Prince Edward Island Curriculum — Grade 10


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421A.1.1.

Identify examples where scientific understanding about an ecosystem was enhanced or revised as a result of human invention or related technologies (116-1).

421A.1.10.

Propose a course of action on social issues related to science and technology taking into account human and environmental needs (118-9).

421A.1.11.

Describe the role peer review has in the development of scientific knowledge (114-5).

421A.1.12.

Compare the risks and benefits to the biosphere of applying new scientific knowledge and technology to industrial processes (118-1).

421A.1.13.

Describe the mechanisms of bioaccumulation and bio-amplification, and explain its potential impact on the viability and diversity of consumers at all trophic levels (318-2).

421A.1.14.

Explain how a paradigm can change scientific world views in understanding sustainability (114-1).

421A.1.15.

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources (213-7).

421A.1.17.

Explain various ways in which natural populations are kept in equilibrium, and relate this equilibrium to the resource limits of an ecosystem (318-5).

421A.1.18.

Explain why ecosystems with similar characteristics can exist in different geographical locations (318-3).

421A.1.19.

Describe how soil composition and fertility can be altered and how these changes can affect an ecosystem (331-7).

421A.1.2.

Analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem (331-6).

421A.1.20.

Explain why different ecosystems respond differently to short-term stresses and long-term changes (318-4).

421A.1.3.

Explain how biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to its sustainability (318-6).

421A.1.6.

Compile and display evidence and information, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs, and scatter plots (214-3).

421A.1.7.

Describe and apply classification systems and nomenclature used in the sciences (214-1).

421A.1.8.

Analyse and interpret information in a variety of formats (214-3A).

421A.1.9.

Illustrate the cycling of matter through biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem by tracking carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen (318-1).

421A.2.10.

Use instruments for collecting data effectively and accurately (213-3).

421A.2.12.

Describe quantitatively the relationship among displacement, time, and velocity (325-1).

421A.2.13.

Distinguish between instantaneous and average velocity (325-3).

421A.2.14.

Analyze graphically and mathematically the relationship among displacement, time, and velocity (325-2).

421A.2.15.

Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer or calculate linear and non-linear relationships among variables (214-5).

421A.2.16.

Evaluate the role of continued testing in the development and improvement of technologies (114-3).

421A.2.18.

Relate personal activities and various scientific and technological endeavors to specific science disciplines and interdisciplinary studies (114-6).

421A.2.19.

Distinguish between scientific questions and technological problems (115-1).

421A.2.20.

Describe quantitatively the relationship among velocity, time, and acceleration (325-4).

421A.2.3.

Select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical, and linguistic modes of representation to communicate ideas, plans, and results (215-2).

421A.2.4.

Describe the historical development of a technology (115-4).

421A.2.8.

Formulate operational definitions of major variables (212-7).

421A.3.1.

Describe the usefulness scientific nomenclature systems (114-8).

421A.3.10.

Name and write formulas for some common molecular compounds, including the use of prefixes (319-1(I)).

421A.3.11.

Identify examples where technologies were developed on the basis of scientific understanding (116-3).

421A.3.12.

Describe the functioning of domestic and industrial technologies, using scientific principles (116-5).

421A.3.13.

Compare examples of how society influences science and technology (117-1).

421A.3.15.

Represent chemical reactions and the conservation of mass, using molecular models, and balanced symbolic equations (321-1).

421A.3.16.

Evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making (212-8).

421A.3.18.

Represent chemical reactions and the conservation of mass, using molecular models, and balanced symbolic equations (321-1).

421A.3.19.

Evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making (212-8).

421A.3.2.

Provide examples of how science and technology are an integral part of their lives and their community (117-5).

421A.3.21.

Represent chemical reactions and the conservation of mass, using molecular models, and balanced symbolic equations (321-1).

421A.3.22.

Illustrate how factors such as heat, concentration, and surface area can affect chemical reactions (321-3).

421A.3.3.

Demonstrate a knowledge of WHMIS standards by selecting and applying proper techniques for handling and disposing of lab materials (213-9).

421A.3.5.

Classify substances as acids, bases, or salts, based on their characteristics (319-2(I)).

421A.3.6.

Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer or calculate linear and non-linear relationships among variables (214-5).

421A.3.7.

Identify and describe science and technology-based careers related to the science they study (117-7).

421A.3.8.

Name and write formulas for some common ionic compounds (both binary and complex), using the periodic table, a list of ions, and appropriate nomenclature for metal and non-metal ions (319-1(II)).

421A.3.9.

Name and write formulas for some common ionic compounds (both binary and complex), using the periodic table, a list of ions, and appropriate nomenclature for metal and non-metal ions (319-1(II)).

421A.4.1.

Describe and explain heat transfer within the water cycle (331-1).

421A.4.10.

Identify examples where scientific understanding was enhanced or revised as a result of the invention of a technology (116-1).

421A.4.11.

Describe and explain the effects of heat transfer within the hydrosphere and atmosphere on the development, severity, and movement of weather systems (331-4).

421A.4.12.

Identify instances in which science and technology are limited to finding the answer to questions or the solution to problems (118-7).

421A.4.2.

Carry out procedures controlling variables and adapting or extending procedures where required (213-2).

421A.4.3.

Describe and explain heat transfer in the hydrosphere and atmosphere and its effects on air and water currents (331-2).

421A.4.4.

Describe how the hydrosphere and atmosphere act as heat sinks within the water cycle (331-3).

421A.4.5.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (213-3).

421A.4.6.

Illustrate how science attempts to explain natural phenomena (115-2).

421A.4.7.

Identify instances in which science and technology are limited in finding the answers to questions or the solution to problems (118-7).

421A.4.8.

Describe and explain the effects of heat transfer within the hydrosphere and atmosphere on the development, severity, and movement of weather systems (331-4).

