Ontario Curriculum — Grade 8

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Identify a range of purposes for listening in a variety of situations, formal and informal, and set goals appropriate to specific listening tasks


Demonstrate an understanding of appropriate listening behaviour by adapting active listening strategies to suit a wide variety of situations, including work in groups


Identify a variety of listening comprehension strategies and use them appropriately before, during, and after listening in order to understand and clarify the meaning of increasingly complex and challenging oral texts


Demonstrate an understanding of the information and ideas in increasingly complex and difficult oral texts in a variety of ways


Develop and explain interpretations of oral texts using the language of the text and oral and visual cues to support their interpretations


Extend understanding of oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by connecting, comparing, and contrasting the ideas and information in them to their own knowledge, experience, and insights; to other texts, including print and visual texts; and to the world around them


Analyse a variety of complex or challenging oral texts in order to identify the strategies that have been used to inform, persuade, or entertain, and evaluate the effectiveness of those strategies


Explain what the use of irony or satire in an oral text reveals about the speaker 's purpose and perspective


Identify a wide variety of presentation strategies used in oral texts, evaluate their effectiveness, and suggest other strategies that might have been as effective or more so


Identify a range of purposes for speaking in a variety of situations, both straightforward and more complex, and explain how the purpose and intended audience might influence the choice of speaking strategies


Demonstrate an understanding of appropriate speaking behaviour in most situations, using a variety of speaking strategies and adapting them to suit the purpose and audience


Communicate in a clear, coherent manner, using a structure and style appropriate to the purpose, the subject matter, and the intended audience


Use appropriate words, phrases, and terminology from the full range of their vocabulary, including inclusive and non-discriminatory language, and a range of stylistic devices, to communicate their meaning effectively and engage the interest of their intended audience


Identify a range of vocal effects, including tone, pace, pitch, volume, and a variety of sound effects, and use them appropriately and with sensitivity towards cultural differences to communicate their meaning


Identify a variety of non-verbal cues, including facial expression, gestures, and eye contact, and use them in oral communications, appropriately and with sensitivity towards cultural differences, to help convey their meaning


Use a variety of appropriate visual aids to support and enhance oral presentations


Identify what strategies they found most helpful before, during, and after listening and speaking and what steps they can take to improve their oral communication skills


Identify how their skills as viewers, representers, readers, and writers help them improve their oral communication skills


Read a wide variety of increasingly complex or difficult texts from diverse cultures, including literary texts, graphic texts, and informational texts


Identify a variety of purposes for reading and choose increasingly complex or difficult reading materials appropriate for those purposes


Identify a variety of reading comprehension strategies and use them appropriately before, during, and after reading to understand increasingly complex or difficult texts


Demonstrate understanding of increasingly complex and difficult texts by summarizing important ideas and explaining how the details support the main idea


Develop and explain interpretations of increasingly complex or difficult texts using stated and implied ideas from the texts to support their interpretations


Extend understanding of texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by connecting the ideas in them to their own knowledge, experience, and insights, to other texts, and to the world around them


Analyse a variety of texts, including complex or difficult texts, and explain how the various elements in them contribute to meaning and influence the reader's reaction


Evaluate the effectiveness of a text based on evidence taken from that text


Identify the point of view presented in texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts; give evidence of any biases they may contain; and suggest other possible perspectives


Analyse a variety of text forms and explain how their particular characteristics help communicate meaning, with a focus on literary texts such as a memoir, graphic texts such as a map, and informational texts such as a magazine article


Identify a variety of text features and explain how they help communicate meaning


Identify a range of elements of style - including symbolism, irony, analogy, metaphor, and other rhetorical devices - and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of texts


Predict the meaning of and rapidly solve unfamiliar words using different types of cues, including: semantic (meaning) cues; syntactic (language structure) cues; graphophonic (phonological and graphic) cues


Read appropriate texts with expression and confidence, adjusting reading strategies and reading rate to match the form and purpose


Identify the strategies they found most helpful before, during, and after reading and explain, in conversation with the teacher and/or peers or in a reader's notebook/reflective journal, how they can use these and other strategies to improve as readers


Explain, in conversation with the teacher and/or peers or in a reader's notebook/reflective journal, how their skills in listening, speaking, writing, viewing, and representing help them make sense of what they read


Identify the topic, purpose, and audience for more complex writing forms


Generate ideas about more challenging topics and identify those most appropriate to the purpose


Gather information to support ideas for writing, using a variety of strategies and a wide range of print and electronic sources


Identify and order main ideas and supporting details and group them into units that could be used to develop a summary, a debate, or a report of several paragraphs, using a variety of strategies


