse relationships between the distribution and availability of natural resources in a country or region and its quality of life, as reflected by various indicators (e.g., life expectancy, infant mortality, per capita income, average years of schooling) Sample questions: Are some natural resources more valuable than others? Can you identify some high-value resources and explain why they are valuable, and to whom? In what ways can their availability affect national economies, personal incomes, and quality of life? How does access to a clean source of fresh water correlate with the rate of infant mortality? Do the indicators show a substantial difference in quality of life between countries that simply export their natural resources and countries that process those resources? Using spatial skills: To identify relationships between a specific resource and an indicator, students can plot the two variables on a scattergraph and then determine whether there is a line of best fit that indicates a correlation between them.

Geography-CGD3M-11-B1.2

assess relationships between disparities in the distribution or quality of resources (e.g., availability of land or water, soil quality, energy availability, diversity of resource base) and social or political conflicts (e.g., conflicts between pastoralists and farmers over land rights and usage, conflicts between or within countries over water rights, food shortages caused by civil wars and insurgencies) Sample questions: How has the scarcity of a natural resource contributed to conflicts? Why are some people predicting that there will be an increase in international conflict over water supplies? Where would such conflicts be most likely to occur?

Geography-CGD3M-11-B1.3

analyse ethical issues relating to the control and development of natural resources and the distribution of economic benefits from resource exploitation Sample questions: What kinds of obligations do governments usually impose on companies in return for the right to develop a body of resources? Who benefits from such relationships? Should those obligations be stricter? Should restrictions be placed on the privatization of water? What is a cartel? How does it control the price of a resource? What is the World Trade Organization doing to limit the power of cartels? Using spatial skills: Students can investigate relationships between resource wealth and economic power by constructing an annotated map that shows the countries with the ten highest GDPs in the world and the countries with the ten lowest. They can then identify which countries have significant resource wealth and which are deficient in key resources THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | Canadian and World Studies 200Grade 12, University Preparation related to human needs. Students can also identify programs that are addressing these deficiencies or that are improving the economic capacity of these countries in other ways.

Geography-CGD3M-11-B2.1

analyse interrelationships between global population distribution, population density, and quality of life Sample questions: What are the twenty most densely populated countries in the world? Which ones are wealthy? Which ones are poor? To what extent has population density contributed to prosperity or poverty in these countries? Would a cap on population density for a country help to improve the quality of life of its citizens?

Geography-CGD3M-11-B2.2

analyse interrelationships between population migration (e.g., international migrants, internal migrants, refugees, illegal migrants) and quality of life (e.g., quality of life factors as reasons for leaving, as reasons for choosing a destination, as impacts of migration and resettlement) Sample questions: Why are subsistence farmers migrating to urban centres? What impact does this have on the farmer? On the urban centre? In what ways does this trend affect the quality of life more broadly within a country or a region? What determines whether a slum is a slum of hope or a slum of despair? What is the role of the slum in economic development? Using spatial skills: To support their investigations of factors affecting migration, students can plot relationships between numbers of migrants and other statistical data (e.g., the Human Development Index, per capita income) as well as other information (e.g., periods of war or drought) that reflect the quality of life in a particular country

Geography-CGD3M-11-B2.3

assess the effects of past and present political and economic policies on inequality (e.g., effects of colonialism, boundary changes, trade agreements, development agreements and initiatives) Sample questions: What responsibilities do developed countries have for helping to reduce disparities between themselves and less developed countries? Developed countries often require countries receiving aid to provide them with access to resources or to buy certain products from them. Is this fair? Is it the most effective way of helping a developing country? How might a trade agreement support economic development in a country?

Geography-CGD3M-11-B3.1

use statistical indicators and other criteria to classify countries into a variety of groupings on the basis of common characteristics (e.g., type of government, cultural and linguistic similarities, religion; statistical indicators such as GDP, per capita income, employment rate, dependency ratio, literacy rate, population and population density, birth rate, infant mortality, life expectancy at birth, rate of access to safe water and sanitation) Sample questions: Why do we classify countries in this way? What are some of the consequences of placing a country into a particular category? How might this type of categorization help to maintain stereotypes rather than promote understanding? What criteria determine whether a region can be classified as a country? Why is it important to look at a variety of indicators from different categories in order to make a balanced assessment of conditions in a certain country or region? How might a grouping change if a different statistical variable were used as the basis for comparison? Why is it important to note how and where the data were obtained and who interpreted them? Using spatial skills: Students can construct thematic maps of regions by combining map layers on which data for appropriate indicators and characteristics have been plotted (e.g., Human Development Index, type of government, birth rate, death rate). Students can also compare different map projections, such as a Peters projection and a Mercator projection, to illustrate how map projections can influence the visual impact, and possibly the interpretation, of the data.

Geography-CGD3M-11-B3.2

evaluate particular indicators or characteristics that are used to classify countries, and analyse the advantages and disadvantages of their use Sample questions: Why do we find it useful to use certain kinds of data or certain characteristics as ways of categorizing countries? What does an indicator like GDP per capita or fertility rate tell us about a country? What doesnt it tell us? How can the use of such indicators cause us to make misleading generalizations about a country or to stereotype its people? Why is it no longer appropriate to describe the world primarily on the basis of economic indicators? Why is the Human Development Index one of the most frequently cited methods for grouping countries? Do you think it is the most accurate? What problems might be associated with the use of 201World Issues: A Geographic Analysis CGW4U SPATIAL ORGANIZATION: RELATIONSHIPS AND DISPARITIES this index? How useful is it to classify countries according to their political structure or their government expenditure as a percentage of GDP? Why might different organizations choose one type of classification but not another to support their opinions? How might they manipulate the data to strengthen their message? How might applying the Human Development Index specifically to indigenous peoples give us a different sense of the quality of life for subgroups within a developed country?

Geography-CGD3M-11-B3.3

apply statistical indicators and regional classification systems to the analysis of current global issues Sample questions: What, in your opinion, are the three most important global issues today? What indicators would you select to help you analyse the regional significance and implications of these issues? Which countries are emerging as superpowers? Which indicators reflect these changes in power relationships? Using spatial skills: To support their investiga - tion of an issue, students can begin by identifying indicators that are most relevant to the issue. Mapping statistical data related to various indicators relevant to the issue can help them identify the extent to which different countries and regions are affected by the issue.

Geography-CGD3M-11-C1.1

assess the effectiveness of various international agreements for protecting the natural environment (e.g., the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol, the Montreal Protocol, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Convention on Biological Diversity) Sample questions: What criteria should we use to measure progress towards achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goal of ensuring environmental sustainability? What progress has been made to date? What are some programs that have proved effective in protecting the natural environment? What has made these programs effective? Have they been effective in all the countries where they have been tried? How successful has the Convention on the Law of the Sea been in protecting the marine environment? Why might countries be hesitant to sign a protocol on climate change?

Geography-CGD3M-11-C1.2

analyse the roles and responsibilities of international organizations, governments, and companies with respect to the protection of the natural environment Sample questions: Why is the United Nations essential to the solution of international environmental problems? What are some of the major sustainability issues that UNESCO and UNEP are working on, and what is their role in resolving these issues? How effective are the strategies of organizations like the Nature Conservancy in protecting the natural environment? What might be some of the barriers to a governments adopting these strategies? What can governments do to protect the environment? What legal and moral obligations do companies have with respect to the environment? Why are some companies better stewards of the environment than others? Why is it good for a company to be seen to be environmentally responsible?

Geography-CGD3M-11-C1.3

analyse the influence of the values and beliefs of individuals and groups (e.g., environmental non-governmental organizations [NGOs]; business advocacy groups; First Nations, Inuit, and Mtis people) in shaping public opinion about environmental sustainability Sample questions: How do First Nations, Inuit, and Mtis people typically see the relationship between the environment and humans? What impact have their beliefs had on the Canadian public in general? Compare the views of an environmental NGO, a business advocacy group, and a variety of companies with respect to the environment generally or a specific environmental issue. What are the values and beliefs that underlie their positions? In what ways are they similar? In what ways are they different? How does the state of the economy affect the level of public concern about the state of the environment? How have individuals such as Rachel Carson, James Lovelock, and David Suzuki influenced thinking about environmental responsibility?

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analyse the effectiveness of policies, programs, and initiatives in various countries in enhancing sustainability (e.g., polluter-pay policies, eco-fees, carbon taxes, emission trading, zero-populationgrowth initiatives) Sample questions: How have domestic waste management programs, such as recycling, evolved in your community, and what have the environmental benefits been? How are public transportation systems in different parts of the world being developed to improve sustainability? Has the availability of green products contributed to sustainability? Which countries have the strongest records of environmental protection? Which have the weakest?

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assess the effectiveness of local sustainability initiatives in building sustainable communities (e.g., hazardous waste collection programs; community gardens; green roofs; no-till agricultural practices; participation in events such as Earth Hour, Earth Day, and World Environment Day) Sample questions: Is it possible to have sustainable development if water supply services have been privatized? What is the possibility of organizing a community garden in your area? How might this lead to a more sustainable community? How do no-till farming and other conservation tillage practices make farming, and therefore rural communities, more sustainable? What other environmental benefits do these practices provide? Why might it be difficult to get people to participate in initiatives that help the natural environment? What are some institutional and individual barriers and/or challenges that might prevent some communities or countries from acting with more sustainable intent?

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analyse the impacts of population growth and related trends (e.g., urbanization, migration, increased international travel) on the natural environment Sample questions: What regions of the world are experiencing population growth? How is the environment being changed in these regions to accommodate more people? How has urbanization affected the availability of habitat for wildlife? How has it affected the quality of the environment outside cities? What environmental stresses are associated with large-scale population movements and with increased international travel?

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analyse theories relating to the impact of global population growth on the carrying capacity of the earth (e.g., the Gaia hypothesis, I=PAT, limits of growth, the demographic transition model) Sample questions: What does the idea of limits of growth suggest about the carrying capacity of the earth? How does affluence affect population growth, according to the demographic transition model? How does it affect the impact of population growth, according to the I=PAT equation? In what ways has technological change amplified the impact of population growth on the natural environment? In what ways has it diminished it?

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explain the meaning and geographic significance of the commons (i.e., common-pool resources such as water, fish, fishing grounds, forests, common pastures) and the global commons (i.e., the atmosphere, the oceans, outer space, and Antarctica) Sample questions: Who owns a common-pool resource? Who uses it? What determines how much of the resource can be used by any one person or group? What makes the global commons different from other common-pool resources? What is the value of the atmosphere? Of the oceans?