421A.4.9.

Explain how scientific knowledge evolves as new evidence comes to light (115-6).

431A.1.1.

Identify possible areas of further study related to science and technology (117-8).

431A.1.1.a

State a prediction and a hypothesis based on available evidence and background information (212-4).

431A.1.10.

Describe and apply classification systems and nomenclature used in the sciences (214-1).

431A.1.11.

Describe the mechanisms of bioaccumulation, and explain its potential impact on the viability and diversity of consumers at all trophic levels (318-2).

431A.1.14.

Describe the mechanisms of bioaccumulation, and explain its potential impact on the viability and diversity of consumers at all trophic levels (318-2).

431A.1.15.

Select, compile, and display evidence and information from various sources, in different formats, to support a given view in a presentation about ecosystem change (214-3, 213-7).

431A.1.16.

Illustrate the cycling of matter through biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem by tracking carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen (318-1).

431A.1.17.

Explain various ways in which natural populations are kept in equilibrium and relate this equilibrium to the resource limits of an ecosystem (318-5).

431A.1.18.

Analyze the impact of external factors on an ecosystem (331-6).

431A.1.19.

Explain how the biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to its sustainability (318-6).

431A.1.2.

Identify and describe science and technology-based careers related to this course (117-7).

431A.1.2.a

Propose a course of action on social issues related to science and technology taking into account human and environmental needs (118-9).

431A.1.20.

Explain various ways in which natural populations are kept in equilibrium and relate this equilibrium to the resource limits of an ecosystem (318-5).

431A.1.21.

Explain why different ecosystems respond differently to short-term stresses and longterm changes (318-4).

431A.1.22.

Identify multiple perspectives that influence a science-related decision or issue (215-4).

431A.1.23.

Analyze the impact of external factors on an ecosystem (331-6).

431A.1.24.

Explain why ecosystems with similar characteristics can exist in different geographical locations (318-3).

431A.1.25.

Describe and apply classification systems and nomenclature used in the sciences (214-1).

431A.1.26.

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources or from several parts of the same source (213-7).

431A.1.27.

Identify multiply perspectives that influence a science-related decision or issue (215-4).

431A.1.28.

Explain how a paradigm shift can change scientific world views (114-1).

431A.1.29.

Identify examples where scientific understanding was enhanced or revised as a result of the human invention of a technology (116-1).

431A.1.3.

Analyze the impact of external factors on the ecosystem (331-6).

431A.1.30.

Compare the risks and benefits to society and the environment of applying scientific knowledge or introducing a new technology (118-1).

431A.1.4.

Compile and display evidence and information, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs, and scatter plots (214-3).

431A.1.5.

Explain biotic and abiotic factors which keep natural populations in equilibrium and relate this equilibrium to the resource limits of an ecosystem (318-5).

431A.1.6.

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources or from several parts of the same source (213-7).

431A.1.7.

Describe the importance of peer review in the development of scientific knowledge (114-5).

431A.1.8.

Describe and apply classification systems and nomenclature used in the sciences (214-1).

431A.10.1.

Compare static and kinetic friction and identify the factors that affect traction (300-11).

431A.10.2.

Identify and correct practical problems in the way a robot functions to maximize traction (214-13).

431A.11.1.

Describe how turning scrub and turning torque affect a robots ability to turn, and how these quantities can be altered to maximize torque and minimize scrub (300-12).

431A.11.2.

Describe and evaluate the design of a drivetrain to determine how it may be modified to perform a particular function using scientific principles related to turning scrub, turning torque, and traction (116-6/214-16).

431A.11.3.

Calculate and compare the theoretical and experimental speeds of a drivetrain design, and qualitatively account for differences (300-13).

431A.11.4.

Work co-operatively with team members to construct and optimize a drivetrain design in consideration of factors related to turning torque and scrub, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (214-14/215-6e).

431A.12.1.

Describe and evaluate the design of various types of object manipulators (300-14).

431A.12.2.

Describe and evaluate the design of rotating joints, and linkages (300-15).

431A.12.3.

Work co-operatively with team members to construct and test a design involving a manipulator, rotating joints, and linkages, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (214-14/215-6f).

431A.13.1.

Describe the functions of a bumper switch and a limit switch, and identify their possible uses (300-16).

431A.13.2.

Configure a transmitter and receiver to effectively and accurately use switches to assist in the control of robot, or robot component, movement (213-3b).

431A.14.1.

Propose alternative solutions to a given practical problem, identify the potential strengths and weaknesses of each, and select one as the basis for a plan (214-15).

431A.14.2.

Work co-operatively with team members to construct and test a robot design, using components conducive to completing a predetermined task, and troubleshooting problems as they arise (214-14/215-6h).

431A.14.3.

Communicate the results of a scientific or technological endeavour, using appropriate language and conventions (114-9).

431A.2.1.

Propose courses of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account an array of perspectives, including that of sustainability (118-10).

431A.2.1.a

Classify substances as acids, bases, or salts, based on their characteristic properties (319-2 (I)).

431A.2.10.

Design, carry out, and control variables to illustrate how factors such as heat, concentration, and surface area can affect chemical reactions (321-3, 212-3, 213-2).

431A.2.11.

Classify simple acids, bases, and salts on the basis of their names and formulas. Name and write formulas for some common acids and bases using the periodic table, a list of ions, and rules for naming acids (319-2 (II)).

431A.2.12.

Describe how neutralization involves tempering the effects of an acid with a base and vice versa (321-2).

431A.2.13.

Evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making by investigating the properties of acids, bases, and salts (212-8).

431A.2.14.

Compile and organize data on acid precipitation (pH) in order to interpret patterns and trends in these data, and infer or calculate linear and nonlinear relationships among variables such as pH versus time and location (213-5, 214-5).