Determine whether the ideas and information they have gathered are relevant, appropriate, and sufficiently specific for the purpose, and do more planning and research if necessary


Establish a distinctive voice in their writing appropriate to the subject and audience


Vary sentence types and structures for different purposes (e.g., to alter the pace or mood), with a focus on using a range of relative pronouns (e.g., who, which), subordinate conjunctions (e.g., whenever, because, although), and both the active and passive voice


Identify their point of view and other possible points of view, evaluate other points of view, and find ways to respond to other points of view, if appropriate


Identify elements in their writing that need improvement, selectively using feedback from the teacher and peers, with a focus on depth of content and appropriateness of tone


Make revisions to improve the content, clarity, and interest of their written work, using a variety of strategies


Produce revised draft pieces of writing to meet identified criteria based on the expectations (e.g., adequate development of information and ideas, logical organization, appropriate use of form and style, appropriate use of conventions)


Spell familiar words correctly


Spell unfamiliar words using a variety of strategies that involve understanding sound-symbol relationships, word structures, word meanings, and generalizations about spelling


Confirm spellings and word meanings or word choice using a wide variety of resources appropriate for the purpose


Use punctuation appropriately to communicate their intended meaning in more complex writing forms, including forms specific to different subjects across the curriculum, with a focus on the use of: commas to separate introductory phrases from the main part of a sentence and to separate words, phrases, and clauses in a series; quotation marks to distinguish words being discussed as words and to indicate titles; ellipses (...) and dashes to indicate sentence breaks, ambiguities, or parenthetical statements


Use parts of speech correctly to communicate their meaning clearly, with a focus on subject/verb agreement and the use of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions


Proofread and correct their writing using guidelines developed with peers and the teacher


Produce pieces of published work to meet identified criteria based on the expectations


Identify a variety of strategies they used before, during, and after writing, explain which ones were most helpful, and suggest future steps they can take to improve as writers


Explain how a variety of media texts address their intended purpose and audience


Interpret increasingly complex or difficult media texts, using overt and implied messages as evidence for their interpretations


Evaluate the effectiveness of the presentation and treatment of ideas, information, themes, opinions, issues, and/or experiences in media texts


Explain why different audiences (e.g., with respect to gender, age, culture, race, income level) might have different responses to a variety of media texts


Demonstrate understanding that different media texts reflect different points of view and that some texts reflect multiple points of view


Identify who produces various media texts and determine the commercial, ideological, political, cultural, and/or artistic interests or perspectives that the texts may involve


Explain how individual elements of various media forms combine to create, reinforce, and/or enhance meaning


Identify the conventions and techniques used in a variety of media forms and explain how they help convey meaning and influence or engage the audience


Explain why they have chosen the topic for a media text they plan to create (e.g., a poster advertising a class fund-raising campaign to appeal to local parent groups, businesses, or service organizations), and identify challenges they may face in engaging and/or influencing their intended audience


Identify an appropriate form to suit the purpose and audience for a media text they plan to create (e.g., a multimedia presentation about their class or grade, to be presented to parents during graduation ceremonies) and explain why it is an appropriate choice


Identify conventions and techniques appropriate to the form chosen for a media text they plan to create, and explain how they will use the conventions and techniques to help communicate their message


Produce a variety of media texts of some technical complexity for specific purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques


Identify what strategies they found most helpful in making sense of and creating media texts, and explain how these and other strategies can help them improve as media viewers/listeners/producers


Explain how their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing help them to make sense of and produce media texts


Express repeated multiplication using exponential notation;


Represent whole numbers in expanded form using powers of ten


Represent, compare, and order rational numbers (i.e., positive and negative fractions and decimals to thousandths);


Translate between equivalent forms of a number (i.e., decimals, fractions, percents);


Determine common factors and common multiples using the prime factorization of numbers.


Solve multi-step problems arising from real-life contexts and involving whole numbers and decimals, using a variety of tools;


Estimate, and verify using a calculator, the positive square roots of whole numbers, and distinguish between whole numbers that have whole-number square roots (i.e., perfect square numbers) and those that do not.


Solve problems involving percents expressed to one decimal place;


Use estimation when solving problems involving operations with whole numbers, decimals, percents, integers, and fractions, to help judge the reasonableness of a solution;


Represent the multiplication and division of fractions, using a variety of tools and strategies;


Solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division with simple fractions;


Represent the multiplication and division of integers, using a variety of tools [e.g., if black counters represent positive amounts and red counters represent negative amounts, you can model 3 x (-2) as three groups of two red counters];


Solve problems involving operations with integers, using a variety of tools;


Evaluate expressions that involve integers, including expressions that contain brackets and exponents, using order of operations;


Multiply and divide decimal numbers by various powers of ten;


Identify and describe real-life situations involving two quantities that are directly proportional;


Solve problems involving proportions, using concrete materials, drawings, and variables;


Solve problems involving percent that arise from real-life contexts;


Solve problems involving rates.