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analyse the impacts of human activities on the commons (e.g., overfishing, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, water depletion) Sample questions: How are fish affected by industrial and agricultural activities in your area? How does the existence of the Internet contribute to climate change and the acidification of the oceans? How does space exploration affect the global commons? How do the different types of waste that a country produces contribute to the pollution of the global commons? Using spatial skills: Students can use satellite imagery of areas such as the Alberta oil sands or the Three Gorges hydro development in China to investigate changes in vegetation over time. Changes in coral reefs or tropical rainforests can be studied in this way as well. Students can also use the time function in a GIS to determine how emissions of gases related to climate change have varied throughout the world. Circle graphs can be used to compare present total and per capita emissions from the top ten emitting countries.

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analyse issues relating to the management of the commons Sample questions: How do we manage a resource like the atmosphere or the oceans that everybody uses but nobody owns? What is meant by the tragedy of the commons? What is the role of governments in managing common-pool resources inside their territories? Does the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) provide adequate protection for North Atlantic fish stocks? Why did the Montreal Protocol succeed and the Kyoto Protocol fail? What agreements or other arrangements exist to manage the use of rivers and lakes, such as the Great Lakes, the Jordan River, the Nile, the Danube, the Mekong, or the Brahmaputra, that are shared by two or more countries? What kinds of conflicts might arise over the use of shared rivers and lakes? Where has water distribution been privatized? Are water resources better managed in these countries than in countries where water distribution is publicly controlled? How can individual citizens or citizens groups promote stewardship of the commons?

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analyse the influence of selected international trade agreements (e.g., the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement [CETA] between Canada and the European Union, the United StatesSaudi Arabia Agreement on Trade and Investment, the India-Korea Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement [India-Korea CEPA]) on global interdependence and the economic, environmental, and social well-being of participating countries Sample questions: What do countries attempt to gain by entering into trade agreements with other countries? How do trade agreements affect the sovereignty of participating countries? Why might a country choose to be an observer or decline to be a member of the World Trade Organization? How might a trade agreement change a countrys relationships with other participating countries as well as with countries not involved in the agreement? What are the potential environmental and social impacts of this agreement on the participating countries? How will this agreement affect different sectors of the economy in the participating countries? How do foreign investment protection agreements affect the rights of foreign companies and participating governments? What key criteria would you use to determine whether Canada should enter into a trade agreement with another country? Do some current trade agreements meet your suggested criteria? What role might international economic summits, such as the G8 or G20, play in the development of trade agreements? Can economically weaker countries negotiate fair agreements with economically more powerful countries?

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analyse the influence of immigration on global interdependence and on individual countries, and assess the role of national immigration policies in managing the impacts of population change and immigration Sample questions: How does immigration affect connections and interactions between countries? What benefits might a country gain from opening its doors to immigrants? What difficulties and tensions might also arise as a result of immigration? Should wealthy countries actively recruit highly qualified immigrants from less developed countries? What effect does the loss of these people have on their home countries? Does immigration THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | Canadian and World Studies 206Grade 12, University Preparation provide any benefits to trade relations between countries? How does the arrival of immigrants from other countries affect the culture of the country that receives them? Why might countries such as Denmark, Japan, and Germany have tight restrictions on immigration while other countries such as Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom have more open policies? For what reasons might people seek refugee status? What types of situations does the International Rescue Committee [IRC] become involved in? Why do countries regularly review their limits on different types of immigration? Why has Canada imposed limits on different immigration categories over the years? Which of Canadas current immigration categories do you predict will become more contentious as a result of globalization?

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analyse issues relating to the impacts of globalization on economic and social conditions in both developing and developed countries and on the environment (e.g., outsourcing of manufacturing and services to low-wage countries; loss of manufacturing jobs in high-wage countries; increased pollution in low-wage countries; illegal immigration; exploitation of migrant workers; increased greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation of people and goods; increased risk of damage to local ecosystems from invasive plant, animal, and insect species; increased risk of global pandemics) Sample questions: How does the outsourcing of manufacturing to low-wage countries benefit people in those countries? Who benefits in highwage countries? How are labour conditions in low-wage countries affected by the desire to produce goods at the lowest possible cost? What goods do we no longer produce in Canada? What factors, besides globalization, might be contributing to the decline of manufacturing in Canada? Which sectors of the Canadian economy have benefited from globalization? What is the pollution haven hypothesis? What evidence is there for it and against it? What kinds of toxic wastes are exported to developing countries? Why? Using spatial skills: Students can use flow maps to show the sources and destinations of various types of waste (e.g., e-waste and other toxic waste, landfill material). Students can then layer socio-economic data such as number of televisions or cellphones, number of doctors, caloric intake, and GDP per capita to determine correlations between standards of living and waste flows. The maps can be used to support a discussion of ethical questions relating to waste exports.

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analyse the impacts of globalization on individual countries and on the interrelationships between countries (e.g., increased interdependence of countries, internationalization of local conflicts) Sample questions: How does our consumerism contribute to our interdependence with developing economies? What are conflict minerals? How has the international demand for these contributed to civil wars in Africa? How do global black markets aid the financing of terrorism? Has globalization made wars between countries more likely, or less?

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assess the responsibility of consumers for moderating economic, social, and environmental impacts associated with globalization, and describe ways in which this could be done (e.g., informing themselves about how products are made and disposed of, buying fair-trade products, boycotting products made through exploitive practices, raising awareness of labour and environmental issues in developing countries, supporting NGOs that are active in promoting workers rights and environmental protection in producing countries) Sample questions: Should consumers be concerned about how the products they buy are made? Would you be willing to pay more for products that have not been produced in sweatshops? How can you find out where products are made and whether manufacturers follow acceptable labour and environmental practices? What are some examples of fair-trade products? How does fair-trade certification protect small producers in developing countries? How can you influence labour standards in other countries through your purchases? How can you support Canadian businesses through your purchases?

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assess the responsibilities of governments and businesses for managing economic, environmental, and social impacts associated with globalization, and describe ways in which this could be done (e.g., through national laws regarding foreign operations of domestic companies, international organizations such as the International Labour Organization, international agreements such as the Basel Convention, voluntary business initiatives such as implementing codes of conduct requiring foreign suppliers to meet more stringent 207World Issues: A Geographic Analysis CGW4U INTERACTIONS AND INTERDEPENDENCE: GLOBALIZATION labour and environmental standards, making information available to consumers about where their products are made and what standards their suppliers must adhere to) Sample questions: In what ways do various governments ensure that businesses based in their countries operate ethically and legally in other countries? Why might some countries choose not to ensure this? How do international agreements control the use of banned substances (e.g., the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, the Montreal Protocol)? How effective are they? What is the Basel Convention? What is the Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh? What responsibility do businesses have to ensure that they do not exploit workers or cause environmental damage in the countries in which they operate? What can governments and businesses in developed countries do to offset the impacts of globalization on their economies?

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describe ways in which economic activity has become globalized (e.g., national economies have become increasingly integrated with those of other countries; production and services are frequently outsourced to lower-wage economies; multinational corporations dominate most economic sectors) Sample questions: Where do the products you use come from? Which ones are made in Canada? Choose a common consumer product, like a cellphone or a computer. Can you buy it anywhere in the world? What company produced it? Where is that company based? How many countries does it sell its products in? Where was the product designed? Where was it assembled? Where did the components inside it, such as batteries, processors, screens, and hard drives, come from? Do countries that produce cheap consumer goods consume most of these goods themselves or do they export most of them? Is the number of multinational corporations increasing? Where are the new ones coming from? Is it only multinational corporations that outsource the production of their goods? Using spatial skills: Students can construct a map illustrating foreign ownership of businesses or production for foreign companies in a particular country or countries. The map could show where certain foreign-related business activities are located, and annotations could provide further details, such as the number of foreign companies operating in the country, the products manufactured or services provided, the numbers employed, and wages and working conditions.

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analyse factors that have influenced the trend towards a globalized economy (e.g., trade agreements, consumerism, low wages and less government regulation in developing economies, advances in communications and transportation technology) Sample questions: Why are the products that are consumed in developed countries like Canada often not made there? What is consumerism, and how does it contribute to globalization? How do discount retailers, such as big box stores and online retailers, contribute to globalization? How have international trade agreements contributed to globalization? Would a globalized economy be possible without modern transportation and communication systems? Do labour laws and environmental regulations affect where companies decide to produce their goods? What is the average wage of a factory worker in the country where your shirt was made? What is the average wage of a factory worker in Canada?

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describe the globalization of culture (e.g., increasing similarity of many aspects of everyday life in different countries as people everywhere consume more of the same goods, are exposed to more of the same ideas, and share more of the same entertainment), and analyse the factors that have contributed to it (e.g., modern communications technology, including the Internet; rising standards of living in developing and emerging economies; large-scale migration and mixing of peoples; international tourism; widespread use of English as a common language; broad appeal of films, music, and other aspects of Western popular culture)

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analyse government policies for controlling population growth (e.g., Chinas one-child policy, incentives in various countries to increase birth rates, immigration as a way of compensating for an aging population), and assess their impacts Sample questions: Why might governments adopt policies for limiting or increasing population growth? What are some of the consequences of a high dependency ratio? Why did China institute a one-child-per-family policy in the 1970s, and why did it eventually relax the policy? What did the policy achieve, and what were its unintended consequences? How has India attempted to control its population growth? Why does Canada encourage immigration? Using spatial skills: Using population pyramids, students can analyse population trends for selected countries. The analyses can be used as a basis for identifying or forecasting demographically related social and economic needs and the policies needed to address them

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assess the effectiveness of various international aid policies, programs, and practices (e.g., food aid, economic development aid, infrastructure projects, debt relief) in improving the quality of life in developing countries Sample questions: What are the United Nations Millennium Development Goals? What progress has been made in achieving them? Why do some aid programs fail to achieve their objectives? Why are others successful? How successful has food aid been for the continent of Africa? Why might aid not reach the intended recipients? What are some of the most pressing needs of people living in the slums of the Kibera neighbourhood in Nairobi, Kenya? What is being done to address those needs, and what results have been achieved so far? What criteria would you use to determine whether a country should receive in-kind aid (such as food or building materials), a loan, or debt forgiveness? Will these criteria fit all situations? Does this program or policy focus on the needs of the debtors or the creditors? Why is aid still granted to some countries in spite of evidence of misgovernment and corruption? Do the governments of wealthy countries spend enough on foreign aid?