431A.2.15.

Work cooperatively with a team to research and describe the relationship between domestic and industrial technologies and the formation of acid rain (116-5, 215-6, 116-3).

431A.2.16.

Propose alternative solutions to the problem of acid precipitation, assess each and select one as the basis for a plan of action, defending the decision (214-15, 118-5).

431A.2.17.

Compare examples where society has used the presence of airborne pollution to influence decisions concerning science and technology (117-1).

431A.2.18.

Identify and describe science and technology based careers related to acid/base pollution (117-7).

431A.2.2.

Use library and other research tools to collect information on a selected energy topic (213-6).

431A.2.2.a

Provide examples of how science and technology are an integral part of their lives and their community by investigating common examples (117-5).

431A.2.3.

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources or from several parts of the same source (213-7).

431A.2.3.a

Describe the usefulness of IUPAC scientific nomenclature systems to convey chemical information (114-8).

431A.2.4.

Explain the importance of peer review in the development of scientific knowledge (114-5).

431A.2.4.a

Name and write formulas for some common ionic compounds (both binary and complex) using the periodic table, a list of ions, and appropriate nomenclature for metal and non-metal ions (319-1 (II)).

431A.2.5.

Construct arguments to support a decision or judgment, using examples and evidence and recognizing various perspectives (118-6).

431A.2.5.a

Name and write formulas for common molecular compounds, including the use of prefixes (319-1 (I)).

431A.2.6.

Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds on the basis of their formulas (319-3).

431A.2.7.

Illustrate, using chemical formulas, a variety of natural and synthetic compounds that contain carbon (319-3).

431A.2.8.

Demonstrate a knowledge of WHMIS standards by selecting and applying proper techniques for handling and disposing of lab materials (213-9).

431A.2.9.

Represent chemical reactions and the conservation of mass using molecular models and balanced symbolic equations (321-1).

431A.3.1.

Evaluate individual and group processes used in planning, problem solving, decision making, and completing a task (215-7).

431A.3.1.a

Devise a method of representing the linear motion of two moving people or objects (215-2).

431A.3.10.

Analyze graphically and mathematically the relationship among displacement, time, and velocity (325-2).

431A.3.11.

Analyze natural and technological systems to interpret and explain their structure and dynamics (116-7).

431A.3.12.

Formulate operational definitions of major variables (212-7).

431A.3.13.

Analyze natural and technological systems to interpret and explain their structure and dynamics (116-7).

431A.3.2.

Identify areas of further study related to science and technology (117-8).

431A.3.3.

Select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical, and linguistic modes of representation to communicate ideas, plans, and results (215-2).

431A.3.4.

Describe the historic development of a motion technology (115-4).

431A.3.5.

Describe quantitatively the relationship among distance, time, and average speed of an objects linear motion (325-1, 212-7).

431A.3.6.

Identify and explain sources of errors and uncertainty in distance, time, and speed measurements and express results in a form that indicates the limits of accuracy (214-10).

431A.3.7.

Formulate operational definitions of major variables (212-7).

431A.3.8.

Distinguish between instantaneous and average velocity (325-3).

431A.3.9.

Select and use appropriate numerical, symbolic, graphical, and linguistic modes of representation to communicate ideas, plans, and results (215-2).

431A.4.1.

Identify and describe the basic components of a robot and its function (300-1).

431A.4.1.a

Relate personal activities and technology used with meteorology in the design of a weather station (114-6).

431A.4.10.

Describe and explain heat transfer within the water cycle (331-1).

431A.4.11.

Identify questions to investigate that arise from considering the energy transferred within the water cycle (212-1).

431A.4.12.

Describe and explain the effects of heat transfer within the hydrosphere and atmosphere on the development, severity, and movement of weather systems (331-4).

431A.4.13.

Describe examples that illustrate that the atmosphere and hydrosphere are heat sinks in the water cycle (331-3).

431A.4.14.

Explain scientific knowledge evolves as new evidence comes to light (115-6).

431A.4.15.

Describe and explain the effects of heat transfer on the development, severity, and movement of weather systems (331-4).

431A.4.16.

Identify examples where scientific understanding was enhanced or revised as a result of the invention of a technology (116-1).

431A.4.17.

Illustrate how science attempts to explain seasonal changes and variations in weather patterns for a given location (115-2).

431A.4.18.

Using scientific theory, describe and explain heat transfer and its consequences in both the atmosphere and hydrosphere, relating this science to natural phenomena (115-2, 331-2).

431A.4.19.

Compile and display data, using these to support conclusions, from experiments which investigate heat energy storage by, and heat exchange between, water and air masses (214-3, 214-11).

431A.4.2.

Identify and describe the basic components of robotics subsystems (300-2).

431A.4.2.a

Explain how scientific knowledge evolves as new evidence comes to light (115-6).

431A.4.20.

Describe and explain heat transfer in the hydrosphere and atmosphere and its effects on air and water currents (331-2).

431A.4.21.

Describe how the hydrosphere and atmosphere act as heat sinks within the water cycle (331-3).

431A.4.23.

Relate personal activities and various scientific and technological endeavours to specific science disciplines and interdisciplinary studies (114-6).

431A.4.24.

Analyse from a variety of perspectives the risks and benefits to society and the environment of applying scientific knowledge or introducing a particular technology (118-2).

431A.4.25.

Provide a statement that addresses or answers the question investigated in light of the link between data and the conclusion (214-11).

431A.4.26.

Explain how scientific knowledge evolves as new evidence comes to light (115-6).

431A.4.27.

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources or from several parts of same source (213-7).

431A.4.28.

Describe and explain the effects of heat transfer within the hydrosphere and atmosphere on the development, severity, and movement of weather systems (331-4).

431A.4.29.

