Prince Edward Island Curriculum — Grade 11


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AG621A.1.1.

Distinguish between agriculture and agriscience.

AG621A.1.2.

Examine the historical importance of the development of agricultural resources.

AG621A.1.3.

Explain ways in which agriscience is a diversified and changing industry.

AG621A.1.4.

Analyse the environmental, social, and economic significance of agriculture and agriscience to Prince Edward Island.

AG621A.1.5.

Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity and interdependence within the agricultural sector of Prince Edward Island.

AG621A.1.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of food sovereignty and food security.

AG621A.1.7.

Debate the concept of sustainability as it relates to agriculture.

AG621A.1.8.

Research career information and job opportunities in diverse agricultural enterprises and related services.

AG621A.1.9.

Demonstrate an understanding of economic trends and issues pertaining to agriculture.

AG621A.2.1.

Assess the impact of water management practices on the sustainable production of agricultural commodities.

AG621A.2.2.

Develop strategies to reduce water impacts from agricultural practices.

AG621A.2.3.

Conduct an experiment to determine the presence or concentration of water pollutants.

AG621A.2.4.

Explain the origin and composition of soils in Prince Edward Island.

AG621A.2.5.

Describe how soil composition and fertility can be altered and how these changes could affect an ecosystem.

AG621A.2.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of soil conservation practices.

AG621A.2.7.

Design a soil experiment and identify specific variables.

AG621A.3.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of taxonomy.

AG621A.3.2.

Create a dichotomous key to identify species of plant.

AG621A.3.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of basic plant parts.

AG621A.3.4.

Describe the relationship of plant parts to fruits, nuts, vegetables, and crops.

AG621A.3.5.

Relate the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration.

AG621A.3.6.

Assess how air, water, light, media, and nutrients affect plant growth.

AG621A.3.7.

Relate the concepts of breeding, propagation, and selection to production practices.

AG621A.3.8.

Demonstrate an understanding of Mendelian genetics and predict the outcome of various genetic crosses.

AG621A.4.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the crop production industry to Prince Edward Island and Canada.

AG621A.4.2.

Describe production techniques for a variety of vegetable commodities.

AG621A.4.3.

Analyse the role of technology in the production, processing, transportation, and marketing of agricultural products.

AG621A.4.4.

Discuss trends and challenges to the industry.

AG621A.4.5.

Investigate a selected crop production issue using a guided inquiry process.

AG621A.5.1.

Identify environmental factors in the successful selection of plants for a garden on Prince Edward Island.

AG621A.5.2.

Create a plot plan for a local fruit and vegetable garden.

AG621A.5.3.

Work collaboratively to create a green space within their school or community.

AG801A.1.1.

Distinguish between agriculture and agriscience.

AG801A.1.2.

Examine the historical importance of the development of agricultural resources.

AG801A.1.3.

Explain ways in which agriscience is a diversified and changing industry.

AG801A.1.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of the contribution of agriscience to the social, economic, and environmental development of Prince Edward Island.

AG801A.1.5.

Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity and interdependence within the agricultural sector of Prince Edward Island.

AG801A.1.6.

Demonstrate an awareness of the principles of food sovereignty and food security.

AG801A.1.7.

Discuss factors that affect the sustainability of an agricultural system.

AG801A.1.8.

Compile career information and job opportunities of diverse agricultural enterprises and related services.

AG801A.1.9.

Demonstrate an awareness of economic trends and issues pertaining to agriculture.

AG801A.2.1.

Describe water management practices relevant to an agriculture system.

AG801A.2.2.

Identify strategies to reduce water impacts from agricultural practices.

AG801A.2.3.

Conduct an experiment to determine the presence or concentration of water pollutants.

AG801A.2.4.

Describe the origin and composition of soils in Prince Edward Island.

AG801A.2.5.

Identify the relationship among soil productivity and its physical and chemical properties.

AG801A.2.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of soil conservation practices.

AG801A.2.7.

Conduct an experiment to investigate several properties of soil.

AG801A.3.1.

Use a local plant to demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of taxonomy.

AG801A.3.2.

Describe and apply classification systems and nomenclatures used in the plant sciences.

AG801A.3.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of basic plant parts.

AG801A.3.4.

Describe the relationship of plant parts to fruits, nuts, vegetables, and crops.

AG801A.3.5.

Relate the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration.

AG801A.3.6.

Describe the requirements for the production of a plant commodity.

AG801A.3.7.

Relate the concepts of breeding, propagation, and selection to production practices.

AG801A.3.8.

Demonstrate an understanding of Mendelian genetics and predict the outcome of various genetic crosses.

AG801A.4.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the crop production industry to Prince Edward Island and Canada.

AG801A.4.2.