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assess the contributions of various individuals to advancing human rights and improving the quality of life in various countries, and assess the roles and responsibilities of individuals, as global citizens, in helping to solve issues of global concern Sample questions: What contributions are Stephen Lewis, Maude Barlow, Vandana Shiva, and Muhammad Yunus known for? Why have Bob Geldof and Bono been successful at making debt forgiveness an international political issue? Is it appropriate for the United Nations to use 209World Issues: A Geographic Analysis CGW4U SOCIAL CHANGE AND QUALITY OF LIFE celebrities as ambassadors for human rights and quality of life issues? Why might some people be opposed to this practice? Have celebrity ambassadors been successful in bringing about change? How can purchasing fair-trade goods or goods from social enterprises help people in other countries? Which NGOs or social enterprises would you consider supporting?

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describe how governments protect the security of the state (e.g., border security, search and rescue, disaster relief, consular support, defence against foreign powers or terrorist groups, military support of friendly foreign powers, intelligence collection, participation in collective security organizations), and analyse issues relating to changing national security needs and human rights Sample questions: How has the nature of international conflict changed over the past few decades, and how has this affected the security needs of Canada and other countries? How have Canadian governments responded to these changes? How might national security needs conflict with individual rights? How should they be balanced?

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explain the impact of technology as an agent of change, and describe ways in which technology could be used to bring about beneficial change in the future Sample questions: Can you name three ways in which technology has made your life better than that of your parents or grandparents or improved the quality of life of people in low-income countries? Has technology also had unintended negative consequences for society, the economy, or the environment? What are disruptive technologies? Can you identify an example of one in the past? Who benefited from it? Who didnt? What was the overall effect on society? Can you identify a disruptive technology that is changing society today? What are its present and expected future impacts? Can some military technologies be adapted for beneficial civilian uses? How might individual portable water filters change the lives of people in developing countries? Would providing free cellphones to people with low incomes help them find and keep good jobs? How might a wireless Internet service help to improve medical and educational services for remote Aboriginal communities?

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analyse the influence of mass media, including the Internet, on social and political change Sample questions: What is the relationship between the media and the government in democratic countries? In countries with authoritarian regimes? How has public access to online information influenced the ways in which governments operate? Why do some governments restrict the use of the Internet by their citizens? How effective are restrictions on Internet usage in controlling the flow of information? What does the censorship of mass media look like in democratic countries, and how does that affect the ability of the media in those countries to influence change? How much control should governments have over communications and the transfer of information?

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analyse the role of urbanization as an agent of social, economic, and environmental change Sample questions: Why are more people moving to cities? How might increasing urbanization affect the production and distribution of food? How is it affecting the availability of farmland? How are cities changing as a result of urbanization? How is urbanization changing rural areas? How does the impact of people on the environment change as societies become more urbanized? How does living in a city affect the way people live and meet their needs? How does urbanization affect social connections between people? What kinds of social issues might arise as cities become more densely populated? How does urbanization change transportation and communication networks? How can expanding cities meet the demand for housing, jobs, water, and sanitation? How are cities in different parts of the world responding to these challenges? Will an urbanized world be a more prosperous world? Will it be more resilient to natural disasters? What will the city of the future look like?

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analyse relationships between ethnic and/or religious tensions and crimes against humanity by governments or armed opposition groups (e.g., in Uganda, Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia) Sample questions: How did colonialism exacerbate ethnic tensions in Africa? How might this help explain the events that occurred in Rwanda in the early 1990s?

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assess the responsibility of governments and international bodies for the promotion and protection of human rights Sample questions: What are the fundamental rights that all human beings should have, according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? What does the United Nations do to promote human rights throughout the world? How do the International Criminal Court and special international tribunals like those for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia protect human rights? Why are some groups of people marginalized in some countries, and what role have governments played in either maintaining or decreasing their marginalization? What disadvantages do members of the Dalit caste experience in India? What is the government of India doing to prevent discrimination against them? How effective has the federal government in Canada been at addressing human rights issues that affect Canadian citizens?

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analyse issues relating to the rights of women and children (e.g., child labour, birth control, access to education, economic independence of women), and assess the effectiveness of programs (e.g., programs that train women in the local community as teachers, programs that fund business opportunities for women, Child Soldiers Initiative, Make Poverty History) and organizations (e.g., World Vision, UNICEF, Save the Children, Plan International, Free the Children, Grameen Bank) that address these issues Sample questions: What are some programs that have proved effective in making people aware of the plight of child soldiers? Have these programs been effective in improving the lives of children? How effective have education programs been in addressing the rights of women and children in Egypt and Colombia? How do human rights differ for teenagers in developed and developing countries? Should all children have access to universal education? Should there be laws to prohibit children from working? When does childhood end? How do various governments aid in perpetuating gender inequality? Why do they view this as acceptable? Using spatial skills: Students can construct thematic maps to support an analysis of human rights issues relating to women and children. Useful statistical indicators that can be incorporated into map layers include the number of women in non-agricultural jobs and the number of children under fourteen years of age engaged in labour.

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analyse challenges relating to food security and safety, and assess ways of responding to these challenges Sample questions: How will food production be affected by population growth, climate trends, and the increasing demand for animalbased foods? Why are more genetically modified food crops being grown? Why have organic foods become more popular? What environmental challenges are faced by indigenous communities who wish to restore or maintain traditional diets? Do we have enough farmland to grow food for a larger world population? How important are the following measures for feeding a larger world population: increasing crop yields, bringing more land under cultivation, reducing waste and inefficiency in the food supply chain? Why are foreign companies acquiring large tracts of farmland in Africa? How are local farmers and national economies being affected? How might foreign ownership of farmland be seen as a possible source of conflict over access to food? How is the ownership of farmland changing in other parts of the world? Why is agriculture becoming more dependent on large agribusinesses for seeds, fertilizer, pesticides, and distribution? How does that affect food security?

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identify regional and global patterns relating to disease (e.g., infectious diseases, chronic diseases) and health care, and assess the influence of factors affecting quality of life (e.g., per capita income, lifestyle, access to health care, access to improved water and sanitation systems, caloric intake) on health in different parts of the world Sample questions: What are the chances of living to seventy years of age in a high-income country? In a low-income country? Why do many more children die in low-income countries than in high-income countries? Why are people in low-income countries more likely to die of infectious diseases? What are the greatest dangers to health in high-income countries? How is personal health affected by ones standard of living and ones environment? What is a pandemic? What are some current examples of pandemics, and how did they spread? What can be done to increase the lifespan of people in low-income countries? Why are advanced medicines sometimes too expensive for those who need them most? Should pharmaceutical companies make their products available to low-income countries at a reasonable cost? What are the obstacles to doing this? Is medical research biased towards the needs of high-income countries? If so, why?

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formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into world geographic issues (e.g., factual questions: What is the role of UNESCO in preserving the worlds cultural heritage and protecting the environment?; comparative questions: How does Canadas immigration policy compare to those of other countries in the G8?; causal questions: How does global travel contribute to the spread of disease?)

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select and organize relevant data and information on geographic issues from a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., primary: raw data from fieldwork, both quantitative and qualitative; photographs; satellite images; secondary: published statistics, newspapers, books, atlases, geographic magazines, websites, graphs, charts, digital and print maps), ensuring that their sources represent a diverse range of perspectives Sample questions: What are some statistical indicators that you could use to analyse patterns and trends in global inequality? Where might you find this data and information? What kinds of data and information would you need to collect in order to assess the impact of globalization on the peoples and economies of various countries? What types of maps and graphs will help you analyse connections between government structures and human rights violations?

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assess the credibility of sources and information relevant to their investigations (e.g., by considering how the data are constructed to support the authors point of view, the possible bias of the author, the expertise of the author, the accuracy of the text and supporting data, the intended audience, the purpose of the messaging, the context in which the information was presented) Sample questions: What are the authors credentials and affiliations? What are the authors sources, and are they trustworthy? Have you consulted other sources that present other points of view? Can the data and information be interpreted in ways that do not support the authors point of view? Has the author used only data that support his or her argument and ignored data that dont? Are the authors conclusions supported by other, independent sources? If your information comes from an advocacy group, do you know what that organizations goals are? Do its name and mission statement accurately reflect the viewpoint it presents?

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interpret and analyse data and information relevant to their investigations, using various tools, strategies, and approaches appropriate for geographic inquiry (e.g., apply geographic models; analyse graphs and charts of various statistical indicators for selected countries; use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyse geographic problems or make geographic decisions; use decision-making templates to determine the importance of factors or criteria relating to an 197World Issues: A Geographic Analysis CGW4U GEOGRAPHIC INQUIRY AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT issue; use graphic organizers to outline various perspectives on the impact of colonialism on economically poor countries) Sample questions: How might Rostows theory of economic development help you interpret patterns and trends in global disparity and evaluate the potential effectiveness of policies for change? Is there a correlation between infant mortality and access to improved sanitation? Are there other factors that might be relevant to high infant mortality rates?

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use the concepts of geographic thinking (i.e., spatial significance, patterns and trends, interrelationships, geographic perspective) when analysing and evaluating data and information about and formulating conclusions and/or judgements regarding world issues (e.g., use the concept of spatial significance to evaluate ways of classifying countries and reasons for doing so; use the concept of patterns and trends to analyse the evolution of sustainable practices among a variety of groups, individuals, or nations; use the concept of interrelationships to assess how technology works as an agent of change; use the concept of geographic perspective to analyse the impact of globalization on various indigenous communities) Sample questions: How might the concept of spatial significance help one understand a countrys reasons for a military action? How might the concept of patterns and trends be useful for assessing human population movements due to natural phenomena or for determining areas of potential population growth? How might the concept of interrelationships be relevant to determining the impact of an oil spill or pipeline break? How might the concept of geographic perspective help in analysing the impact of a political leaders policies?

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evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements or predictions about the issues they are investigating Sample questions: What did you find out about the impact of the construction of this mega-dam? What did you find out about the interrelationship between globalism and human rights violations? Why might this pattern continue to be an issue? Which theory provides a more useful explanation of population change in Japan: Malthuss theory of population growth or the demographic transition model? What conclusions can you make about the effectiveness of various population and immigration policies? Are some more effective than others? What kinds of events and issues might affect the implementation and impact of these policies?

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communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the audience and purpose (e.g., a debate for classmates on the merits of an international trade accord; a map for a Grade 9 class showing countries that a specific multinational corporation operates in or is connected to in other ways; an annotated map to accompany a presentation to a local community group about the outsourcing of labour; a webcast or podcast for the general public on threats to the global commons; an essay for a newspaper opinion page on why Canada should or should not forgive the debts it is owed by a specific country) Sample questions: How much does your audience know about your topic? Do they need information summarized in a way that is easy to understand? Do they need more detailed information and arguments or just an overview? What format presents the results of your investigation most effectively? What type of graph or map projection conveys the information and your intended message most accurately and clearly?