Compile and display evidence and information, by hand or by computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs and scatter plots (214-3).

431A.4.3.

Work co-operatively with team members to construct and test a tumbler robot, and troubleshoot problems as they arise. (214-14/215-6a).

431A.4.3.a

Use print and electronic sources to collect weather data from regional and national weather observational networks (213-6, 213-7).

431A.4.30.

Analyse meteorological data for a given time span, and predict future weather conditions using appropriate methodologies and technologies (331-5).

431A.4.31.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (213-3).

431A.4.32.

Identify instances in which science and technology are limited in finding the answer to questions or the solution to problems (118-7).

431A.4.34.

Identify examples where scientific understanding has been enhanced or revised as a result of the invention of a technology (116-1).

431A.4.37.

Compile and display evidence and information, by hand or by computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs, and scatter plots (214-3).

431A.4.38.

Analyse meteorological data for a given time span and predict future weather conditions using appropriate methodologies and technologies (331-5).

431A.4.39.

Illustrate how science attempts to explain natural phenomena (115-2).

431A.4.4.

Compile and display evidence and information, by hand or by computer, in a variety of formats (214-3).

431A.4.40.

Explain how scientific knowledge evolves as new evidence comes to light (115-6).

431A.4.5.

Analyze meteorological data for a given time span (331-5).

431A.4.6.

Describe and explain heat transfer within the water cycle (331-1).

431A.4.7.

Carry out procedures controlling variables and adapting or extending procedures where required (213-2).

431A.4.8.

Compile and display evidence and information, by hand or by computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs, and scatter plots (214-3).

431A.4.9.

Describe and explain heat transfer in the hydrosphere and atmosphere and its effects on air and water currents (331-2).

431A.5.1.

Identify and describe the components of an engineering design process (300-3).

431A.5.2.

Work co-operatively with team members to construct and test a protobot, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (214-14/215-6b).

431A.5.3.

Describe and evaluate, using scientific principles, the design of the arm assembly and/or gripper to determine how it may be modified to perform a particular home function using scientific principles (116-6/214-16).

431A.6.1.

Explain how RF signals are transmitted and describe factors that affect their transmission (300-17).

431A.6.2.

Configure a transmitter and receiver effectively and accurately to control a robot in arcade-style and tank-style propulsion configurations (213-3a).

431A.6.3.

Evaluate the design and function of arcade-style and tank-style propulsion in terms of ability to control straightline and turning motion, and speed (118-3a).

431A.6.4.

Analyse quantitatively the relationship between speed, distance, and time for RF signals (300-4).

431A.7.1.

Qualitatively describe the relationships among speed, acceleration, force, torque, work, and power (300-5).

431A.7.2.

Work co-operatively with team members to construct and test a simple winch, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (214-14/215-6c).

431A.7.3.

Quantitatively and qualitatively analyse problems involving stall torque and free speed of a motor (300-6).

431A.7.4.

Quantitatively and qualitatively analyse problems involving Newtons second law (300-7).

431A.8.1.

Identify and describe gear types (300-10).

431A.8.2.

Quantitatively analyse problems involving gear ratio (300-9).

431A.8.3.

Qualitatively describe the relationship between gearing, pulley free speed, and power (300-8).

431A.8.4.

Evaluate the role of continued testing in the development and improvement of materials used in the construction of prototypes (114-3).

431A.9.1.

Evaluate the design of a differential and the way it functions on the basis of identified criteria, such as its effect on a drivetrain and impact on everyday life and safety (118-3a).

431A.9.2.

Work co-operatively with team members to construct and test a steerable robot containing a differential, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (214-14/215-6d).

CAS401A.1.1.

Identify the components of an ecozone.

CAS401A.1.2.

Locate major bodies of water, (including rivers), landform regions, and the provinces and territories of Canada and their capital cities.

CAS401A.1.3.

Apply concepts and skills related to time zones in problem situations.

CAS401A.1.4.

Analyse Aboriginal settlement patterns, past and present, across Canada using physical and climate factors.

CAS401A.1.5.

Explain historical factors influencing settlement across Canada.

CAS401A.1.6.

Identify changes in transportation over time.

CAS401A.1.7.

Describe the changes in modes of communication over time.

CAS401A.2.1.

Explain why some of the colonies of British North America merged to become the Dominion of Canada.

CAS401A.2.3.

Describe several personalities (past and present) who have contributed to the growth and development of Canada.

CAS401A.2.4.

Plan and carry out historical research of a local nature (eg. events, people, places, landmarks).

CAS401A.2.5.

Illustrate, on a timeline, major historical world conflicts in which Canadians have played a role.

CAS401A.2.6.

Assess Canadas involvement in current world conflicts.

CAS401A.3.3.

Explain the push and pull factors behind immigration to Canada.

CAS401A.3.4.

Describe the three main categories of immigrants to Canada.

CAS401A.3.5.

Explain significant factors and possible outcomes surrounding a current issue in Aboriginal societies.

CAS401A.4.1.

Explain primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary industries using examples.

CAS401A.4.2.

Compare the ways that Canadians made a living in the past to how they make a living now.

CAS401A.4.3.

Describe changes over time which have influenced the Canadian economy including technological advancements and shifts in societal attitudes.

CAS401A.4.4.

Explain the reasons for seasonal economies and the impact on people who work in seasonal economies.

CAS401A.4.5.

Describe the contribution of the service sector within our economy.

CAS401A.4.6.

Assess some of the pros and cons of minimum wage.

CAS401A.4.7.

Predict growth and impact of emerging economies.

CAS401A.4.8.

Evaluate some of the benefits and costs of social programs in Canada.

CAS401A.5.1.

Give examples of the origins of some common food products.

CAS401A.5.2.

Give examples of our increasing dependency on other countries for goods and services.

CAS401A.5.3.