Identify unicellular organisms (e.g., amoebae) and multicellular organisms (e.g., invertebrates [worms], vertebrates [frogs]), and compare ways in which they meet their basic needs (e.g., nutrition, movement, gas exchange)


Describe the organization of cells into tissues, organs, and systems (e.g., groups of cells with similar functions combine to make up tissues; groups of tissues with similar functions combine to make organs; groups of organs work together as organ systems)


Research, describe, and report on applications of volume and capacity measurement.


Assess the impact on individuals, society, and the environment of alternative ways of meeting needs that are currently met by existing systems, taking different points of view into consideration


Solve problems that require conversions involving metric units of area, volume, and capacity (i.e., square centimetres and square metres; cubic centimetres and cubic metres; millilitres and cubic centimetres);


Measure the circumference, radius, and diameter of circular objects, using concrete materials;


Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies, the relationships for calculating the circumference and the area of a circle, and generalize to develop the formulas;


Solve problems involving the estimation and calculation of the circumference and the area of a circle;


Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies, the relationship between the area of the base and height and the volume of a cylinder, and generalize to develop the formula (i.e., Volume = area of base x height);


Determine, through investigation using concrete materials, the surface area of a cylinder;


Solve problems involving the surface area and the volume of cylinders, using a variety of strategies.


Identify various types of systems (e.g., mechanical systems, body systems, optical systems, mass transit systems, Aboriginal clan systems, health care systems)


Identify the purpose, inputs, and outputs of various systems (e.g., a garden - purpose: to grow things; input: seeds, water, fertilizer; output: flowers, food)


Identify the various processes and components of a system (e.g., robot, front-end loader/backhoe, heating system, transportation system, health care system) that allow it to perform its function efficiently and safely


Compare, using examples, the scientific definition with the everyday use of the terms work, force, energy, and efficiency


Understand and use the formula work = force x distance (W = F x d) to establish the relationship between work, force, and distance moved parallel to the force in simple systems


Calculate the mechanical advantage (MA = force needed without a simple machine divided by force needed with a simple machine) of various mechanical systems (e.g., a wheelbarrow allows a smaller force to lift a larger weight, a hockey stick allows a short movement of hands to move the blade a larger distance, a simple fixed pulley system redirects the effort force)


Explain ways in which mechanical systems produce heat, and describe ways to make these systems more efficient (e.g., friction produces heat, which can be reduced by lubrication)


Describe systems that have improved the productivity of various industries (e.g., robotic systems have increased the rate of production in factories that assemble the fine parts of wrist watches)


Identify social factors that influence the evolution of a system (e.g., growing concern over the amount of waste creates a need for recycling centres, and the recycling centres must grow as population and waste increase; the desire to make tasks easier creates a need for pulley systems, gear systems, and hydraulic and pneumatic systems; changes in traditional work hours created by technological advances can influence changes in a child care system)


Assess the social, economic, and environmental impacts of selected technologies that are based on the properties of fluids


Construct a circle, given its centre and radius, or its centre and a point on the circle, or three points on the circle;


Investigate and describe applications of geometric properties in the real world.


Follow established safety practices for using apparatus, tools, and materials (e.g., use syringes and tubing for the purposes for which they were designed)


Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies, the angle relationships for intersecting lines and for parallel lines and transversals, and the sum of the angles of a triangle;


Solve angle-relationship problems involving triangles, intersecting lines, and parallel lines and transversals;


Determine the Pythagorean relationship, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies;


Solve problems involving right triangles geometrically, using the Pythagorean relationship;


Determine, through investigation using concrete materials, the relationship between the numbers of faces, edges, and vertices of a polyhedron (i.e., number of faces + number of vertices = number of edges + 2) .


Use appropriate science and technology vocabulary, including viscosity, density, particle theory of matter, hydraulic, and pneumatic, in oral and written communication


Use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia) to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of purposes (e.g., using appropriate scientific and/or technological conventions, create a technical drawing of a pneumatic/hydraulic device; create a brochure or a multimedia presentation outlining safe and unsafe uses of the device that was modelled)


Graph the image of a point, or set of points, on the Cartesian coordinate plane after applying a transformation to the original point(s) (i.e., translation; reflection in the x-axis, the y-axis, or the angle bisector of the axes that passes through the first and third quadrants; rotation of 90 degrees, 180 degrees, or 270 degrees about the origin);


Describe the relationship between mass, volume, and density as a property of matter