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use accepted forms of documentation (e.g., footnotes, author/date citations, reference lists, bibliographies, annotated bibliographies, credits) to reference different types of sources (e.g., websites, blogs, books, articles, films, data)

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use appropriate terminology when communicating the results of their investigations (e.g., vocabulary specific to their inquiry; terminology related to geography and to the concepts of geographic thinking)

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describe ways in which geographic investigation can help them develop skills, including spatial skills and the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., reading graphic texts, writing, graphing, computer use, use of spatial technologies, oral communication, numeracy, decision making, planning, management, finding information, problem solving), that can be transferred to postsecondary opportunities, the world of work, and everyday life

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apply in everyday contexts skills and work habits developed through geographic investigation (e.g., use critical thinking, mapping, and graphing skills to analyse statistics and data in order to deepen their understanding of a global environmental issue; use listening skills to consider multiple perspectives when discussing an issue; use spatial skills to analyse relationships between people and the natural environment; apply work habits such as collaboration when working with a team to determine criteria that need to be considered when making a decision)

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apply the concepts of geographic thinking when analysing current events involving geographic issues (e.g., use the concept of spatial THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | Canadian and World Studies 232Grade 12, University/College Preparation significance to analyse the impact of melting ice caps; use the concept of patterns and trends to analyse the distribution of specific atmospheric pollutants; use the concept of interrelationships to analyse the connection between chemicals found in mothers milk and the use of specific products; use the concept of geographic perspective to analyse the impact of a new development project on a community) in order to enhance their understanding of these issues and their role as informed citizens

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identify some careers in which a geography background might be an asset (e.g., environmental scientist, engineer, lawyer, or technician; environmental consultant or coordinator for a resource company; risk assessment specialist; land surveyor; international aid worker; town planner; environmental or natural resource policy adviser; natural resource manager; civil engineer; geologist; hydrologist; GIS technician; park administrator)

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assess the role of government agencies, voluntary organizations, and international agencies (e.g., government agencies: Parks Canada, Ontario Parks, Conservation Authorities of Ontario; voluntary organizations: Britains National Trust, Nature Conservancy of Canada; international agencies: UNESCO, Global Protected Areas Programme of the International Union for Conservation of Nature) in protecting spaces of natural and cultural significance Sample questions: What are the benefits of protecting the boreal forest or coral reefs or wetlands? What is the difference between preserving and conserving natural spaces? Should mining or logging be allowed in national or provincial parks? What characteristics of the Niagara Escarpment made it qualify for inclusion in UNESCOs World Network of Biosphere Reserves? What role do conservation authorities play within urban areas? Where are fragile environments already protected by limitations on human activity? Are there other environments that should be recognized as fragile or under threat? What are the organizations or agencies that, in your opinion, play the most important role in the protection of natural and cultural spaces? Where does the funding come from to pay for an agencys or organizations expenses related to protecting spaces of natural and cultural significance? How do changes in funding or government affect the agencys or organizations ability to carry out its mandate?

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assess the role and effectiveness of various strategies for protecting plant and animal species Sample questions: What are some of the different ways in which natural spaces can be protected? How effective have these different kinds of protection been, and what challenges might they face in the future? How does the protection of spaces also help with the protection of species? What role do zoos play in protecting animals? How might requiring licences for hunting and fishing be considered a protection strategy? How important are monitoring activities and scientific studies for maintaining species populations and protecting species at risk? How do organizations such as the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature contribute to the protection of species?

Geography-CGF3M-11-B1.3

compare Canadas efforts to protect endangered spaces and species with those of another country Using spatial skills: Students can support their investigations of environmental protection measures in another country by constructing an annotated map highlighting designated protection areas in that country. Labels can be used for each area to provide details of the spaces or species being protected and to note any special protection measures that are in place. Photographs of the spaces or species being protected can be linked to the map.

Geography-CGF3M-11-B2.1

analyse differences in the views that various groups of people, including indigenous peoples, hold about the natural environment Sample questions: How do the environmental beliefs of Aboriginal groups in Canada compare with those of indigenous peoples in other parts of the world, such as the Maori of New Zealand or the Masai of Kenya? Why is it important to analyse the beliefs and values of different groups towards the natural environment when investigating a proposal to open a new mine in northern Ontario? Why might these groups attitudes and ideas differ? Which groups and stakeholders would you need to research?

Geography-CGF3M-11-B2.2

describe ways in which human settlement and modifications of the natural landscape affect the environment (e.g., loss of vegetation and related impacts on air quality, loss or fragmentation of habitat, changes in predator/prey relationships) Sample questions: In what ways do humans modify natural landscapes? What are the costs and benefits of these modifications? Do humans have the right to modify the environment to suit their needs? How can landscape modifications contribute to the resilience and survival of species? What are the environmental implications of some current urban development activities in our local area? Using spatial skills: As a basis for their investigations of human impacts on the local environment, students can conduct a field study of a local wetland to identify the main plant and animal species that it supports. The results can be recorded on a thematic map and used to determine the potential impacts if the wetland were to be developed for human use. The field study could also be used as a starting point for an examination of the environmental assessment process.

Geography-CGF3M-11-B2.3

identify factors that contribute to the survival of a species within an ecosystem (e.g., genetic characteristics, availability of habitat, population size), and explain why selected species throughout the world are at risk from encroaching human populations Sample questions: In what regions of the world are plant and animal species most at risk? Why? Why are some species more at risk than others? What are the various categories used to indicate whether a plant or animal may be at risk of extinction? Using spatial skills: Students can use a world population base map and overlay various ecosystem regions and components to identify areas where ecosystems may be under direct stress from settlement or exploitation by humans.

Geography-CGF3M-11-B2.4

describe ways in which non-native species can enter ecosystems, and evaluate the impact of an introduced or invasive species on an ecosystem (e.g., rabbits in Australia; predatory brown tree snakes on Guam; zebra mussels, purple loosestrife, and Asian long-horned beetles in Canada; giant rhubarb and grey squirrels in Ireland) Sample questions: Why might people choose to introduce a foreign species to an ecosystem? Who should be consulted about introducing a foreign species? How might people inadvertently introduce foreign species to an ecosystem? Why is the Great Lakes Region vulnerable to invasive species? What conditions are needed for a non-native species to survive in a new environment? What conditions allow it to become a dominant component of the ecosystem? How does its presence change other relationships within the ecosystem? What species are threatened by its presence in the ecosystem? Using spatial skills: Students can create a global overview of invasive species problems by constructing maps highlighting countries in various parts of the world that have major concerns with invasive species and annotating details such as the species of concern in each country, their regions of origin, their mode of introduction, and their impacts on local ecosystems.

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describe the characteristics of the earths spheres (e.g., biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere), and explain how interactions between them support life Sample questions: How is the biosphere dependent on the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere for the basic necessities of life? How do climate and soil conditions affect the type of life that can exist in a region? How do interactions between the atmosphere and hydrosphere affect regional climates, and how do they affect the creation of soils? How do processes within the biosphere affect the other spheres and their ability to support life? What challenges do humans face in trying to simulate the functions of the earths spheres in order to create an artificial life system that will 235The Environment and Resource Management CGR4M SPATIAL ORGANIZATION allow humans to thrive outside the earths atmosphere?

Geography-CGF3M-11-B3.2

explain the influence of physical factors (e.g., climate, sunlight, soils, topography) on the characteristics of various ecosystems (e.g., boreal forest, desert, tundra, savannah, rainforest), and analyse the relationship between the systems characteristics and the abundance and variety of life that it supports Sample questions: How does the shape of the earth influence the characteristics of various ecosystems? Should humans be considered components of ecosystems? Why or why not? Why do some ecosystems support a much greater abundance and diversity of life than others? How do the abundance and diversity of plant life in an ecosystem determine the amount of animal life it can support? What accounts for the diversity of life in a coral reef ecosystem? How does the vertical structure of a tropical rainforest contribute to biodiversity? Why do most organisms in a rainforest live in the tree canopy? What are some of the ways in which plants and animals have adapted to the heat and dryness of hot deserts? How have they adapted to the extreme cold of cold deserts, such as Canadas Arctic? Why are some ecosystems more fragile than others?

Geography-CGF3M-11-B3.3

explain how interactions between the components of an ecosystem (e.g., biotic components such as primary producers, consumers, and decomposers; abiotic components such as climate and soils) contribute to its characteristics and affect its stability Sample questions: How do soil conditions determine the type of vegetation found in an ecosystem? How do decomposers contribute to soil production? How do predators contribute to the stability of ecosystems? How might the loss of sea ice and sea-ice algae as a result of climate change affect seal and polar bear populations in the Arctic? How would African savannahs change if elephants were no longer part of the ecosystem?

Geography-CGF3M-11-B3.4

explain how and why ecosystems change over time Sample questions: What do we mean by primary succession and secondary succession? What can cause an ecosystem to change? What role does a forest fire play in the regeneration of forest ecology? How does a volcanic landscape become repopulated with flora and fauna?

Geography-CGF3M-11-C1.1

describe policies and strategies used in various countries to manage natural resources sustainably, and compare the levels of success of different countries in implementing selected sustainability options Sample questions: Why might some countries, such as Sweden, be more interested than others in implementing sustainable forestry management guidelines and practices? Why might alternative energy options that have been implemented successfully in some countries and regions be less effective in others? What, in your opinion, are the best alternative energy options for your area? What are some of the methods that various countries have implemented to provide fresh drinking water for their populations and manage water use?

Geography-CGF3M-11-C1.2

analyse issues related to the use and management of shared resources (e.g., common-pool resources such as fish, water, the atmosphere, the oceans; boundary waters; rivers that pass through different political jurisdictions), and assess the role of intergovernmental organizations and agreements in resolving and managing these issues (e.g., International Joint Commission, Kyoto Protocol, UN Convention on the Law of the Sea) Sample questions: Who owns common natural resources that flow between or across political boundaries? Why is international cooperation necessary to resolve issues relating to the global commons? Should fresh water be considered a commodity to be bought and sold, or should access to it be declared a fundamental human right? Should developing countries be held to the same environmental standards as developed countries, if doing so will impede their economic growth and their ability to improve their standard of living? Why or why not? Should new industrial powers such as China and India make binding commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions? Can Canada and the United States contribute effectively to international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions if they are not parties to the Kyoto Protocol? Why was the Montreal Protocol successful in reducing the use of CFCs? Do you think the Antarctic Treaty will be successful in protecting the continent from future resource development?

