# Nova Scotia Learning Outcomes — Grade 8

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#### 8-DM.F.

Students will solve problems involving the collection, display, and analysis of data.

#### 8-DM.F1.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the variability of repeated samples of the same population.

#### 8-DM.F2.

Students will be expected to develop and apply the concept of randomness.

#### 8-DM.F3.

Students will be expected to construct and interpret circle graphs.

#### 8-DM.F4.

Students will be expected to construct and interpret scatter plots and determine a line of best fit by inspection.

#### 8-DM.F5.

Students will be expected to construct and interpret box-and-whisker plots.

#### 8-DM.F6.

Students will be expected to extrapolate and interpolate information from graphs.

#### 8-DM.F7.

Students will be expected to determine the effect of variations in data on the mean, median, and mode.

#### 8-DM.F8.

Students will be expected to develop and conduct statistics projects to solve problems.

#### 8-G.E.

Students will demonstrate spatial sense and apply geometric concepts, properties, and relationships.

#### 8-G.E1.

Students will be expected to make and apply informal deductions about the minimum and sufficient conditions to guarantee the uniqueness of a triangle and the congruency of two triangles.

#### 8-G.E2.

Students will be expected to make and apply generalizations about the properties of rotations and dilatations, and use dilatations in perspective drawings of various 2-D shapes.

#### 8-G.E3.

Students will be expected to make and apply generalizations about the properties of similar 2-D shapes.

#### 8-G.E4.

Students will be expected to perform various 2-D constructions and apply the properties of transformations to these constructions.

#### 8-G.E5.

Students will be expected to make and apply generalizations about the properties of regular polygons.

#### 8-G.E6.

Students will be expected to recognize, name, describe and make and apply generalizations about the properties of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, and cones.

#### 8-G.E7.

Students will be expected to draw isometric and orthographic views of 3-D shapes and construct 3-D models from these views.

#### 8-M.D.

Students will demonstrate an understanding of and apply concepts and skills associated with measurement.

#### 8-M.D1.

Students will be expected to solve indirect measurement problems, using proportions.

#### 8-M.D10.

Students will be expected to apply the Pythagorean relationship in problem situations.

#### 8-M.D3.

Students will be expected to estimate areas of circles.

#### 8-M.D4.

Students will be expected to develop and use the formula for the area of a circle.

#### 8-M.D5.

Students will be expected to describe patterns and generalize the relationships between areas and perimeters of quadrilaterals, and areas and circumferences of circles.

#### 8-M.D6.

Students will be expected to calculate the areas of composite figures.

#### 8-M.D7.

Students will be expected to estimate and calculate volumes and surface areas of right prisms and cylinders.

#### 8-M.D9.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the Pythagorean relationship, using models.

#### 8-NC.A.

Students will demonstrate number sense and apply number theory concepts.

#### 8-NC.A1.

Students will be expected to model and link various representations of square root of a number.

#### 8-NC.A2.

Students will be expected to recognize perfect squares between 1 and 144 and apply patterns related to them.

#### 8-NC.A3.

Students will be expected to distinguish between an exact square root of a number and its decimal approximation.

#### 8-NC.A4.

Students will be expected to find the square root of any number, using an appropriate method.

#### 8-NC.A5.

Students will be expected to demonstrate and explain the meaning of negative exponents for base ten.

#### 8-NC.A6.

Students will be expected to represent any number written in scientific notation in standard form, and vice versa.

#### 8-NC.A7.

Students will be expected to compare and order integers and positive and negative rational numbers (in decimal and fractional forms).

#### 8-NC.A8.

Students will be expected to represent and apply fractional per cents, and per cents greater than 100, in fraction or decimal form, and vice versa.

#### 8-NC.A9.

Students will be expected to solve proportion problems that involve equivalent ratios and rates.

#### 8-NC.B.

Students will demonstrate operation sense and apply operation principles and procedures in both numeric and algebraic situations.

#### 8-NC.B1.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the properties of operations with integers and positive and negative rational numbers (in decimal and fractional forms).

#### 8-NC.B10.

Students will be expected to apply the order of operations to fraction computations, using both pencil and paper and the calculator.

#### 8-NC.B11.

Students will be expected to model, solve, and create problems involving fractions in meaningful contexts.

#### 8-NC.B12.

Students will be expected to add, subtract, multiply, and divide positive and negative decimal numbers with and without the calculator.