Explain the difference between solids, liquids, and gases in terms of density, using the particle theory of matter (e.g., in general, solids are more dense than liquids, which are more dense than gases)


Explain the difference between liquids and gases in terms of their compressibility (e.g., gases are more compressible than liquids) and how their compressibility affects their usage (e.g., pneumatic devices are used to operate bus doors because they work over a larger temperature range and are safer for this purpose than hydraulic devices)


Determine the buoyancy of an object, given its density, in a variety of fluids (e.g., less dense objects float, more dense objects sink)


Explain in qualitative terms the relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature when a liquid (e.g., water) or a gas (e.g., air) is compressed or heated


Explain how forces are transferred in all directions in fluids (Pascal's law)


Compare the ways in which fluids are used and controlled in living things to the ways in which they are used and controlled in manufactured devices (e.g., compare the role of valves in the circulatory system to the role of valves in an internal combustion engine; compare the role of a fish's swim bladder to the role of the ballast tanks in a submarine)


Evaluate personal water consumption, compare it with personal water consumption in other countries, and propose a plan of action to reduce personal water consumption to help address water sustainability issues


Represent linear patterns graphically (i.e., make a table of values that shows the term number and the term, and plot the coordinates on a graph), using a variety of tools;


Determine a term, given its term number, in a linear pattern that is represented by a graph or an algebraic equation


Describe different ways in which algebra can be used in real-life situations;


Model linear relationships using tables of values, graphs, and equations, through investigation using a variety of tools;


Translate statements describing mathematical relationships into algebraic expressions and equations;


Evaluate algebraic expressions with up to three terms, by substituting fractions, decimals, and integers for the variables;


Make connections between solving equations and determining the term number in a pattern, using the general term;


Solve and verify linear equations involving a one-variable term and having solutions that are integers, by using inspection, guess and check, and a ''balance'' model.


Use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia) to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of purposes (e.g. using appropriate scientific conventions, draw a labelled diagram of a water treatment facility; create a brochure about the safe use of wells and septic tanks)


Identify the various states of water on the earth's surface, their distribution, relative amounts, and circulation, and the conditions under which they exist (e.g., water is a solid in glaciers, snow, and polar ice-caps; a liquid in oceans, lakes, rivers, and aquifers; and a gas in the atmosphere)


Demonstrate an understanding of the watershed as a fundamental geographic unit, and explain how it relates to water management and planning


Explain how human and natural factors cause changes in the water table (e.g., lawn watering, inefficient showers and toilets, drought, floods, overuse of wells, extraction by bottled water industry)


Identify factors (e.g., annual precipitation, temperature, climate change) that affect the size of glaciers and polar ice-caps, and describe the effects of these changes on local and global water systems


Explain changes in atmospheric conditions caused by the presence of bodies of water (e.g., differences in temperature near large bodies of water; microclimates; storms off coastal areas)


Collect data by conducting a survey or an experiment to do with themselves, their environment, issues in their school or community, or content from another subject, and record observations or measurements;


Organize into intervals a set of data that is spread over a broad range;


Collect and organize categorical, discrete, or continuous primary data and secondary data, and display the data in charts, tables, and graphs (including histograms and scatter plots) that have appropriate titles, labels, and scales that suit the range and distribution of the data, using a variety of tools;


Select an appropriate type of graph to represent a set of data, graph the data using technology, and justify the choice of graph (i.e., from types of graphs already studied, including histograms and scatter plots);


Explain the relationship between a census, a representative sample, sample size, and a population.


Read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data and from secondary data, presented in charts, tables, and graphs (including frequency tables with intervals, histograms, and scatter plots);


Determine, through investigation, the appropriate measure of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, or mode) needed to compare sets of data;


Demonstrate an understanding of the appropriate uses of bar graphs and histograms by comparing their characteristics;


Compare two attributes or characteristics, using a scatter plot, and determine whether or not the scatter plot suggests a relationship;


Identify and describe trends, based on the rate of change of data from tables and graphs, using informal language;


Make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on the analysis of charts, tables, and graphs;


Compare two attributes or characteristics, using a variety of data management tools and strategies (i.e., pose a relevant question, then design an experiment or survey, collect and analyse the data, and draw conclusions).


Compare, through investigation, the theoretical probability of an event (i.e., the ratio of the number of ways a favourable outcome can occur compared to the total number of possible outcomes) with experimental probability, and explain why they might differ;


Determine, through investigation, the tendency of experimental probability to approach theoretical probability as the number of trials in an experiment increases, using class-generated data and technology-based simulation models;


Identify the complementary event for a given event, and calculate the theoretical probability that a given event will not occur.