Geography-CGF3M-11-C1.3

evaluate the contributions of selected individuals, environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs), and intergovernmental organizations (e.g., individuals: Garrett Hardin, Barry Commoner, Rachel Carson, David Suzuki; ENGOs: Greenpeace, Sierra Club; intergovernmental organizations: Brundtland Commission, UNESCO, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate 237The Environment and Resource Management CGR4M SUSTAINABILITY AND STEWARDSHIP OF NATURAL RESOURCES Change [IPCC]) to creating awareness of and implementing solutions for selected natural resource management issues Sample questions: What criteria might you use to determine the effectiveness of a particular individuals or groups contribution? How does the role of an intergovernmental organization like the IPCC differ from that of an international ENGO like Greenpeace? How can social enterprises help to resolve environmental problems?

Geography-CGF3M-11-C1.4

analyse Canadas contribution to international efforts to resolve selected global environmental or resource management issues Sample questions: What was Canadas role in drafting and implementing one of the following international accords: the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention), the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora? Why did Canada participate in the accord? What expertise might Canada have provided to the drafters of the accord? What were some of the laws and regulations that Canada introduced or changed in order to meet its obligations under the accord?

Geography-CGF3M-11-C2.1

analyse competing points of view about a natural resource development issue, using a geographic perspective Sample questions: How do we, as a society, make decisions about contentious resourcedevelopment issues when there are strongly competing interests and points of view? What criteria should be used to determine whose arguments should be given the most weight? What are the characteristics of a natural resourcebased community? How does the discovery of a natural resource affect the residents of a community and the communitys development? What happens to a resourcedependent community when the resource is no longer profitable? What are the positions of various stakeholders on oil sands development (e.g., the oil companies; the Alberta, Saskatchewan, and federal governments; the community of Fort McMurray; Aboriginal communities along the Athabasca River; environmentalists; consumers; foreign importers)?

Geography-CGF3M-11-C2.2

analyse the environmental impacts of various resource extraction activities (e.g., ecological impacts of clear-cutting and forest monocultures; habitat disruption from pipeline construction, and potential impacts of pipeline leakage on watersheds and climate; ecosystem destruction, impacts on fish, changes in sediment transport patterns, and increases in greenhouse gas emissions from damming of waterways; impact of wind farms on migratory birds; air and water pollution and destruction of natural landscapes resulting from mining), and assess options for making these activities more sustainable Sample questions: What incentives do industries have to minimize the environmental impacts of their activities? What are some of the solutions that various industries have applied to reduce specific impacts from their activities? How effective have these been? How costly have they been to implement? If the current rate of extraction is maintained, how likely is it that we can continue to extract this resource? Could international pressure change the rate of extraction? Using spatial skills: Students can use annotated maps to plot the extent of the area affected by the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 and to document local impacts

Geography-CGF3M-11-C2.3

compare the economic, cultural, and social costs and benefits of selected resource development projects for various individuals or groups (e.g., indigenous peoples, businesses, farmers, tourists) Sample questions: How might a person who lives in a resource-based community and a person who does not differ in their attitudes towards resource extraction? What health concerns might a person living near this development have? How might different groups use the Ontario First Nations Environmental Assessment Toolkit when analysing an existing or proposed resource development project? How does one measure the cost of displacing a community in order to develop a resource? What were the social and economic costs of displacing Cree communities in northern Quebec to allow the development of the La Grande River power project or of displacing more than a million people along the Yangtze River to allow the development of the Three Gorges Dam project? What was the balance of costs and benefits for the people displaced? What was the balance of costs and benefits for Quebec or China? How are indigenous people being affected by logging activities in the Brazilian rainforest? What are the benefits and for whom? How might pharmaceutical companies seeking to develop new medicines be affected?

Geography-CGF3M-11-C2.4

analyse the potential environmental impacts of a selected resource-related project or activity (e.g., dam construction, farming, groundwater extraction, water diversion, landfills, expansion of a conservation area, an oil sands project, a diamond mine), and assess the implications of these impacts for developing the project or managing the activity sustainably Sample questions: What criteria should be considered in an environmental assessment? What are some common environmental impacts associated with farming? What options do farmers have for managing these impacts?

Geography-CGF3M-11-C3.1

analyse the relationship between the availability and use of different kinds of natural resources and the changing needs of human populations Sample questions: Are all natural resources of equal importance? What criteria would you use to rate the importance of a natural resource to humans? Which natural resources are the most in demand at this time? How do you predict this might change? How might climate change affect the exploitation of oil and gas deposits in the Beaufort Sea or metallic minerals in the Northwest Territories? How might a shortage of natural resources such as copper or oil affect future industrial growth in China? Using spatial skills: Students can use a world base map with overlays showing the distribution of exploitable resources to illustrate the resource assets of different countries. Different colours can be used to indicate different resource categories, and depth of shading can be used to indicate the quantity of resources available. Students can also construct maps illustrating how changes in industrial needs over time have led to the development of new resources.

Geography-CGF3M-11-C3.2

describe the spatial distribution of selected natural resources, including fresh water, and assess the viability of developing these resources in particular locations Sample questions: Why is the availability of fresh water a concern when 75 per cent of the earths surface is water? How does the spatial distribution of a natural resource influence the viability of developing it? What transportation facilities would be needed to extract this resource and get it to market? What kind of technology would be needed to develop the resource in that location, and how expensive would the development be? Why have the abundant non-renewable resources of the Antarctic not been developed? Why has the boundary of the commercial forest in Canada shifted northward over time?

Geography-CGF3M-11-C3.3

analyse global patterns and trends in the availability and use of various fossil-fuel resources, and assess the implications for the future development and use of fossil fuels and other energy sources Sample questions: Does the location of the resource pose environmental risks, transportation difficulties, or other problems? How might these affect decisions about developing the resource? How has the decline of easily accessible oil reserves and the need to tap resources in more difficult locations affected the price of oil? How might higher oil prices encourage the development and use of alternative energy sources or other fossil fuels? Using spatial skills: Students can identify areas where there are environmental or safety risks from the transportation of fossil fuels by overlaying a base map showing the location of coal, oil, and gas deposits with a map layer showing the routes taken to transport these resources from source to market. Points of particular environmental risk along these routes, such as rivers and lakes, can be identified, as can populated areas that face a safety risk. Another overlay could be created to show areas where fossil-fuel resources might be developed in the future.

Geography-CGF3M-11-D1.1

evaluate the effectiveness of selected strategies that have been used to reduce pollution from human activities (e.g., bans on the use of polluting chemicals, such as DDT or CFCs; reformulation of products to eliminate harmful ingredients, such as phosphates in detergents; use of filtration devices, such as stack scrubbers or catalytic converters, to reduce pollutants in emissions; use of non-chemical alternatives to aerosol sprays, pesticides, and other products containing harmful chemicals) Sample questions: What are some ways of protecting rivers and lakes from pollutants in urban and agricultural runoff? What promotional strategies have urban centres used to reduce the pollution of local water systems? Why should industrial companies include environmental factors in their research activities? How can we as individuals do our part to reduce pollution? How are environmental laws enforced?

Geography-CGF3M-11-D1.2

analyse some of the challenges associated with reducing various types of pollution Sample questions: Which is more difficult to treat, point source pollution or non-point source pollution, and why? Who pays for the cost of decontaminating a disused industrial site, such as the Sydney Tar Ponds, when the company that owned the facility no longer exists? How can we end our dependence on fossil fuels, when they are crucial to the economy and a major source of jobs? How can we encourage a transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources, such as wind and solar, when the alternatives are more expensive? Why might it be difficult to persuade some members of the public to reduce their ecological footprints?

Geography-CGF3M-11-D1.3

assess the economic implications of pollution reduction and other environmental protection policies (e.g., job creation or reduction; savings in health costs; reduction of losses from damage to crops, building materials, forests; costs of research, monitoring, enforcement, infrastructure changes) Sample questions: Does protection of the environment always come at a cost to the economy, and vice versa? What suggestions do you have for making environmental protection and economic development mutually beneficial?

Geography-CGF3M-11-D2.1

explain how changes affecting the natural environment in one location (e.g., nuclear accidents, acid precipitation, destruction of tropical THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | Canadian and World Studies 240Grade 12, University/College Preparation rainforests, dumping of waste in the oceans, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions) may cause changes to the natural environment in other places around the world Sample questions: Why did the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991 affect weather conditions around the world during the following year? Why would DDT be found in mothers milk in Arctic communities even though DDT was never used there? Why is the eradication of milkweed in Ontario gardens and pastures a threat to monarch butterflies in Mexico? Why is it wise to pay attention to water currents and flows when choosing where to fish near a community?

Geography-CGF3M-11-D2.2

describe different types of pollution (e.g., in water: thermal pollution, biological and chemical substances that deplete oxygen, bacteria, nutrients, heavy metals and toxic chemicals; in air: particulates, ground-level ozone, heavy metals and toxic chemicals, ozone-depleting substances, acidifying gases, carbon monoxide, greenhouse gases; noise pollution; electromagnetic radiation pollution; light pollution) and their impacts (e.g., water pollutants: health effects in fish and fish-eating birds, animals, and humans; eutrophication; air pollutants: cardiorespiratory stress in humans, acidification of lakes, ozone layer depletion, climate change; light pollution: fatalities among migratory birds, detrimental confusion among sea turtle hatchlings), and explain processes that affect the severity of some of these impacts (e.g., bioaccumulation and biomagnification, acid buffering) Sample questions: How do case studies help in assessing the possible effects of a pollutant? Why is it sometimes difficult to prove that a certain pollutant is the cause of the effects? Why is the solution to pollution not dilution? What impacts does acid precipitation have on plant and animal life in lakes? Why does acid precipitation have a greater impact in the shield regions of Canada and Russia than in other geological areas? What cancers may be related to environmental exposure to benzene? What role do air temperature and bright sunshine play in the formation of ground-level ozone? What is the relationship between poor air quality and respiratory problems? Why is noise pollution difficult to monitor? Using spatial skills: Students can construct an annotated map identifying hot spots for various types of pollution and make links to health concerns related to these areas. Students can also use data on carbon dioxide emissions by country to identify the twenty highest emitters and can plot the location of these countries on an annotated map. They can then use an analysis of the patterns on the map to support suggestions for global strategies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Geography-CGF3M-11-D3.1

describe how matter and energy flow through the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere (e.g., through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles; photosynthesis; radiation; transfers of sensible and latent heat) Sample questions: How is your diet a product of solar energy? How is that energy transferred to your body? What role does lightning have in the nitrogen cycle? How do greenhouse gases affect the flow of energy through the atmosphere? How does the hydrologic cycle transfer heat energy from the earths surface to the atmosphere? Why is an understanding of nutrient cycles and energy flows important to our understanding of the natural environment? Using spatial skills: Students can create flow diagrams to clarify their understanding of how the various components of key life-sustaining cycles interact.