Describe production techniques for a variety of vegetable commodities.

AG801A.4.3.

Describe applications of science and technology in addressing specific plant production needs.

AG801A.4.4.

Discuss trends and challenges to the industry.

AG801A.4.5a.

Create a crop production report and presentation.

AG801A.4.5b.

Investigate a selected crop production issue using a guided inquiry process.

AG801A.5.1.

Identify environmental factors in the successful selection of plants for a garden on Prince Edward Island.

AG801A.5.2.

Create a plot plan for a local fruit and vegetable garden.

AG801A.5.3.

Work collaboratively to create a green space within their school or community.

AS621A.1.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the history of the domestication of farm animals.

AS621A.1.2.

Examine the historical importance of the development of agricultural resources.

AS621A.1.3.

Explain trends and challenges in livestock and poultry production.

AS621A.1.4.

Analyse the environmental, social, and economic significance of livestock and poultry production to Prince Edward Island.

AS621A.1.5.

Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity and interdependence within the agricultural sector of Prince Edward Island.

AS621A.1.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of food sovereignty and food security.

AS621A.1.7.

Explain the concept of sustainability as it relates to agriculture.

AS621A.1.8.

Research career information and job opportunities in diverse agricultural enterprises and related services.

AS621A.1.9.

Demonstrate an understanding of economic trends and issues pertaining to agriculture.

AS621A.2.1.

Analyse the differences between plant and animal cells.

AS621A.2.2.

Illustrate the role of chromosomes in the transmission of hereditary information from one cell to another.

AS621A.2.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of Mendelian genetics and predict the outcome of various genetic crosses.

AS621A.2.4.

Identify the structures and functions of livestock and poultry reproductive systems.

AS621A.2.5.

Explain the principles of reproduction as they apply to livestock and poultry.

AS621A.2.6.

Describe the process of cloning and outline its advantages, disadvantages, and ethical issues.

AS621A.2.7.

Analyse evolutionary mechanisms (i.e., natural selection, artificial selection, and biotechnology) and their effects on biodiversity and livestock production.

AS621A.3.1.

Identify the parts of the digestive system of livestock and poultry and describe their functions.

AS621A.3.2.

Demonstrate an understanding of ruminant and monogastric digestion systems.

AS621A.4.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the need for food safety, traceability, and biosecurity on and off livestock farms.

AS621A.4.10.

Describe how beef and milk are produced, collected, and processed.

AS621A.4.11.

Explain how technology has impacted the beef and dairy industries.

AS621A.4.12.

Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the poultry industries to Prince Edward Island and Canada.

AS621A.4.13.

Identify the main types and distinguishing characteristics of poultry.

AS621A.4.14.

Describe feeding programs for poultry.

AS621A.4.15.

Develop disease prevention strategies for poultry.

AS621A.4.16.

Explain how broilers and eggs are produced, collected, and processed.

AS621A.4.17.

Explain how technology has impacted the poultry industries.

AS621A.4.18.

Develop waste management strategies for livestock and poultry farms.

AS621A.4.19.

Evaluate a selected animal care and management issue using a guided inquiry process.

AS621A.4.2.

Work collaboratively to outline farm safety practices.

AS621A.4.3.

Assess the importance of animal care and management in agriculture.

AS621A.4.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of animal welfare issues.

AS621A.4.5.

Debate from a variety of perspectives animal management practices used in livestock and poultry production.

AS621A.4.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the beef and dairy cattle industries to Prince Edward Island and Canada.

AS621A.4.7.

Identify the main breeds and distinguishing characteristics of beef and dairy cattle.

AS621A.4.8.

Compare and contrast feeding programs for beef and dairy cattle.

AS621A.4.9.

Develop disease prevention strategies for beef and dairy cattle.

AS801A.1.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the history of the domestication of farm animals.

AS801A.1.2.

Examine the historical importance of the development of agriculture.

AS801A.1.3.

Explain trends and challenges in live stock and poultry production.

AS801A.1.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of the contribution of livestock and poultry production to the social, economic, and environmental development of Prince Edward Island.

AS801A.1.5.

Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity and interdependence within the agricultural sector of Prince Edward Island.

AS801A.1.6.

Outline the principles of food sovereignty and food security.

AS801A.1.7.

Discuss the factors that affect the sustainability of an agricultural system.

AS801A.1.8.

Compile career information and job opportunities in diverse agricultural enterprises and related services.

AS801A.1.9.

Outline economic trends and issues pertaining to agriculture.

AS801A.2.1.

Compare and contrast the differences between plant and animal cells.

AS801A.2.2.

Illustrate the role of chromosomes in the transmission of hereditary information from one cell to another.

AS801A.2.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of Mendelian genetics and predict the outcome of various genetic crosses.