#### 8-NC.B13.

Students will be expected to solve and create problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of positive and negative decimal numbers.

#### 8-NC.B14.

Students will be expected to add and subtract algebraic terms concretely, pictorially, and symbolically to solve simple algebraic problems.

#### 8-NC.B15.

Students will be expected to explore addition and subtraction of polynomial expressions, concretely and pictorially.

#### 8-NC.B16.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of multiplication of a polynomial by a scalar, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.

#### 8-NC.B2.

Students will be expected to solve problems involving proportions, using a variety of methods.

#### 8-NC.B3.

Students will be expected to create and solve problems which involve finding a, b, or c in the relationship a% of b = c, using estimation and calculation.

#### 8-NC.B4.

Students will be expected to apply percentage increase and decrease in problem situations.

#### 8-NC.B5.

Students will be expected to add and subtract fractions concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.

#### 8-NC.B6.

Students will be expected to add and subtract fractions mentally, when appropriate.

#### 8-NC.B7.

Students will be expected to multiply fractions concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.

#### 8-NC.B8.

Students will be expected to divide fractions concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.

#### 8-NC.B9.

Students will be expected to estimate and mentally compute products and quotients involving fractions.

#### 8-P.G.

Students will represent and solve problems involving uncertainty.

#### 8-P.G1.

Students will be expected to conduct experiments and simulations to find probabilities of single and complementary events.

#### 8-P.G2.

Students will be expected to determine theoretical probabilities of single and complementary events.

#### 8-P.G3.

Students will be expected to compare experimental and theoretical probabilities.

#### 8-PR.C.

Students will explore, recognize, represent, and apply patterns and relationships, both informally and formally.

#### 8-PR.C1.

Students will be expected to represent patterns and relationships in a variety of formats and use these representations to predict unknown values.

#### 8-PR.C2.

Students will be expected to interpret graphs that represent linear and non-linear data.

#### 8-PR.C3.

Students will be expected to construct and analyze tables and graphs to describe how change in one quantity affects a related quantity.

#### 8-PR.C4.

Students will be expected to link visual characteristics of slope with its numerical value by comparing vertical change with horizontal change.

#### 8-PR.C5.

Students will be expected to solve problems involving the intersection of two lines on a graph.

#### 8-PR.C6.

Students will be expected to solve and verify simple linear equations algebraically.

#### 8-PR.C7.

Students will be expected to create and solve problems, using linear equations.

#### SC8.GCO.1.

Students will develop an understanding of the nature of science and technology, of the relationships between science and technology, and of the social and environmental contexts of science and technology.

#### SC8.GCO.2.

Students will develop the skills required for scientific and technological inquiry, for solving problems, for communicating scientific ideas and results, for working collaboratively, and for making informed decisions.

#### SC8.GCO.3.

Students will construct knowledge and understandings of concepts in life science, physical science, and Earth and space science, and apply these understandings to interpret, integrate, and extend their knowledge.

#### SC8.GCO.4.

Students will be encouraged to develop attitudes that support the responsible acquisition and application of scientific and technological knowledge to the mutual benefit of self, society, and the environment.

#### SC8.SCO.1.1.

Waves, Tides, and Shorelines

#### SC8.SCO.1.1.1.

Students will be expected to explain how waves and tides are generated and how they interact with shorelines (311-10).

#### SC8.SCO.1.1.2.

Students will be expected to investigate water currents using experimental data, procedures, and conclusions to formulate operational definitions (208-6, 209-5).

#### SC8.SCO.1.1.3.

Students will be expected to describe processes of erosion and deposition that result from wave action and water flow (311-11).

#### SC8.SCO.1.1.4.

Students will be expected to summarize and respond to shoreline's science and technology uses to handle damage due to waves and tides (113-2, 211-2).

#### SC8.SCO.1.2.

Oceans: Systems, Distribution, Species

#### SC8.SCO.1.2.1.

Students will be expected to investigate and describe, with technological examples from various sources, processes that lead to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems (311-7).

#### SC8.SCO.1.2.2.

Students will be expected to survey and generalize strengths and weaknesses of science and technologies, including Canadian, that have improved and that support research and development (110-8, 112-5, 210-3, 113-10).

#### SC8.SCO.1.2.3.

Students will be expected to use data, including graphical, analyze and predict factors that affect productivity and species distribution in marine and fresh water environments (311-8, 210-4, 210-6).