Geography-CGF3M-11-D3.2

identify various types and sources of pollutants that affect or interact with the hydrologic cycle, and explain their impacts on various components of the cycle Sample questions: How do greenhouse gases and climate change affect the hydrologic cycle? What role does the hydrologic cycle play in the acidification of lakes? What are some of the major pollutants that affect water quality in lakes and rivers, and how do they end up in the water?

Geography-CGF3M-11-D3.3

explain how various human activities (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, deforestation) affect the carbon/oxygen cycle Sample questions: Human activities account for only a very small part of the carbon in the carbon/oxygen cycle. Why do they have such a large effect on the amount of carbon in the atmosphere? How does deforestation increase the amount of carbon in the atmosphere? How much carbon from human sources do the oceans absorb? Can they continue to absorb as much in the future?

Geography-CGF3M-11-E1.1

analyse the role of governments in protecting the environment, locally, nationally, and globally Sample questions: Can solutions to environmental problems be achieved voluntarily, or do they require government legislation or encouragement? Governments can pass and enforce laws to reduce pollution, but what are some other important ways in which they can act to protect the environment? How effective can activities such as environmental research, monitoring, and public education be without government participation? How can the tax system be used to encourage sustainability? Is the Experimental Lakes Area a good investment of public funds? Do governments have an obligation to provide the public with information about the state of the environment? Should Canada have an environmental bill of rights? What might it include? What responsibilities does each of the three levels of government in Canada have for environmental protection? What components of the environment can be protected only by international agreements?

Geography-CGF3M-11-E1.2

assess the contribution to environmental sustainability of selected locally implemented initiatives and personal choices (e.g., wastereduction initiatives, such as recycling, municipal waste fees, bring-your-own-bag programs; energyconservation initiatives, such as time-of-use energy pricing, LEED certification; awareness initiatives, such as Earth Hour and environment days) Sample questions: What problems does this initiative address? What strategies does it apply to solve the problems? What results has it achieved? How can we encourage people to become more effective environmental stewards?

Geography-CGF3M-11-E1.3

analyse a local, national, or global environmental issue and a range of possible solutions, and create an action plan to address the issue Sample questions: What or who stands to benefit most from your plan of action? Can your action plan be implemented by one person, or does it require many people working together? What behaviours will people need to adopt or modify in order to make your action plan work? Will you need political backing for your plan?

Geography-CGF3M-11-E2.1

analyse the impact of selected land uses within and near communities (e.g., transportation corridors, residential areas, parks, agricultural production) on humans and the natural environment Sample questions: How do residential buildings affect the natural environment? How does THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | Canadian and World Studies 242Grade 12, University/College Preparation infilling affect the environment? Is there a human cost to infilling? How are farm crops near a highway affected by vehicle emissions? How do different types of farm crops, including genetically modified crops such as fruit trees and corn, affect insects and birds? Why are these effects important? What are the potential costs and benefits of extending a highway through a wetland?

Geography-CGF3M-11-E2.2

analyse the advantages and disadvantages for humans and for natural systems of different transportation and energy supply options at the community level Sample questions: Which has more of an impact on the environment, electric cars or traditional petroleum-powered vehicles? What are the arguments for and against bicycle lanes? How can people be encouraged to use mass transit? What are the pros and cons of off-grid energy systems for the community and for the individuals using them? How might the decentralization of energy supply both promote and inhibit the adoption of alternative energy systems? Which alternative energy source is the most viable for where you live? Using spatial skills: Community maps showing transportation corridors can be analysed to identify opportunities for developing enhanced transit networks that could reduce motor vehicle use and related pollution emissions.

Geography-CGF3M-11-E2.3

analyse issues related to the treatment and disposal of urban waste (e.g., domestic sewage, stormwater runoff, household garbage, toxic waste), and assess the advantages and disadvantages of various treatment and disposal options (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment for sewage; constructed wetlands for stormwater; recycling, composting, incineration, use of landfills for garbage; high-temperature incineration, use of secure landfills for toxic waste) Sample questions: Should communities be allowed to ship their waste to other communities? What are some of the problems faced by cities with older sewer systems? What are some of the factors that determine the level of sewage treatment a community should have? What are some of the challenges that communities in permafrost regions face in providing safe drinking water and disposing of waste? Using spatial skills: Students can conduct a field study to explore how water and solid waste are treated in their community and identify areas of potential concern. Community maps showing utility pathways above and below ground can assist them in their investigations.

Geography-CGF3M-11-E2.4

describe strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of buildings and other structures Sample questions: How can the orientation of a building help to save energy? What are some strategies that you could use to reduce the environmental impact of an existing structure?

Geography-CGF3M-11-E3.1

assess the importance of behavioural and ethical factors (e.g., reducing consumption, changing personal activities to reduce ones environmental impact, giving priority to values such as environmental sustainability and intergenerational equity in decision making) in reducing the human impact on the environment Sample questions: What are our basic survival needs? Are they the same for everyone? Why or why not? What do we need to enjoy a reasonable standard of living? Is this the same for everyone? Why or why not? How do we persuade people to adopt behaviours that reduce their personal impact on the environment? Is it possible to persuade people to support government policies that impose personal costs on them in the present in order to avoid environmental harm in the future? How will our personal decisions now affect the quality of life of our great-grandchildren?

Geography-CGF3M-11-E3.2

describe various measurements of human impact on the environment (e.g., water footprint, carbon footprint, ecological footprint), and assess their implications for the sustainable development of human societies in the future Sample questions: Does the world have enough natural resources to support a North American standard of living indefinitely for everyone on the planet? Who determines what a comfortable standard of living is? What is a sustainable standard of living? Who decides this? How can we achieve a comfortable standard of living for all while sustaining the planets ability to support future generations? How would future development have to proceed in developed countries and in developing countries in order for that to happen?

Geography-CGF3M-11-E3.3

calculate an ecological footprint for themselves or their class, based on their consumption of resources and production of waste, and compare it to the ecological footprints of people in other countries Sample questions: What accounts for the differences between your footprint and those 243The Environment and Resource Management CGR4M COMMUNITY ACTION of people in some other countries? What area of consumption had the greatest effect on your footprint? How might you reduce this part of your footprint?

Geography-CGF3M-11-E3.4

assess the role of technology in changing the impact that humans have on the natural environment Sample questions: How have various technological developments, such as the steam engine, the internal combustion engine, electric power generation, and the personal computer, affected our resource and energy needs and our resulting impact on the environment? How might technology help us reduce our impact on the environment? What are some developing technologies that might help to reduce impacts in areas such as climate change, forest harvesting, sewage treatment, and air and water quality?

Geography-CGG3O-11-A1.1

formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into issues related to the environment and natural resource management (e.g., factual questions: Which gases are considered greenhouse gases?; comparative questions: Which open-pit rehabilitation strategies result in the least amount of environmental damage?; causal questions: How might a trade agreement have an effect on the natural environment?)

Geography-CGG3O-11-A1.2

select and organize relevant data and information on geographic issues from a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., primary: raw data from fieldwork, both quantitative and qualitative; photographs; satellite images; secondary: published statistics, newspapers, books, atlases, geographic magazines, websites, graphs, charts, digital and print maps), ensuring that their sources represent a diverse range of perspectives Sample questions: How might you use data on stream flow and sedimentation depth over time to determine the impact of a dam or pier? Where might you find this data and information? What type of data and information do you need to collect in order to assess the impact of a clear-cut forest harvest on a particular region? What types of maps and graphs will help you analyse vegetation type or heat emissions from an industrial source?

Geography-CGG3O-11-A1.3

assess the credibility of sources and information relevant to their investigations (e.g., by considering how the data are constructed to support the authors point of view, the possible bias of the author, the expertise of the author, the accuracy of the text and supporting data, the intended audience, the purpose of the messaging, the context in which the information was presented) Sample questions: What is the source of this map or photographic image? What biases might this source have and how might they affect the map or image? Have you consulted other maps or images of the same place from a different source or a slightly different time period? How do they compare?

Geography-CGG3O-11-A1.4

interpret and analyse data and information relevant to their investigations, using various tools, strategies, and approaches appropriate for geographic inquiry (e.g., interpret data related to the release of a specific pollutant from various point sources; analyse navigational graphs and charts for selected locations to determine the best route for travel; use decision-making templates to analyse points of view on an issue; use a graphic organizer to outline the pros and cons of various map projections, and choose the best one for their purposes) Sample questions: What type of graphic organizer would you use to help you interpret data gathered from a GPS? What data layers and types of information might you include when using GIS in order to analyse statistics on the various ethnic communities of a city?

Geography-CGG3O-11-A1.5

use the concepts of geographic thinking (i.e., spatial significance, patterns and trends, interrelationships, geographic perspective) when analysing and evaluating data and information, 249Spatial Technologies in Action CGO4M GEOGRAPHIC INQUIRY AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT formulating conclusions, and making judgements about issues they are investigating through the use of spatial technologies (e.g., use the concept of spatial significance to analyse an area of urban sprawl; use the concept of patterns and trends to analyse short- and long-term graphs of ocean temperatures and determine how they have changed over time; use the concept of interrelationships to make correlations between urban areas and ground-level ozone pollution or the number of smog days in an area; use the concept of geographic perspective to analyse social, political, economic, and environmental impacts of the use of GPS technology) Sample questions: How can an understanding of spatial significance help you when determining where a natural area or green belt should be located? How might an understanding of patterns and trends help you analyse the impact on coastlines of increased precipitation in temperate zones? How might an understanding of interrelationships guide your analysis of a story map showing the connections among the following: a product you buy, the company that sells it, the resources used to make and dispose of it, and labour conditions in the company that manufactures it? How can geographic perspective help you identify data layers needed to analyse the impacts of globalization on indigenous peoples?

Geography-CGG3O-11-A1.6

evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements or predictions about the issues they are investigating Sample questions: What did you find out about the relationships among oil and gas pipeline routes, land claims, and animal migration pathways? In what ways might these relationships continue to be an issue in the future, such as if migration pathways shift or new pipelines are laid? What conclusions can you draw about the best locations for future pipeline routes?

Geography-CGG3O-11-A1.7

communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the audience and purpose (e.g., a debate for classmates on the best scale interval to use in constructing a map for a particular message; a video for a Grade 9 class illustrating how colour is used on land-use maps and how shading is used on choropleth maps to communicate intended messages; a webcast or podcast for the general public on secure data management strategies for GPSenabled devices such as cellphones; an annotated map using photos illustrating the landmark features and points of interest for a particular site [city, conservation area, or park] to be used in the tourism industry) Sample questions: What kind of information does your audience need? What symbols or shading techniques would best communicate the intended message? What format and approach would be most effective in conveying your information to this particular audience?