AS801A.2.4.

Identify the structures and functions of livestock and poultry reproductive systems.

AS801A.2.5.

Describe principles of reproduction and explain their application to livestock and poultry.

AS801A.2.6.

Describe the process of cloning and outline its advantages, disadvantages, and ethical issues.

AS801A.3.1.

Identify the parts of the digestive system of livestock and poultry and describe their functions.

AS801A.3.2.

Demonstrate an understanding of ruminant and monogastric digestion systems.

AS801A.4.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the need for food safety, traceability, and biosecurity on and off livestock farms.

AS801A.4.10.

Describe how beef and milk are produced, collected, and processed.

AS801A.4.11.

Explain how technology has impacted the beef and dairy industries.

AS801A.4.12.

Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the poultry industries to Prince Edward Island and Canada.

AS801A.4.13.

Identify the main types and distinguishing characteristics of poultry.

AS801A.4.14.

Describe feeding programs for poultry.

AS801A.4.15.

Outline disease prevention strategies for poultry.

AS801A.4.16.

Explain how broilers and eggs are produced, collected, and processed.

AS801A.4.17.

Explain how technology has impacted the poultry industries.

AS801A.4.18.

Demonstrate an understanding of waste management strategies on livestock and poultry farms.

AS801A.4.19a.

Create an animal care and management plan.

AS801A.4.19b.

Analyze a selected animal care and management issue using a guided inquiry process.

AS801A.4.2.

Work collaboratively to outline farm safety practices.

AS801A.4.3.

Assess the importance of animal care and management in agriculture.

AS801A.4.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of animal welfare issues.

AS801A.4.5.

Explain animal management practices used in livestock and poultry production.

AS801A.4.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the beef and dairy cattle industries to Prince Edward Island and Canada.

AS801A.4.7.

Identify the main breeds and distinguishing characteristics of beef and dairy cattle.

AS801A.4.8.

Compare and contrast feeding programs for beef and dairy cattle.

AS801A.4.9.

Outline disease prevention strategies for beef and dairy cattle.

B521A.1.1.

Historical Development of the Cell Theory - Students will be expected to

B521A.1.1.1.

Explain the cell theory (314-5).

B521A.1.1.1.a.

Define biogenesis and abiogenesis.

B521A.1.1.1.b.

Develop a list of characteristics that differentiate living and non-living things.

B521A.1.1.2.

Describe how the contributions of scientists led to a better understanding of biogenesis and abiogenesis (114-1, 114-2, 114-5, 114-9).

B521A.1.1.3.

Analyse and describe how scientific understanding was revised as a result of the invention of the microscope (116-2).

B521A.1.1.3.a.

Explain how the invention of the microscope permitted scientists to discover the existence of cells.

B521A.1.1.3.b.

Explain the contributions of: (i) Hooke; (ii) Leeuwenhoek.

B521A.1.1.4.

Describe how the contributions of scientists led to the progressive development of the cell theory (114-1, 114-2, 114-5, 114-9).

B521A.1.2.

Introduction to the Microscope - Students will be expected to

B521A.1.2.1.

Select and use apparatus and materials safely (213-8).

B521A.1.2.1.a.

Identify the microscope as an important tool for biological research.

B521A.1.2.2.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (213-3).

B521A.1.2.2.a.

Identify microscope parts and their functions.

B521A.1.2.2.b.

Demonstrate general care, focussing techniques, and safety concerns.

B521A.1.2.2.c.

Prepare, stain, and observe a wet mount of a specimen.

B521A.1.2.3.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

B521A.1.2.4.

Work co-operatively with team members to develop and carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (215-6).

B521A.1.2.5.

Compile and display, using line diagrams and/or digital imagery, evidence and information collected through the use of the microscope (214-3).

B521A.1.2.5.a.

Draw a biological drawing which includes the concept of field of view and calculation of specimen size.

B521A.1.2.6.

Formulate operational definitions of major variables (212-7).

B521A.1.2.7.

Analyse why microscope technology continued to develop and improve over time (115-5).

B521A.1.2.8.

Describe and evaluate the design of microscope technologies and the way they function (compound, scanning electron, and transmission microscopes) (116-6).

B521A.1.3.

Interaction of Cell Structures - Students will be expected to

B521A.1.3.1.

Compare and contrast different types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell (314-7).

B521A.1.3.1.a.

Describe the structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

B521A.1.3.1.b.

Observe features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using microscope technology.

B521A.1.3.2.

Describe the appearance of cell organelles visible with the light and electron microscopes (314-6).

B521A.1.3.2.a.

Examine and compare images of cell structure generated by both the light and electron microscopes.

B521A.1.3.2.b.