Analyse the impact of resource depletion on a region or a nation.

CAS401A.5.4.

Articulate the importance of sustainability of natural resources from a local, regional, national, and global perspective.

CAS401A.5.5.

Describe how Canadians can make their communities sustainable.

CAS401A.5.6.

Describe how Canada can work globally to create a sustainable world community.

CAS401A.5.7.

Assess the significance of geography and history in determining the type(s) of work accessible to people of a particular region.

CAS401A.5.8.

Evaluate the role of technology in contributing to interdependence among nations.

CAS401A.5.9.

Predict possible future sustainability issues and their probable impact(s) within Canada.

CAS401A.6.1.

Describe the four elements of culture.

CAS401A.6.2.

Analyze the various subcultures that exist within a school.

CAS401A.6.3.

Analyse ways that popular culture contributes to Canadian culture.

CAS401A.6.4.

Assess the impact of popular culture on traditional cultures.

CAS401A.6.5.

Explain how Canada is evolving into an increasingly multicultural nation.

CAS401A.6.6.

Explain why Canadian culture continues to become more diverse.

CAS401A.6.7.

Describe ways in which various cultures strive to maintain their heritage.

CAS401A.6.8.

Give examples of how Canadian culture is influenced by global forces.

CAS401A.6.9.

Analyze various aspects of popular culture in a global context.

GEO421A.1.1.

Articulate their own understanding of Canadian geography.

GEO421A.2.1.

Use methods and tools of geographic inquiry to locate, gather, evaluate, and organize information about Canadas natural and human systems.

GEO421A.2.2.

Analyse and interpret data gathered in inquiries about the geography of Canada, using a variety of methods and geotechnologies.

GEO421A.3.1.

Explain internal and external physical forces that impact Canadas landscape.

GEO421A.3.2.

Identify components of ecozones.

GEO421A.3.3.

Assess regional diversity by comparing at least two different ecozones within Canada.

GEO421A.3.4.

Evaluate the use of ecozones in understanding interconnectedness.

GEO421A.4.1.

Explain how population change is calculated and why this is important.

GEO421A.4.2.

Analyze how natural and human systems change over time and from place to place.

GEO421A.4.2.1.

Describe factors that have contributed to current Aboriginal demographics.

GEO421A.4.2.2.

Identify and explain patterns and trends in Canadian migration.

GEO421A.4.2.3.

Identify and explain patterns and trends in rural/urban settlement.

GEO421A.4.2.4.

Describe changes in land-use that have resulted in demographic changes.

GEO421A.4.3.

Assess the sustainability of current land use practices using either a local or national case study.

GEO421A.4.4.

Assess models of urban development to recommend a specific model.

GEO421A.5.1.

Identify and explain Canadas economic sectors and the importance of each sector.

GEO421A.5.2.

Develop a geographic inquiry into one or more of Canadas economic sectors.

GEO421A.6.1.

Analyse the economic, societal, and environmental connections between Canada and other countries.

GEO421A.6.2.

Assess Canadas current involvement in a global issue.

GEO421A.7.1.

Engage in an active citizenship project that is based upon a Canadian geographic inquiry.

MAT421A.AN1.A.

Determine the prime factors of a whole number.

MAT421A.AN1.B.

Explain why the numbers 0 and 1 have no prime factors.

MAT421A.AN1.C.

Determine, using a variety of strategies, the greatest common factor or the least common multiple of a set of whole numbers, and explain the process.

MAT421A.AN1.D.

Determine, concretely, whether a given whole number is a perfect square, a perfect cube or neither.

MAT421A.AN1.E.

Determine, using a variety of strategies, the square root of a perfect square, and explain the process.

MAT421A.AN1.F.

Determine, using a variety of strategies, the cube root of a perfect cube, and explain the process.

MAT421A.AN1.G.

Solve problems that involve prime factors, greatest common factors, least common multiples, square roots or cube roots.

MAT421A.AN2.A.

Sort a set of numbers into rational and irrational numbers.

MAT421A.AN2.B.

Determine an approximate value of a given irrational number.

MAT421A.AN2.C.

Approximate the locations of irrational numbers on a number line, using a variety of strategies, and explain the reasoning.

MAT421A.AN2.D.

Order a set of irrational numbers on a number line.

MAT421A.AN2.E.

Express a radical as a mixed radical in simplest form (limited to numerical radicands).

MAT421A.AN2.F.

Express a mixed radical as an entire radical (limited to numerical radicands).

MAT421A.AN2.G.

Explain, using examples, the meaning of the index of a radical.

MAT421A.AN2.H.

Represent, using a graphic organizer, the relationship among the subsets of the real numbers (natural, whole, integer, rational, irrational).

MAT421A.AN3.A.

Explain, using patterns, why a^(-n) = 1/(a^n), a != 0.

MAT421A.AN3.C.

Apply the exponent laws: (a^m)(a^n) = a^(m+n); a^m/a^n = a^(m-n), a != 0; (a^m)^n = a^(mn); (ab)^m = (a^m)(b^m); (a/b)^n = (a^n)/(b^n), b != 0; to expressions with rational and variable bases, and integral and rational exponents, and explain the reasoning.

MAT421A.AN3.D.

Express powers with rational exponents as radicals and vice versa.

MAT421A.AN3.E.

Solve a problem that involves exponent laws or radicals.

MAT421A.AN3.F.

Identify and correct errors in a simplification of an expression that involves powers.

MAT421A.AN4.A.

Model the multiplication of two given binomials, concretely and pictorially, and record the process symbolically.

MAT421A.AN4.B.

Relate the multiplication of two binomial expressions to an area model.

MAT421A.AN4.C.

Explain, using examples, the relationship between the multiplication of binomials and the multiplication of two-digit numbers.

MAT421A.AN4.D.