Geography-CGG3O-11-A1.8

use accepted forms of documentation (e.g., footnotes, author/date citations, reference lists, bibliographies, annotated bibliographies, credits) to reference different types of sources (e.g., websites, blogs, books, articles, films, data)

Geography-CGG3O-11-A1.9

use appropriate terminology when communicating the results of their investigations (e.g., vocabulary specific to their inquiry; terminology related to geography and to the concepts of geographic thinking

Geography-CGG3O-11-A2.1

describe several ways in which geographic investigation can help them develop skills, including spatial skills and the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., reading graphic texts, writing, graphing, computer use, use of spatial technologies, oral communication, numeracy, decision making, planning, management, finding information, problem solving), that can be transferred to postsecondary opportunities, the world of work, and everyday life

Geography-CGG3O-11-A2.2

apply in everyday contexts skills and work habits developed through geographic investigation (e.g., ask questions to deepen their understanding of a complex global issue; listen to and consider multiple perspectives when discussing an issue; collaborate with a team to determine the criteria that need to be considered when making a decision; use quantitative data to support an idea; use spatial skills to identify relationships between regions of the world)

Geography-CGG3O-11-A2.3

apply the concepts of geographic thinking when analysing current events involving geographic issues (e.g., use the concept of spatial significance when analysing the reasons for a military alliance with another country; use the concept of patterns and trends when analysing a regions or countrys vulnerabilities to more frequent severe weather conditions; use the concept of interrelationships when analysing the connections between consumer choice and labour conditions; use the concept of geographic perspective when analysing a countrys position on a new trade agreement) in order to enhance their understanding of these issues and their role as informed citizens

Geography-CGG3O-11-A2.4

identify some careers in which a geography background might be an asset (e.g., international development aid worker, policy analyst, environmental assessment officer, entrepreneur, GIS specialist, lobbyist, politician, news reporter)

Geography-CGG3O-11-B1.1

use a variety of spatial technologies to gather data through a field study or survey, code and tabulate the data (e.g., by performing tasks such as gathering data through GPS coordinates and attributes of points, lines, and polygons; buffering data; geocoding; georeferencing; creating new spreadsheet fields; building attribute tables), and interpret the results to identify patterns in the data Using spatial skills: In a field study, students can measure wind velocity in an urban centre and map the data in GIS to determine the pattern and identify the areas that experience the greatest wind chill. Students can use GPS to determine the elevation parameters needed to level agricultural fields in order to create an efficient irrigation system.

Geography-CGG3O-11-B1.2

query spatial databases they have built (e.g., request specific features or tabular attributes) to answer practical research questions Sample question: Which features or tabular data would you need to request to determine the interrelationship between the demographics of a region and voter turnout? Using spatial skills: Students can query their databases to request specific features or tabular data to determine the best transportation route for agricultural goods or the impact of disease on local vegetation.

Geography-CGG3O-11-B1.3

use spatial technologies to analyse geographic case studies and make associated decisions (e.g., determine the best route for a road or trail, the best location for a building, or the best place for a specific land use; determine the area of impact of a physical phenomenon or disaster) Sample questions: What is the best route for a cycling, running, or snowmobile competition in your local area? How do you know? How large are the deposits of a valuable natural resource in a particular country? How would traffic flow be changed by adding a turning lane to a particular street? What is the best route for a recreational trail in an environmentally sensitive area?

Geography-CGG3O-11-B1.4

construct a map that communicates qualitative and/or quantitative attribute data, using mapping conventions (e.g., title, scale, legend, orientation) as appropriate Using spatial skills: Students can generate maps in GIS using attribute values such as physical data (e.g., climate, drainage features, ecozones) and human data (e.g., population density, ethnicity, voter turnout). Different THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | Canadian and World Studies 252Grade 12, University/College Preparation types of symbology (e.g., graduated colour, proportional symbols) and classification (e.g., natural breaks, equal intervals, quantiles) can be added to a legend. Different scale intervals can be explored to determine the most meaningful way to present the information.

Geography-CGG3O-11-B2.1

interpret a variety of images (e.g., aerial photographs, satellite images, web-based map images) of different areas of the world, describing observed spatial characteristics (e.g., tone, texture, shape, pattern, size, association, shadow) and identifying physical and human features based on direct observations or inferences Sample questions: What is the difference between observation and inference? How do you use inference when reviewing different types of images?

Geography-CGG3O-11-B2.2

interpret satellite images (e.g., remote sensing images, infrared images) and use their conclusions to organize major features of the world (e.g., mountain systems, vegetation belts, oceans) into spatial regions

Geography-CGG3O-11-B2.3

interpret a variety of maps (e.g., thematic, topographic), aerial photographs, and satellite images to analyse patterns of physical and human features Sample question: How do rivers, glaciers, trees, and buildings appear on a topographic map, an aerial photograph, and a satellite remote sensing image? Using spatial skills: Students can use different types of base maps (e.g., topographic imagery, terrain) in a GIS to explore and analyse the various ways in which physical landforms, drainage, vegetation and human patterns, transportation networks, and population distribution may be represented (e.g., through the use of contour lines, shading, colour). B3. Fundamentals of Spatial Organization FOCUS ON: Interrelationships; Geographic Perspective By the end of this course, students will: B3.1 describe and calculate the ways in which various types of scales and resolutions in cartography, GIS, remote sensing, and GPS (e.g., small scale, large scale, linear scale, statement, representative fraction, number of pixels, map resolution, spatial resolution) affect the degree of clarity of a map or image Sample question: How does the number of pixels influence the clarity of an image at various scales?

Geography-CGG3O-11-B3.1

describe and calculate the ways in which various types of scales and resolutions in cartography, GIS, remote sensing, and GPS (e.g., small scale, large scale, linear scale, statement, representative fraction, number of pixels, map resolution, spatial resolution) affect the degree of clarity of a map or image Sample question: How does the number of pixels influence the clarity of an image at various scales?

Geography-CGG3O-11-B3.2

explain direction as used in cartography, GIS, remote sensing, and GPS, including, but not limited to, the following concepts: true north, magnetic north, grid directions, bearings, azimuth, nadir, look direction, range, total field of view, and flight path Sample questions: How does the earths shape affect the placement of the direction arrow on a map? How do the earths lines of latitude relate to distance? Why is it important to understand the concept of a great circle route when determining a flight path?

Geography-CGG3O-11-B3.3

apply the concept of location in cartography, GIS, remote sensing, and GPS, using geographic coordinates (e.g., latitude and longitude, the Universal Transverse Mercator [UTM] system, geodetic datum), geocoding (e.g., street address, postal code), georeferencing, geocaching, routing, and triangulation and trilateration

Geography-CGG3O-11-B3.4

describe key concepts associated with elevation in cartography (e.g., spot elevation, contour lines, shading and grading, benchmarks), GIS, remote sensing, land surveying, and digital elevation models (DEMs)

Geography-CGG3O-11-B3.5

identify the properties and uses of different types of map projections (e.g., azimuthal, conical, cylindrical, equal-area cylindrical, conformal, gnomonic, stereographic, oblique) Sample questions: How do different projections in GIS software affect the way in which various countries or continents are presented? Why would someone choose one projection over another? Using spatial skills: Students can use GIS to compare the scale of distances between features and the size of the total area for the same region of the world using various map projections.

Geography-CGG3O-11-B3.6

describe various means of acquiring information and data about the earths surface using cartography, GIS, remote sensing, and GPS (e.g., the process involving the energy source, its structure, and the interactions with the atmosphere and the target; the organization of the electromagnetic spectrum, active versus passive sensing, types of platforms [satellites, airplanes, handheld cameras], orientations of platforms [orbits, paths], types of 253Spatial Technologies in Action CGO4M SPATIAL ORGANIZATION: CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES sensors [multispectral scanner, radar, digital camera], receiving stations, manual and scanning digitization) Sample questions: What types of information can be gathered using remote sensing? How does that compare with other types of imaging tools? In what circumstances might one use lidar instead of radar?

Geography-CGG3O-11-B3.7

explain the different types and characteristics of data needed to create an image or construct a map (e.g., types: analogue versus digital data, sets of layers or themes, spatial versus non-spatial data and the concept of attributes, qualitative and quantitative data, raster versus vector data; characteristics: accuracy; pixel value; the matrix structure of an image versus points, lines, and polygons of GIS; spectral signatures and spectral reflectance curves such as histograms; various types of image enhancements; classification techniques such as supervised versus unsupervised data)

Geography-CGG3O-11-C1.1

perform assessments of the natural environment (e.g., assessments of wildlife or of wetlands), using spatial technologies as appropriate, to analyse sustainability Sample questions: Which spatial technologies would you use to do wildlife assessments such as determining the levels of fish stocks or tracking caribou migration patterns? How do spatial technologies help to map and predict the extent of the following: an oil spill; the effect of disease outbreaks on agricultural crops or forests; deforestation and the effect of commercial logging operations? How might spatial technologies help to map and monitor the destruction of wetlands? Using spatial skills: Students can use GIS to explore data using time attributes to view changes in a characteristic for a given area, such as the change in carbon dioxide in the global atmosphere over time or the change in forest cover for a particular area. Students can use proximity and overlay tools in GIS to do a susceptibility study to determine the likelihood of changes to the natural environment such as the spread of insects, or the likelihood of a natural disaster such as a forest fire or landslide.

Geography-CGG3O-11-C1.2

use spatial technologies to construct maps to support sustainable human activities (e.g., to show the most sustainable route for a hiking or cycling path, to show the best route for a road through an environmentally sensitive region, to determine the best location for infrastructure such as a pipeline or power line, to show the impact of increased human activity in a park) Sample questions: How would you construct a map showing the impacts of increased human activity on local, provincial, and national parks? What information would you need to plan a sustainable hiking or cycling path using webbased GIS, a digital elevation model [DEM], or GPS? How might spatial technologies help in planning and creating buffer zones near open pit mines, quarries, and tailing ponds? Using spatial skills: Students can use GIS to analyse information such as vector data (points, lines, and polygons) and raster data (pixel images, satellite images, and aerial images) in order to create buffers or zones delineating sensitive environmental areas. Students can use a digital elevation model to determine where best to situate a ski resort.