Describe the role of the following cellular structures: (i) cell membrane; (ii) cytoplasm; (iii) nucleus; (iv) nucleolus; (v) endoplasmic reticulum; (vi) ribosome; (vii) mitochondria; (viii) chloroplast; (ix) vacuole; (x) vesicle; (xi) Golgi apparatus; (xii) microtubules/filaments; (xiii) cilia; (xiv) lysosome; (xv) peroxisomes; (xvi) flagella; (xvii) cell wall.

B521A.1.3.2.c.

Compare plant and animal cells in terms of types of organelles present.

B521A.1.3.3.

Describe how organelles manage various cell processes such as ingestion, digestion, transportation, and excretion (314-8).

B521A.1.3.3.a.

Explain how materials are able to move into and out of cells through a selectively permeable membrane. Include passive transport (osmosis, diffusion, and facilitated diffusion) and active transport (exocytosis and endocytosis, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis).

B521A.1.3.3.b.

Define the terms hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic.

B521A.1.3.3.c.

Describe the effects of osmosis on cells with and without cell walls.

B521A.1.3.4.

Carry out procedures controlling major variables and adapting or extending procedures where required (213-2).

B521A.1.3.4.a.

Perform an experiment to illustrate why cells are limited in their size (the relationship between surface area and volume).

B521A.1.3.4.b.

Investigate the relationship between membrane surface area and cell size, and summarize findings.

B521A.1.3.5.

Work co-operatively with team members to develop and carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (215-6).

B521A.1.3.6.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

B521A.1.3.7.

Provide a statement that addresses the problem or answers the question investigated in light of the link between data and the conclusion (214-11).

B521A.1.4.

Photosynthesis and Respiration - Students will be expected to

B521A.1.4.1.

Compare and contrast matter and energy transformations associated with the processes of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration (314-9).

B521A.1.4.1.a.

Explain the importance of the processes of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration for individual organisms.

B521A.1.4.1.b.

Demonstrate, using equations and the carbon cycle, that photosynthesis and aerobic respiration are complementary processes.

B521A.1.4.1.c.

Explain the importance of the processes of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration on a global basis.

B521A.1.4.1.d.

Define ADP and ATP and briefly describe how they are involved in energy storage and energy transfer. (ADP + P + Energy <=> ATP).

B521A.2.1.

Classifying Living Things - Students will be expected to

B521A.2.1.1.

Explain how scientific knowledge evolves as new evidence comes to light and as laws and theories are tested and subsequently restricted, revised, or replaced (115-7).

B521A.2.1.1.a.

Explain how scientific classification systems have developed.

B521A.2.1.10.

Use library and electronic research tools to collect information on modern techniques used in the classification process (213-6).

B521A.2.1.11.

Identify new questions or problems that arise from what was learned (214-17).

B521A.2.1.11.a.

Recognize the difficulties inherent in the categorization of some organisms into distinct groups and identify the limitations of a five-kingdom system that led to the six-kingdom system.

B521A.2.1.12.

Describe how classification systems improved as a result of the development of modern techniques (116-2).

B521A.2.1.2.

Describe and apply classification systems and nomenclatures used in the biological sciences (214-1).

B521A.2.1.2.a.

List and describe the eight major categories of the classification system: (i) domain; (ii) kingdom; (iii) phylum; (iv) class; (v) order; (vi) family; (vii) genus; (viii)species.

B521A.2.1.2.b.

Explain the advantages of binomial nomenclature.

B521A.2.1.2.c.

Demonstrate how to use a taxonomic key to group and identify an organism.

B521A.2.1.3.

Compile and organize data to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

B521A.2.1.4.

Compile and display evidence and information in a variety of formats (214-3).

B521A.2.1.5.

Work co-operatively to develop and carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (215-6).

B521A.2.1.6.

Use organisms found in a local or regional ecosystem to demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of taxonomy (316-5).

B521A.2.1.7.

Identify limitations of a biological classification system and identify alternative ways of classifying to accommodate anomalies (214-2).

B521A.2.1.7.a.

Examine the common names of some species of organisms and show the inadequacies and language problems associated with this method of identification.

B521A.2.1.7.b.

Explain why a virus does not fit neatly into the existing classification system.

B521A.2.1.8.

Analyse and describe examples where scientific understanding was enhanced or revised as a result of the invention of a technology (116-2).

B521A.2.1.9.

Construct arguments to support a decision or judgement, using examples and evidence and recognizing various perspectives (118-6).

B521A.2.2.

Diversity among Living Things - Students will be expected to

B521A.2.2.1.

Describe the anatomy and physiology of viruses and organisms from each kingdom (316-6).

B521A.2.2.1.a.