#### SC8.SCO.1.2.4.

Students will be expected to apply the concept of systems to describe the interactions of ocean currents, winds, and regional climates (111-6, 311-9).

#### SC8.SCO.1.3.

Glaciers and Polar Icecaps

#### SC8.SCO.1.3.1.

Students will be expected to describe factors that affect glaciers and polar icecaps, and describe their consequent effects on the environment (311-12).

#### SC8.SCO.1.3.2.

Students will be expected to identify and examine new questions and problems that arise from all water being connected (210-16).

#### SC8.SCO.2.1.1.

Students will be expected to describe qualitatively the difference between mass and weight (309-1).

#### SC8.SCO.2.1.2.

Students will be expected to explore and compare objects that describe movement in terms of balanced and unbalanced forces (210- 13, 210-14, 309-2).

#### SC8.SCO.2.1.3.

Students will be expected to describe and explain qualitatively the relationships among pressure, volume, and temperature of fluids when compressed or heated and quantitatively the relationships of force, area, and pressure (309-3, 309-4).

#### SC8.SCO.2.1.4.

Students will be expected to provide examples and a course of action of how science and technology affect personal and community needs (111-1, 113-2).

#### SC8.SCO.2.2.

Density: Floating and Sinking

#### SC8.SCO.2.2.1.

Students will be expected to question, investigate, and analyze qualitatively and quantitatively in a laboratory, the relationships among mass, volume, and density of solids, liquids, and gases using the particle model of matter (208- 2, 211-3, 307-8).

#### SC8.SCO.2.2.2.

Students will be expected to explain and describe situations where the density of substances are affected by changes in temperature, natural, or intentional (307-9, 307-10).

#### SC8.SCO.2.2.3.

Students will be expected to perform and analyze quantitatively the density of various substances, demonstrating a knowledge of WHMIS standards by using proper techniques and instruments for collecting data in the laboratory (307-11, 209-7, 209-3).

#### SC8.SCO.2.3.1.

Students will be expected to design and perform an experiment to test the viscosity of various fluids and identify major variables (208-6).

#### SC8.SCO.2.3.2.

Students will be expected to compare the viscosity of various liquids and describe factors that can modify the viscosity (307-6, 307- 7).

#### SC8.SCO.2.3.3.

Students will be expected to relate personal activities and potential applications to fluids (109-10, 112-7, 210-12).

#### SC8.SCO.3.1.1.

Students will be expected to identify and describe properties of visible light, using tools and apparatus safely (308-8, 209-6).

#### SC8.SCO.3.2.

Reflection and Refraction

#### SC8.SCO.3.2.1.

Students will be expected to estimate measurements and use tools and apparatus safely in the laboratory (209-2, 209-6).

#### SC8.SCO.3.2.2.

Students will be expected to describe the laws of reflection of visible light and their applications in everyday life (308-9).

#### SC8.SCO.3.2.3.

Students will be expected to state a conclusion, based on experimental data and evidence, of light and describe qualitatively how visible light is refracted (210-11, 308-10).

#### SC8.SCO.3.2.4.

Students will be expected to describe how optical technologies have developed through systematic trial-and-error processes constrained by the optical properties of the materials and the laws of nature (109-5).

#### SC8.SCO.3.2.5.

Students will be expected to provide examples of optical technologies that enable scientific research and relate personal activities associated with such technologies (109-10, 111-3).

#### SC8.SCO.3.3.1.

Students will be expected to describe different types of electromagnetic radiation, including infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, microwaves, and radio waves (308-11).

#### SC8.SCO.3.3.2.

Students will be expected to explain the importance of choosing words that are scientifically or technologically appropriate (109-13).

#### SC8.SCO.3.3.3.

Students will be expected to compare properties of visible light to the properties of other types of electromagnetic radiation, including infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, microwaves, and radio waves (308-12).

#### SC8.SCO.3.3.4.

Students will be expected to describe, with examples, possible effects of science and technology associated with optics (112-8, 113- 2).

#### SC8.SCO.4.1.1.

Students will be expected to illustrate and explain that the cell is a living system that exhibits the following characteristics of life (304-4).

#### SC8.SCO.4.1.2.

Students will be expected to distinguish between plant and animal cells and use microscopes or microviewers to produce a clear image of cells (304-5, 209-3).

#### SC8.SCO.4.1.3.

Students will be expected to using an operational question, explain that growth and reproduction depend on cell division (208-1, 304-6).