Geography-CGG3O-11-C1.3

assess issues of sustainability (e.g., environmental, social, economic, political issues) relating to First Nations, Mtis, and Inuit peoples and communities (e.g., issues relating to development projects such as the construction of hydroelectric dams, oil and gas extraction processes), using spatial technologies as appropriate Sample questions: What data layers illustrate the impact on First Nations, Mtis, and Inuit communities of the decline of traditional food 255Spatial Technologies in Action CGO4M USING SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABILITY sources due to environmental degradation? How might land claim issues have an impact on resource development? How does the use of spatial technologies support groups using the First Nations Environmental Assessment Toolkit? How might First Nations, Mtis, and Inuit communities be affected by water quality, garbage disposal, and sewage treatment issues?

Geography-CGG3O-11-C2.1

analyse interactions between specific physical features and processes and human features and activities, and explore issues of sustainability related to these interactions, using a variety of spatial technologies Sample questions: Where are landslides or coastal erosion likely to occur? How might human activity contribute to or mitigate these hazards? How do spatial technologies help detect and monitor forest-fire risk areas, water quality, invasion of foreign species, and dust storms? How can this information be used to increase sustainability? What data layers might be used to illustrate how large recreational facilities such as golf courses, ski runs, and amusement parks might affect the use of prime agricultural land nearby?

Geography-CGG3O-11-C2.2

analyse the changing relationships between patterns of physical features and patterns of human activity (e.g., the relationship between the spatial distribution of arable land and the location of large urban settlements), and determine the implications for sustainability, using spatial technologies Sample questions: How do spatial technologies help to identify landscape features, the different processes of their formation, and their changes over time? How do spatial technologies help to assess the location of settlements in terms of sustainability? How do spatial technologies help us assess the ways in which the necessity of feeding growing populations is affecting the environment? How do spatial technologies aid in our understanding of issues around land reclamation and the flooding of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina? How can we identify other reclaimed land that might be vulnerable to flooding or other physical processes?

Geography-CGG3O-11-D1.1

use spatial technologies to analyse and illustrate specific relationships within and between natural and human systems Sample questions: Is there a correlation between the locations where specific crops are grown and the amount of precipitation at those locations? What are the densely populated areas that are most at risk for volcanic and/or seismic disaster? How does relief affect drainage systems? Using spatial skills: Students can use GIS to create queries to uncover and explore relationships between various phenomena. For example, to create queries analysing where to install solar panels, students could layer spatial data with attribute data indicating the amount of sunlight needed to support the use of a solar panel.

Geography-CGG3O-11-D1.2

apply a variety of spatial technologies to investigate the physical impact of natural events and processes that change the physical environment (e.g., tectonic forces, weathering and erosion, rising sea levels, melting of glaciers, wind systems) Sample questions: How do spatial technologies measure and monitor the extent of flooding and the physical impact on affected areas? How do spatial technologies track the paths and impacts of hurricanes, tornadoes, and other major storms? What impact do changes in glacial ice in mountain areas have on watersheds downstream?

Geography-CGG3O-11-D1.3

use a variety of spatial technologies to assess the potential risks and impacts of interactions between natural and human systems (e.g., risks associated with using the fertile soil at the base of an active volcano for coffee plantations, the possible impacts of rising sea levels on specific urban centres, the impact of melting sea ice in the Arctic on possible transportation routes) Sample questions: How do spatial technologies map the frequency of earthquakes and volcanoes? Why would this information be helpful in assessing the potential risks of a high-magnitude earthquake and possible tsunami near a densely populated area?

Geography-CGG3O-11-D2.1

analyse the ways in which spatial technologies are used in relation to national and global security and safety and international cooperation, and explain some ethical issues that arise from such uses (e.g., national security versus individual privacy rights) Sample questions: How has the change in U.S. government regulations around the accuracy of GPS systems affected the use of navigational systems? Why might military and/or government satellite information be shared with or withheld from certain countries or military alliances? What are the implications of doing so? How might disclosures of secret documents and spying influence future development and/or regulation of spatial technologies?

Geography-CGG3O-11-D2.2

analyse the importance and implications of international cooperation in the sharing and maintenance of global communications and navigation networks (e.g., issues of control versus openness, protection from terrorism or criminal activity versus individual privacy rights and freedoms) Sample questions: In what ways do countries need to cooperate when it comes to navigation and flight paths? What might happen if these countries did not cooperate and maintain these networks?

Geography-CGG3O-11-D2.3

describe and assess the positive and negative effects of the use of spatial technologies in international affairs (e.g., in monitoring and addressing environmental and human issues such as climate change, acid rain, population movements, politics, trade, consumerism, hunger and poverty, disease) Sample questions: How can spatial technologies be used to develop and analyse hypothetical disaster scenarios? How can spatial technologies be used to develop disaster response and evacuation plans? What are the limitations of using spatial technologies to support disaster relief, recovery, and relocation operations? What are the implications of using GPS to locate and target military objectives? How might spatial technologies be used for political ends?

Geography-CGG3O-11-D2.4

analyse the use of maps and spatial images to advance public- and private-sector interests around the world (e.g., government propaganda, advertising), and explain the ways in which bias is shown in these maps and images (e.g., choice of map projection or scale to advance a point of view) Sample question: How do the media show bias through their choice of map projections?

Geography-CGG3O-11-D3.1

describe how spatial technologies are used to identify system connections on a global scale (e.g., the role of spatial technologies in mapping migration routes, identifying areas of high urban density, and defining areas where military conflict is occurring), and apply these technologies to identify such connections Sample question: How do spatial technologies help to analyse global climate change indicators and outline the areas affected by climate change? Using spatial skills: Students can experiment with various population statistical intervals to determine which interval best illustrates urban density on a global scale. Other data layers can be added to investigate possible correlations between urban density and various quality of life indicators.

Geography-CGG3O-11-D3.2

describe ways in which raster data from satellites (e.g., radar and Landsat images) are used to provide worldwide information about the earths surface (e.g., tracking of disasters such as oil spills, forest fires, floods, ship collisions; Arctic monitoring activities such as daily ice charts, tracking of iceberg movements; coastal surveillance and tracking information such as shipping routes, offshore oil exploration, coastal erosion, productive fishing zones, illegal fishing activities) Sample questions: How does radar imagery help to monitor disaster zones, assist in emergency response activities, and provide early warning of potential disasters? How does radar imagery help recovery efforts in a disaster zone, such as efforts related to damage assessment, analysis of environmental impacts, reconstruction, and/or rehabilitation? What are the benefits of radar compared to other satellite applications and capabilities? Using spatial skills: Students can use a selected radar image and add symbols in order to analyse large-scale changes over time, such as differences in the extent of ice cover in Greenland, the area permanently flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, or areas experiencing impacts from volcanic activity in Iceland.

Geography-CGG3O-11-E1.1

apply, and assess the use of, spatial technologies, including satellite imagery, to monitor changing features or phenomena and to model and predict future processes and events (e.g., physical changes shown in a temporal sequence of maps or aerial photographs) Sample questions: How do spatial technologies aid in the study of the effect of climate change in the Arctic? What patterns of change can you identify? What are some of the consequences of these changes for polar species that depend on sea ice for survival? In what ways does the use of satellite images of watersheds and ground data of algal blooms in local rivers help us predict the future effects of aquatic death zones? How do spatial technologies help in analysing the rate and impact of urban sprawl?

Geography-CGG3O-11-E1.2

apply, and assess the use of, spatial technologies to predict long-term change Sample questions: What are some of the likely long-term effects of desertification in areas around the edges of the Sahel or the Gobi Desert? How might this phenomenon affect countries in Africa and Asia? Using satellite images and GIS, how might you determine how the climate in different regions of the world might be affected as average surface temperatures on the earth continue to rise? What are the likely long-term impacts of climate change on sea levels, water levels in lakes and rivers, or the extent of permafrost? How will the rate of urban sprawl affect productive soil and agricultural land?

Geography-CGG3O-11-E1.3

apply, and assess the use of, spatial technologies to model and predict catastrophic events Sample questions: Why can the depth of the water along ocean shorelines be an indicator of potential damage by tsunamis on beaches, low-lying settlements, and resort areas? Using snow cover data, how can you determine the potential risk of avalanches in mountain areas? How can satellite images be used to predict future volcanic activity and improve the safety of surrounding communities or of scientists on site? Using spatial skills: Students can use National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data and satellite images to predict the path of a developing hurricane or typhoon. Students can use satellite images or the buffering or query techniques in GIS to determine where the highest level of potential damage may occur along a fault line.

Geography-CGG3O-11-E1.4

use spatial technologies to predict the impact of a possible future change on their own or another community (e.g., the impact of an increase in the number and severity of storms due to climate change, the impact of urban growth on the local watershed and water resources) Sample question: How can spatial technologies help predict the impacts of climate change on crop growth in your region?

Geography-CGG3O-11-E2.1

describe the development of satellite technology, and explain some of the ways it has changed daily life and how business is conducted in various economic sectors Sample questions: What are the different numbers, types, and functions of satellites that have been used by different countries? How are various countries using satellites and their data? How has their usage changed over time? What are the implications of the increasing numbers of satellites in low Earth orbit?

Geography-CGG3O-11-E2.2

identify key Canadian contributions to the development of spatial technologies over time (e.g., RADARSAT-1 and -2, the Alouette and Anik satellites, and other Canadian satellites that are in development or that have been launched with international collaboration; the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing [CCRS]; Canadian Space Agency [CSA] contributions such as Canadarm and the David Florida Laboratory; the work of Canadian astronauts; the development of the Prince Albert Satellite Station; the Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer; various contributions by Land Information Ontario [LIO] and Natural Resources Canada [NRCan])

Geography-CGG3O-11-E2.3

assess whether modern spatial technologies could have averted or diminished the consequences of famous historical disasters (e.g., the sinking of the Titanic, the sinking of the Ocean Ranger drilling platform, the eruption of Mount St. Helens, the Frank Slide or the Saint Jean Vianney Slide, the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, the 1953 North Sea flood)

Geography-CGG3O-11-E2.4

analyse ways in which advances in spatial technologies affect the users and the use of these technologies (e.g., changes in costs, training requirements, ease of use; types of jobs and careers that use these technologies)

Geography-CGG3O-11-E2.5

identify and describe the possibilities for using spatial technology applications in nontraditional domains in the future Sample questions: Why might spatial technologies be an effective tool in combatting crime or criminal activity? How could spatial technologies be used in marketing analysis and predicting future needs? How could spatial technologies be used more widely in monitoring disease spread and disease control response time? How could spatial technologies be used to assess and predict recreational needs in a developing community?

Geography-CGT3O-11-A1.1

formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into world issues (e.g., factual questions: Which three countries in the world have the greatest fresh water resources?; comparative questions: Which map projection shows the relative size of land masses more accurately, a Mercator projection or a Peters projection?; causal questions: How does free trade fac