Identify the general characteristics (cell type, cell wall, nutrition, body form, nervous system, reproduction, locomotion) that distinguish the members of the six recognized kingdoms (Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia) from each other.

B521A.2.2.1.b.

Identify examples of members of each of the kingdoms.

B521A.2.2.1.c.

Describe the differences that exist between Protista groups (Protozoa, Algae, Slime and Water Moulds).

B521A.2.2.1.d.

Describe the differences that exist between nonvascular and vascular plants.

B521A.2.2.1.e.

Explain why angiosperms are the most diverse plant group.

B521A.2.2.1.f.

Describe distinguishing characteristics of the invertebrate phyla.

B521A.2.2.1.g.

Explain why arthropods are the most successful phylum of animals.

B521A.2.2.1.h.

Describe distinguishing characteristics of the vertebrate classes.

B521A.2.2.2.

Analyse and explain the life cycle of a represenatative organism from each kingdom, including a representative virus (313-1).

B521A.2.2.2.b.

Bacteria/Archaea - E. coli

B521A.2.2.3.

Compile and organize data to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

B521A.2.2.4.

Compile and display evidence and information in a variety of formats (214-3).

B521A.2.2.5.

Work co-operatively to develop and carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (215-6).

B521A.2.2.6.

Use organisms found in a local or regional ecosystem to demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of taxonomy (316-5).

B521A.3.1.

Homeostasis - Students will be expected to

B521A.3.1.1.

Explain the concept of homeostasis and its critical nature to living things (317-1).

B521A.3.1.1.a.

Define homeostasis including the concept of dynamic equilibrium.

B521A.3.1.2.

Explain the importance of temperature regulation in maintaining homeostasis (317-3).

B521A.3.1.2.a.

Define homeotherm and poikilotherm.

B521A.3.1.2.b.

Describe how homeotherms maintain a dynamic equilibrium.

B521A.3.1.2.c.

Discuss mechanisms of temperature control, behavioural and physiological.

B521A.3.2.

Circulatory System - Students will be expected to

B521A.3.2.1.

Explain how the human circulatory system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B521A.3.2.1.a.

Explain the need for a transport system.

B521A.3.2.1.b.

Explain how the circulatory system contributes to the maintenance of dynamic equilibrium through its role in the transport of heat energy and matter.

B521A.3.2.1.c.

Describe the structure of an artery, vein, and capillary, and relate these structures to their functions in blood circulation.

B521A.3.2.1.d.

Identify the main components of blood and explain the role of each: (i) erythrocytes; (ii) leukocytes; (iii) platelets; (iv) plasma.

B521A.3.2.1.e.

Identify the main components of the human heart and explain the role of each: (i) atria; (ii) ventricles; (iii) valves (bicuspid, tricuspid, semilunar); (iv) aorta; (v) pulmonary vein; (vi) pulmonary artery; (vii) septum.

B521A.3.2.1.f.

Trace the flow of blood through the heart and describe the pulmonary and systemic pathways.

B521A.3.2.1.g.

Explain how the SA node and AV node control the heartbeat.

B521A.3.2.1.h.

Explain lymphatic circulation and it purpose.

B521A.3.2.2.

Carry out an experiment to relate blood pressure and physical activity and identify the specific variables involved (212-6).

B521A.3.2.3.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5, 214-3).

B521A.3.2.4.

Work co-operatively with team members to develop and carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (215-6).

B521A.3.2.5.

Identify the impact of circulatory diseases on the homeostasis of an organism (317-4).

B521A.3.2.5.a.

Describe disorders linked to the circulatory system and their effect on the homeostasis of the system and the organism as a whole: (i) hypertension; (ii) atherosclerosis; (iii) arteriosclerosis.

B521A.3.2.6.

Analyse why and how technology related to the treatment of circulatory disorders was developed and improved over time (115-5).

B521A.3.2.6.a.

Describe the progress from bypass surgery to modern techniques: (i) shunts; (ii) angioplasty; (iii) clot-busting drugs.

B521A.3.2.7.

Identify multiple perspectives that influence a science-related decision or issue (215-4).

B521A.3.3.

Respiratory System - Students will be expected to

B521A.3.3.1.

Explain how the human respiratory system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B521A.3.3.1.a.

Explain the need for a respiratory surface in humans.

B521A.3.3.1.b.

Identify and state the function of: (i) nasal cavity; (ii) epiglottis; (iii) trachea; (iv) bronchi; (v) bronchioles; (vi) alveoli; (vii) diaphragm.

B521A.3.3.2.

Carry out an experiment to collect data on respiratory function and identify the specific variables involved (212-6).

B521A.3.3.3.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments, to facilitate interpretation of a completed respiratory activity (213-5).

B521A.3.3.4.

Work co-operatively with team members to develop and carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (215-6).