#### SC8.SCO.4.2.

Relationship among Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Systems

#### SC8.SCO.4.2.1.

Students will be expected to distinguish and evaluate between ideas used in the past and theories used today to explain how cells and organs work (110-2, 211-4).

#### SC8.SCO.4.2.2.

Students will be expected to relate the needs and functions of various cells and organs to the needs and functions of the human organism as a whole (304-8).

#### SC8.SCO.4.2.3.

Students will be expected to explain structural and functional relationships between and among cells, tissues, organs, and systems in the human body (304-7).

#### SC8.SCO.4.3.1.

Students will be expected to describe the basic factors that affect the functions and efficiency of the human respiratory, circulatory, digestive, excretory, and nervous systems (304-9).

#### SC8.SCO.4.3.2.

Students will be expected to estimate measurements and organize data for an experiment and explain the results (209-2, 209-4, 210- 7).

#### SC8.SCO.4.3.3.

Students will be expected to describe examples of the interdependence of various systems of the human body (304-10).

#### SC8.SCO.4.3.4.

Students will be expected to provide examples of careers and applications for informed decisions about science and technology associated with body systems (112-10, 113-8).

#### SS.8.1.

Unit One: An Introduction to Canadian Identity

#### SS.8.1.1.

Students will be expected to investigate how artistic and literary expression reflects the following aspects of Canadian identity: landscape, climate, history, people-citizenship, and related challenges and opportunities.

#### SS.8.2.

Unit Two: Geographic Influences

#### SS.8.2.1.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the basic features of Canada's landscape and climate.

#### SS.8.2.2.

Students will be expected to analyze the effects of selected geographic factors on Canadian identity.

#### SS.8.2.3.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the nature of migration and its impact on post-1920 Canada.

#### SS.8.2.4.

Students will be expected to analyze the effect of geographic features on the development of Canada and of a selected country with similar geographic features.

#### SS.8.3.1.

Students will be expected to analyze the impact of changing technology and socio-economic conditions on differing prosperities and lifestyles in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s.

#### SS.8.3.2.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of Canada's participation in WWII.

#### SS.8.3.3.

Students will be expected to analyze the effect of WWII on Canada and her people.

#### SS.8.3.4.

Students will be expected to evaluate Canada's role in the world since WWII.

#### SS.8.3.5.

Students will be expected to analyze the impact of changing technology and socio-economic conditions on Canada's prosperity and lifestyles in the 1950s and 1960s.

#### SS.8.3.6.

Students will be expected to compare the social and cultural trends in Canada in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.

#### SS.8.3.7.

Students will be expected to analyze how globalization has affected Canada and Canadians since 1980.

#### SS.8.4.

Unit Four: Citizenship

#### SS.8.4.1.

Students will be expected to take age-appropriate actions that demonstrate the rights and responsibilities of citizenship (local, national, and global).

#### SS.8.4.2.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of how citizenship has evolved over time.

#### SS.8.4.3.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the structure and operation of government in Canada under a federal system.

#### SS.8.5.

Unit Five: Challenges and Opportunities

#### SS.8.5.1.

Students will be expected to identify and analyze the economic challenges and opportunities that may affect Canada's future.

#### SS.8.5.2.

Students will be expected to analyze the political challenges and opportunities that may affect Canada's future.

#### SS.8.5.3.

Students will be expected to analyze the social and cultural challenges and opportunities that may affect Canada's future.

#### SS.8.6.

Unit Six: Reflections on Canadian Identity

#### SS.8.6.1.

Students will be expected to portray their understanding of Canadian identity.

#### SS.8.A.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the origins, functions, and sources of power, authority, and governance.

#### SS.8.A.1

Individuals, Societies, and Economic Decisions

#### SS.8.B.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of culture, diversity, and world view, recognizing the similarities and differences reflected in various personal, cultural, racial, and ethnic perspectives.

#### SS.8.B.1

People, Place, and Environment

#### SS.8.C.

Students will be expected to demonstrate the ability to make responsible economic decisions as individuals and as members of society.

#### SS.8.C.1

Culture and Diversity

#### SS.8.D.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the interdependent relationship among individuals, societies, and the environment locally, nationally, and globally and the implications for a sustainable future.

#### SS.8.E.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the interactions among people, places, and the environment.

#### SS.8.E.1

Time, Continuity, and Change

#### SS.8.F.

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the past and how it affects the present and the future.

#### SS.8.GCO.

Citizenship, Power, and Governance