Verify a polynomial product by substituting numbers for the variables.

MAT421A.AN4.E.

Multiply two polynomials symbolically, and combine like terms in the product.

MAT421A.AN4.F.

Generalize and explain a strategy for multiplication of polynomials.

MAT421A.AN4.G.

Identify and explain errors in a solution for polynomial multiplication.

MAT421A.AN5.A.

Determine the common factors in the terms of a polynomial, and express the polynomial in factored form.

MAT421A.AN5.B.

Model the factoring of a trinomial, concretely or pictorially, and record the process symbolically.

MAT421A.AN5.C.

Factor a polynomial that is a difference of squares, and explain why it is a special case of trinomial factoring where b = 0.

MAT421A.AN5.D.

Identify and explain errors in a polynomial factorization.

MAT421A.AN5.E.

Factor a polynomial, and verify by multiplying the factors.

MAT421A.AN5.G.

Generalize and explain strategies used to factor a trinomial.

MAT421A.AN5.H.

Express a polynomial as a product of its factors.

MAT421A.M1.C.

Estimate a linear measure, using a referent, and explain the process used.

MAT421A.M1.D.

Justify the choice of units used for determining a measurement in a problem-solving context.

MAT421A.M1.E.

Solve problems that involve linear measure, using instruments such as rulers, calipers or tape measures.

MAT421A.M1.F.

Describe and explain a personal strategy used to determine a linear measurement; e.g., circumference of a bottle, length of a curve, perimeter of the base of an irregular 3-D object.

MAT421A.M2.A.

Explain how proportional reasoning can be used to convert a measurement within, or between, SI and imperial systems.

MAT421A.M3.A.

Sketch a diagram to represent a problem that involves surface area or volume.

MAT421A.M3.B.

Determine the surface area of a right cone, right cylinder, right prism, right pyramid or sphere, using an object or its labelled diagram.

MAT421A.M3.C.

Determine the volume of a right cone, right cylinder, right prism, right pyramid or sphere, using an object or its labelled diagram.

MAT421A.M3.D.

Determine an unknown dimension of a right cone, right cylinder, right prism, right pyramid or sphere, given the object's surface area or volume and the remaining dimensions.

MAT421A.M3.E.

Solve a problem that involves surface area or volume, given a diagram of a composite 3-D object.

MAT421A.M4.A.

Explain the relationships between similar right triangles and the definitions of the primary trigonometric ratios.

MAT421A.M4.B.

Identify the hypotenuse of a right triangle and the opposite and adjacent sides for a given acute triangle in the triangle.

MAT421A.M4.C.

Solve right triangles, with or without technology.

MAT421A.M4.D.

Solve a problem that involves one or more right triangles by applying the primary trigonometric ratios or the Pythagorean theorem.

MAT421A.M4.E.

Solve a problem that involves indirect and direct measurement, using the trigonometric ratios, the Pythagorean theorem and measurement instruments such as a clinometer or a metre stick.

MAT421A.RF1.A.

Graph, with or without technology, a set of data, and determine the restrictions on the domain and range.

MAT421A.RF1.C.

Describe a possible situation for a given graph.

MAT421A.RF1.D.

Sketch a possible graph for a given situation.

MAT421A.RF1.E.

Determine, and express in a variety of ways, the domain and range of a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a table of values.

MAT421A.RF2.A.

Explain, using examples, why some relations are not functions but all functions are relations.

MAT421A.RF2.B.

Determine if a set of ordered pairs represents a function.

MAT421A.RF2.C.

Sort a set of graphs as functions or non-functions.

MAT421A.RF2.D.

Generalize and explain rules for determining whether graphs and sets of ordered pairs represent functions.

MAT421A.RF3.A.

Determine the slope of a line segment by measuring or calculating the rise and run.

MAT421A.RF3.B.

Classify lines in a given set as having positive or negative slopes.

MAT421A.RF3.C.

Explain the meaning of the slope of a horizontal or vertical line.

MAT421A.RF3.D.

Explain why the slope of a line can be determined by using any two points on that line.

MAT421A.RF3.E.

Explain, using examples, slope as a rate of change.

MAT421A.RF3.F.

Draw a line, given its slope and a point on the line.

MAT421A.RF3.G.

Determine another point on a line, given the slope and a point on the line.

MAT421A.RF3.H.

Generalize and apply a rule for determining whether two lines are parallel or perpendicular.

MAT421A.RF3.I.

Solve a contextual problem involving slope.

MAT421A.RF4.B.

Determine whether a situation represents a linear relation, and explain why or why not.

MAT421A.RF4.C.

Determine whether a graph represents a linear relation, and explain why or why not.

MAT421A.RF4.D.

Determine whether a table of values or a set of ordered pairs represents a linear relation, and explain why or why not.

MAT421A.RF4.E.

Draw a graph from a set of ordered pairs within a given situation, and determine whether the relationship between the variables is linear.

MAT421A.RF4.F.

Determine whether an equation represents a linear relation, and explain why or why not.

MAT421A.RF4.G.

Match corresponding representations of linear relations.

MAT421A.RF5.A.

Determine the intercepts of the graph of a linear relation, and state the intercepts as values or ordered pairs.

MAT421A.RF5.B.

Determine the slope of the graph of a linear relation.

MAT421A.RF5.C.

Determine the domain and range of the graph of a linear relation.

MAT421A.RF5.D.

Sketch a linear relation that has one intercept, two intercepts or an infinite number of intercepts.

MAT421A.RF5.E.

Identify the graph that corresponds to a given slope and y-intercept.

MAT421A.RF5.F.

Identify the slope and y-intercept that correspond to a given graph.

MAT421A.RF5.G.

Solve a contextual problem that involves intercepts, slope, domain or range of a linear relation.

MAT421A.RF6.A.

Express a linear relation in different forms, and compare the graphs.