B521A.3.3.5.

Identify how respiratory diseases affect the homeostasis of an organism (317-4).

B521A.3.3.6.

Predict the impact of environmental factors such as allergens on homeostasis within an organism (317-6).

B521A.3.3.6.a.

Identify the impact of environmental factors on the respiratory system of an asthmatic: (i) cigarette smoke; (ii) allergens (dust, mould, food); (iii) petrochemical fumes, perfumes.

B521A.3.4.

Digestive System - Students will be expected to

B521A.3.4.1.

Identify chemical elements and compounds that are commonly found in living systems (314-1).

B521A.3.4.1.a.

Identify the six basic nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water) and determine the sources of each of these nutrients.

B521A.3.4.10.

Identify multiple perspectives that influence a science-related decision or issue (215-4).

B521A.3.4.10.a.

Evaluate how nutritional deficiency (e.g., starvation diets, bulimia, anorexia nervosa) can adversely affect the dynamic equilibrium.

B521A.3.4.10.b.

Discuss whether the images portrayed through the media and advertising promote positive self image and a healthy lifestyle for men and women.

B521A.3.4.2.

Identify the role of some compounds involved in digestion (314-2).

B521A.3.4.2.a.

Identify the role of the six basic nutrients.

B521A.3.4.2.b.

Identify the role of fibre.

B521A.3.4.2.c.

Identify the general role of enzymes and secretions, and the role of these substances pertaining to the digestive system.

B521A.3.4.3.

Identify and describe the structure and function of the important biochemical compounds, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids (314-3).

B521A.3.4.3.a.

Explain the role of hydrolysis and dehydration reactions within the digestive process.

B521A.3.4.3.b.

Discuss the basic structural units of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

B521A.3.4.3.c.

Discuss the basic structure of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

B521A.3.4.3.d.

Identify the end products of digestion for carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

B521A.3.4.4.

Explain how the human digestive system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B521A.3.4.4.a.

Describe the purpose and functioning of the digestive system.

B521A.3.4.4.b.

Define mechanical and chemical digestion and explain the relationship between them.

B521A.3.4.4.c.

Identify the major organs and glands of digestion and describe their roles in the digestive process: (i) salivary glands; (ii) stomach; (iii) liver; (iv) pancreas; (v) gall bladder; (vi) small intestine; (vii) large intestine.

B521A.3.4.4.d.

Trace the pathway of food through the human digestive tract and explain the efficiency of its structure: (i) teeth; (ii) taste buds; (iii) tongue; (iv) mucous lining; (v) sphincters; (vi) villi.

B521A.3.4.5.

Carry out an experiment to investigate the effect of specified variables on the effectiveness of an enzyme (212-6).

B521A.3.4.6.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments, to facilitate interpretation of the data from a completed digestive activity (213-5).

B521A.3.4.7.

Describe disorders and the treatment of disorders linked to organs of the digestive system and their effect on the homeostasis of the system and the organism as a whole (317-4).

B521A.3.4.8.

Explain the importance of fitness and nutrition in maintaining homeostasis (317-3).

B521A.3.4.9.

Propose alternative solutions to a given practical problem, identify the potential strengths and weaknesses of each, and select one as the basis for a plan (214-15).

B521A.3.4.9.a.

Investigate the value of vitamins, minerals and herbal supplements in support of a healthy lifestyle.

B521A.3.5.

Excretory System - Students will be expected to

B521A.3.5.1.

Explain how the excretory system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B521A.3.5.1.a.

Explain how the following act as organs of excretion: (i) lungs; (ii) skin; (iii) liver; (iv) kidney.

B521A.3.5.1.b.

Explain the role of the kidney as an excretory organ in removing metabolic wastes from the body.

B521A.3.5.1.c.

Identify and describe the main structures of the human urinary system, including kidney, ureter, bladder, and urethra.

B521A.3.5.1.d.

Identify and describe the internal structure and function of the kidney, including the cortex, medulla, and pelvis.

B521A.3.5.1.e.

Identify and describe the function of the glomerulus.

B521A.3.5.1.f.

Identify and explain the function of the parts of a nephron: (i) Bowmans capsule; (ii) loop of Henle; (iii) tubules-proximal and distal; (iv) collecting duct.

B521A.3.5.2.

Describe disorders linked to the excretory system and their effect on the homeostasis of the system and the organism as a whole (317-4).

B521A.3.5.3.

Analyse and describe examples where technologies were developed over time, based on scientific understanding, to treat renal failure (116-4, 115-5).

B521A.3.5.3.a.

Briefly explain how the technology of dialysis works.

B521A.3.5.4.

Analyse natural and technological systems to interpret and explain their structure and dynamics (116-7).

B521A.3.5.4.a.

Compare the human kidney system with that of kidney dialysis technology.

B521A.3.5.4.b.

Briefly explain why dialysis is a temporary measure for treating kidney disease.

B521A.3.5.5.

Debate the merits of funding kidney transplant therapy versus improvements in dialysis technology (117-4).

B521A.3.5.6.

Identify multiple perspectives that influence a science-related decision or issue (215-4).

B521A.3.6.

Immune System - Students will be expected to

B521A.3.6.1.

Explain how the immune system helps to maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B521A.3.6.1.a.

Explain the lines immune response: (i) 1st line of defence (physical and chemical barriers); (ii) 2nd line of defence (inflammatory response); (iii) 3rd line of defence (immune response).

B521A.3.6.1.b.

Explain the role of white blood cells in the defence process including phagocytes and lymphocytes.

B521A.3.6.1.c.

Explain the mechanism of acquired immunity including passive (breast milk) and active (actual exposure, vaccines).

B521A.3.6.1.d.

Explain how autoimmune disorders cause diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

B521A.3.6.2.

Analyse why and how a particular technology was developed and improved over time (115-5).

B521A.3.6.3.

Analyse and describe examples where technologies were developed based on scientific understanding (116-4).

B521A.3.6.4.

Debate the merits of funding specific scientific or technological endeavors and not others (117-4).

B521A.3.6.5.

Predict the impact of environmental factors on homeostasis within an organism (317-6).

B521A.3.6.5.a.

Explain the meaning of antigen (allergen) and antibody, and their role in an allergic reaction.

B521A.4.1.

Population Change - Students will be expected to

B521A.4.1.1.

Describe population growth and explain factors that influence it (318-8).

B521A.4.1.1.a.

Describe how population growth is dependent upon the difference between natality and mortality rates and a balance between emigration and immigration.

B521A.4.1.1.b.

Distinguish between density independent and dependent factors.

B521A.4.1.1.c.

Explain how biotic potential, environmental resistance, and carrying capacity interact in population dynamics.

B521A.4.1.2.

Compare theoretical and empirical population values and account for discrepancies (214-7).

B521A.4.1.2.a.

Examine and label the sections of an S-shaped (logistic) and J-shaped (exponential) growth curve: (i) lag; (ii) exponential; (iii) equilibrium.

B521A.4.1.2.b.

Compare how J and S curves describe the general population growth patterns observed in animal populations.

B521A.4.1.2.c.

Explain the predator-prey cycle with respect to population growth curves.

B521A.4.1.3.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

B521A.4.1.4.

Gather and examine information on the limiting factors that work to influence population growth (213-6).

B521A.4.1.5.

Compile and display evidence and information in a variety of formats (214-3).

B521A.4.1.6.

Work co-operatively with team members to develop and carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (215-6).

B521A.4.1.7.

Describe population growth and explain factors that influence population growth (318-8).

B521A.4.1.7.a.

Analyse and describe the factors that regulate human population size.

B521A.4.2.

Global Resources - Students will be expected to

B521A.4.2.1.

Evaluate Earths carrying capacity, considering human population growth and its demands on natural resources (318-10).

B521A.4.2.1.a.

Determine the current growth rate of the human population, and the projected growth rate.

B521A.4.2.1.b.

Investigate the demands that will be placed upon Earths natural resources by future population growth.

B521A.4.2.1.c.

Explain how technological developments have raised, and continue to raise, the carrying capacity of Earth.

B521A.4.2.2.

Propose courses of action on the social issue of global population control, taking into account an array of perspectives, including that of sustainability (118-10).

B801A.1.1.

Identify the eight characteristics of living things (304-4).

B801A.1.2.

Explain the relationship among cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms (304-7).

B801A.1.3.

Describe examples of the interdependence of various systems of the human body (304-10).

B801A.10.1.

Explain how the human nervous system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B801A.10.1.a.

Describe the basic structure and function of neurons.

B801A.10.1.b.

Explain the role of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.

B801A.10.1.c.

Describe the transmission of an impulse along the length of a neuron and across a synapse.

B801A.10.1.d.

Identify the three main parts of the nervous system.

B801A.10.1.e.

Explain the basic structure and function of the central nervous system.

B801A.10.1.f.

Analyse reflex actions and their role in homeostasis.

B801A.10.2.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.10.2.a.

Describe disorders linked to the nervous system.

B801A.10.3.

Analyse why and how technologies related to the treatment of nervous system disorders were developed and improved over time (115-5).

B801A.10.4.

Describe how the use of prescription and nonprescription drugs can disrupt or help maintain homeostasis (317-7).

B801A.11.1.

Explain how human endocrine systems help maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B801A.11.1.a.