MAT421A.RF6.B.

Rewrite a linear relation in either slope-intercept or general form.

MAT421A.RF6.C.

Generalize and explain strategies for graphing a linear relation in slope-intercept, general or slope-point form.

MAT421A.RF6.D.

Graph, with and without technology, a linear relation given in slope-intercept, general or slope-point form, and explain the strategy used to create the graph.

MAT421A.RF6.E.

Identify equivalent linear relations from a list of linear relations.

MAT421A.RF6.F.

Match a set of linear relations to their graphs.

MAT421A.RF7.A.

Determine the slope and y-intercept of a given linear relation from its graph, and write the equation in the form y = mx + b.

MAT421A.RF7.B.

Write the equation of a linear relation, given its slope and the coordinates of a point on the line, and explain the reasoning.

MAT421A.RF7.C.

Write the equation of a linear relation, given the coordinates of two points on the line, and explain the reasoning.

MAT421A.RF7.E.

Graph linear data generated from a context, and write the equation of the resulting line.

MAT421A.RF7.F.

Solve a problem, using the equation of a linear relation.

MAT421A.RF8.A.

Express the equation of a linear function in two variables, using function notation.

MAT421A.RF8.B.

Express an equation given in function notation as a linear function in two variables.

MAT421A.RF8.C.

Determine the related range value, given a domain value, for a linear function; e.g., if f(x) = 3x - 2, determine f(-1).

MAT421A.RF8.D.

Determine the related domain value, given a range value, for a linear function; e.g., if g(t) = 7+t, determine t so that g(t) = 15.

MAT421A.RF8.E.

Sketch the graph of a linear function expressed in function notation.

MAT421A.RF9.A.

Model a situation, using a system of linear equations.

MAT421A.RF9.B.

Relate a system of linear equations to the context of a problem.

MAT421A.RF9.C.

Determine and verify the solution of a system of linear equations graphically, with and without technology.

MAT421A.RF9.D.

Explain the meaning of the point of intersection of a system of linear equations.

MAT421A.RF9.E.

Determine and verify the solution of a system of linear equations algebraically.

MAT421A.RF9.F.

Explain, using examples, why a system of equations may have no solution, one solution or an infinite number of solutions.

MAT421A.RF9.G.

Explain a strategy to solve a system of linear equations.

MAT421A.RF9.H.

Solve a problem that involves a system of linear equations.

MAT431A.A1.A.

Solve a contextual problem that involves the application of a formula that does not require manipulation.

MAT431A.A1.B.

Solve a contextual problem that involves the application of a formula that requires manipulation.

MAT431A.A1.C.

Explain and verify why different forms of the same formula are equivalent.

MAT431A.A1.D.

Describe, using examples, how a given formula is used in a trade or an occupation.

MAT431A.A1.E.

Create and solve a contextual problem that involves a formula.

MAT431A.A1.F.

Identify and correct errors in a solution to a problem that involves a formula.

MAT431A.G1.A.

Determine, explain and verify a strategy to solve a puzzle or to win a game; e.g., guess and check; look for a pattern; make a systematic list; draw or model; eliminate possibilities; simplify the original problem; work backward; develop alternative approaches.

MAT431A.G1.B.

Identify and correct errors in a solution to a puzzle or in a strategy for winning a game.

MAT431A.G1.C.

Create a variation on a puzzle or a game, and describe a strategy for solving the puzzle or winning the game.

MAT431A.G2.A.

Explain, using illustrations, why the Pythagorean theorem only applies to right triangles.

MAT431A.G2.B.

Verify the Pythagorean theorem, using examples and counterexamples, including drawings, concrete materials and technology.

MAT431A.G2.C.

Describe historical and contemporary applications of the Pythagorean theorem.

MAT431A.G2.D.

Determine if a given triangle is a right triangle, using the Pythagorean theorem.

MAT431A.G2.E.

Explain why a triangle with the side length ratio of 3 : 4 : 5 is a right triangle.

MAT431A.G2.F.

Explain how the ratio of 3 : 4 : 5 can be used to determine if a corner of a given 3-D object is square (900) or if a given parallelogram is a rectangle.

MAT431A.G2.G.

Solve a problem, using the Pythagorean theorem.

MAT431A.G3.A.

Determine, using angle measurements, if two or more regular or irregular polygons are similar.

MAT431A.G3.B.

Determine, using ratios of side lengths, if two or more regular or irregular polygons are similar.

MAT431A.G3.C.

Explain why two given polygons are not similar.

MAT431A.G3.F.

Explain why two or more right triangles with a shared acute angle are similar.

MAT431A.G3.G.

Solve a contextual problem that involves similarity of polygons.

MAT431A.G4.A.

Show, for a specified angle in a set of similar right triangles, that the ratios of the length of the side opposite to the length of the side adjacent are equal, and generalize a formula for the tangent ratio.

MAT431A.G4.B.

Show, for a specified angle in a set of similar right triangles, that the ratios of the length of the side opposite to the length of the hypotenuse are equal, and generalize a formula for the sine ratio.

MAT431A.G4.C.

Show, for a specified angle in a set of similar right triangles, that the ratios of the length of the side adjacent to the length of the hypotenuse are equal, and generalize a formula for the cosine ratio.

MAT431A.G4.D.

Identify situations where the trigonometric ratios are used for indirect measurement of angles and lengths.

MAT431A.G4.E.

Solve a contextual problem that involves right triangles, using the primary trigonometric ratios.

MAT431A.G4.F.

Determine if a solution to a problem that involves primary trigonometric ratios is reasonable.

MAT431A.G5.A.

Sort a set of lines as perpendicular, parallel or neither, and justify this sorting.

MAT431A.G5.B.

Illustrate and describe complementary and supplementary angles.

MAT431A.G5.C.

Identify, in a set of angles, adjacent angles that are not complementary or supplementary.

MAT431A.G5.D.

Identify and name pairs of angles formed by parallel lines and a transversal, including corresponding angles, vertically opposite angles, alternate interior angles, alternate exterior angles, interior angles on the same side of a transversal, and exterior angles on the same side of a transversal.

MAT431A.G5.E.

Explain and illustrate the relationships of angles formed by parallel lines and a transversal.

MAT431A.G5.F.

Explain, using examples, why the angle relationships do not apply when the lines are not parallel.

MAT431A.G5.G.

Determine if lines or planes are perpendicular or parallel, e.g., wall perpendicular to floor, and describe the strategy used.

MAT431A.G5.H.

Determine the measures of angles involving parallel lines and a transversal, using angle relationships.

MAT431A.G5.I.

Solve a contextual problem that involves angles formed by parallel lines and a transversal (including perpendicular transversals).

MAT431A.G6.A.

Draw and describe angles with various measures, including acute, right, straight, obtuse, and reflex angles.

MAT431A.G6.B.

Identify referents for angles.

MAT431A.G6.D.

Estimate the measure of a given angle, using 22.5, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 180 as referent angles.

MAT431A.G6.E.

Measure, using a protractor, angles in various orientations.

MAT431A.G6.F.

Explain and illustrate how angles can be replicated in a variety of ways; e.g., Mira, protractor, compass and straightedge, carpenter's square, dynamic geometry software.

MAT431A.G6.G.

Replicate angles in a variety of ways, with and without technology.

MAT431A.G6.H.

Bisect an angle, using a variety of methods.

MAT431A.M1.A.

Explain how the SI system was developed, and explain its relationship to base ten.

MAT431A.M1.B.

Identify the base units of measurement in the SI system, and determine the relationship among the related units of each type of measurement.

MAT431A.M1.C.

Identify contexts that involve the SI system.

MAT431A.M1.D.

Match the prefixes used for SI units of measurements with the powers of ten.

MAT431A.M1.E.

Explain, using examples, how and why decimals are used in the SI system.

MAT431A.M1.G.

Write a given linear measurement expressed in one SI unit in another SI unit.

MAT431A.M1.H.

Convert a given measurement from SI to imperial units by using proportional reasoning (including formulas); e.g., Celsius to Fahrenheit, centimetres to inches.

MAT431A.M3.B.

Estimate a linear measurement, using a referent.

MAT431A.M3.D.

Estimate the dimensions of a given regular 3-D object or 2-D shape, using a referent; e.g., the height of the desk is about three rulers long, so the desk is approximately 3 ft high.

MAT431A.M3.E.

Solve a linear measurement problem including perimeter, circumference, and length + width + height (used in shipping and air travel).

MAT431A.M3.F.

Determine the operation that should be used to solve a linear measurement problem.

MAT431A.M3.G.

Provide an example of a situation in which a fractional linear measurement would be divided by a fraction.

MAT431A.M3.H.

Determine, using a variety of strategies, the midpoint of a linear measurement such as length, width, height, depth, diagonal and diameter of a 3-D object, and explain the strategies.

MAT431A.M3.I.

Determine if a solution to a problem that involves linear measurement is reasonable.

MAT431A.M4.B.

Estimate an area measurement, using a referent.

MAT431A.M4.C.

Identify a situation where a given SI or imperial area unit would be used.

MAT431A.M4.D.

Estimate the area of a given regular, composite or irregular 2-D shape, using an SI square grid and an imperial square grid.

MAT431A.M4.E.

Solve a contextual problem that involves the area of a regular, a composite or an irregular 2-D shape.

MAT431A.M4.F.

Write a given area measurement expressed in one SI unit squared in another SI unit squared.

MAT431A.M4.H.

Solve a problem, using formulas for determining the areas of regular, composite and irregular 2-D shapes, including circles.

MAT431A.M4.I.

Solve a problem that involves determining the surface area of 3-D objects, including right cylinders and cones.

MAT431A.M4.J.

Explain, using examples, the effect of changing the measurement of one or more dimensions on area and perimeter of rectangles.

MAT431A.M4.K.

Determine if a solution to a problem that involves an area measurement is reasonable.

MAT431A.N1.A.

Compare the unit price of two or more given items.

MAT431A.N1.B.

Solve problems that involve determining the best buy, and explain the choice in terms of the cost as well as other factors, such as quality and quantity.

MAT431A.N1.D.

Determine the percent increase or decrease for a given original and new price.

MAT431A.N1.E.

Solve, using proportional reasoning, a contextual problem that involves currency exchange.

MAT431A.N1.F.

Explain the difference between the selling rate and purchasing rate for currency exchange.

MAT431A.N1.G.

Explain how to estimate the cost of items in Canadian currency while in a foreign country, and explain why this may be important.

MAT431A.N1.H.

Convert between Canadian currency and foreign currencies, using formulas, charts or tables.

MAT431A.N2.C.

Determine in decimal form, from a time schedule, the total time worked in hours and minutes, including time and a half and/or double time.

MAT431A.N2.D.

Determine gross pay from given or calculated hours worked when given: the base hourly wage, with and without tips; the base hourly wage, plus overtime (time and a half, double time).

MAT431A.N2.E.

Determine gross pay for earnings acquired by: base wage, plus commission; single commission rate.

MAT431A.N2.F.

Explain why gross pay and net pay are not the same.

MAT431A.N2.G.

Determine the Canadian Pension Plan (CPP), Employment Insurance (EI) and income tax deductions for a given gross pay.

MAT431A.N2.H.

Determine the net pay when given deductions, e.g., health plans, uniforms, union dues, charitable donations, payroll tax.

MAT431A.N2.J.

Identify and correct errors in a solution to a problem that involves gross or net pay.