Understand the general concept of a hormone and target cell or organ.

B801A.11.1.b.

Identify the location and function of principal endocrine glands including pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, and testes.

B801A.11.1.c.

Describe the regulation of blood sugar by controlled release of insulin and glucagon, and explain the consequences of any malfunction.

B801A.11.3.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.11.3.a.

Describe disorders linked to the endocrine system.

B801A.12.1.

Analyse and describe the structure and function of female and male reproductive systems (313-3).

B801A.12.1.a.

Define sexual reproduction and identify the differences between egg and sperm.

B801A.12.1.b.

Identify the structures of the male reproductive systems and describe their functions.

B801A.12.1.c.

Identify testosterone as the principal reproductive hormone in males, and describe its roles.

B801A.12.1.d.

Identify the structures of the female reproductive system, and describe their functions.

B801A.12.1.e.

Identify estrogen and progesterone as the principal reproductive hormones of females, and describe their roles.

B801A.12.2.

Identify and describe science- and technology-based careers related to reproduction (117-7).

B801A.12.3.

Explain the human reproductive cycle (313-4).

B801A.12.3.a.

Explain the female menstrual cycle.

B801A.12.4.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.12.4.a.

Identify possible causes of infertility.

B801A.12.5.

Research and evaluate the potential health risks associated with exposure to sexually transmitted infections (213-7, 214-18).

B801A.12.6.

Evaluate the use of reproductive technologies for humans (313-6).

B801A.12.7.

Explain the human reproductive cycle (313-4).

B801A.12.7.a.

Explain how fraternal and identical offspring are produced.

B801A.13.1.

Explain the human reproductive cycle (313-4).

B801A.13.1.a.

Sequence the changes that take place in a fertilized egg until it attaches to the uterus.

B801A.13.1.b.

Explain how the needs of an embryo are met as it develops.

B801A.13.1.c.

Describe the stages of human development from the first month until birth.

B801A.13.2.

Research and evaluate conditions that could arise during pregnancy and delivery (213-7, 214-18).

B801A.14.1.

Describe and illustrate the role of chromosomes in the transmission of hereditary information from one cell to another (315-2).

B801A.14.1.a.

Define chromosomes, genes, and inherited traits.

B801A.14.1.b.

Compare the number of chromosomes in sex cells and body cells.

B801A.14.1.c.

Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes.

B801A.14.1.d.

Distinguish between dominant and recessive genes.

B801A.14.1.e.

Describe how different gene combinations result from fertilization and how traits are passed to offspring.

B801A.14.1.f.

Predict trait outcomes through the use of the Punnett Square.

B801A.14.2.

Explain circumstances that lead to genetic diseases (315-8).

B801A.14.2.a.

Explain why sex-linked defects are more common in males than females.

B801A.14.2.b.

Explain how cells can have an improper number of chromosomes and discuss consequences.

B801A.2.1.

Identify diseases/disorders that may result from insufficient essential nutrients (214-15).

B801A.2.2.

Explain the importance of nutrition to the maintenance of homeostasis (317-3).

B801A.2.2.a.

Identify the six nutrients in food and their roles in the human body.

B801A.2.2.b.

Read and interpret nutritional labels.

B801A.2.2.c.

Explain the relationship between energy input, energy output and body weight.

B801A.2.3.

Select and use apparatus and materials safely (213-8).

B801A.2.4.

Compile and organize data using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation (213-5).

B801A.2.4.a.

Perform an experiment to test for the presence of fats, starches, and sugars.

B801A.2.4.b.

Perform a calorimetry experiment.

B801A.3.1.

Explain how the human digestive system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B801A.3.1.a.

Explain the purpose of the digestive system and how it functions.

B801A.3.1.b.

Explain physical and chemical digestion.

B801A.3.1.c.

Identify the major glands involved in digestion, and their main secretions, and investigate their role in the digestive process.

B801A.3.2.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.3.2.a.

Evaluate disorders linked to the digestive system.

B801A.3.3.

Identify and describe science- and technology-based careers related to nutrition/digestion (117-7).

B801A.4.1.

Explain how the human circulatory system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B801A.4.1.a.

Explain the purpose of the transportation system in humans.

B801A.4.1.b.

Describe the structure of the human heart.

B801A.4.1.c.

Trace the flow of blood through the human heart and describe the pulmonary and systemic pathways.

B801A.4.1.d.

Describe the structure and function of blood vessels, and factors that influences the flow of blood.

B801A.4.2.

Describe how the use of prescription and nonprescription drugs and environmental factors can disrupt or help maintain homeostasis (317-6, 317-7).

B801A.4.3.

Design an experiment and identify specific variables (212-6).

B801A.4.4.

Compile and organize data using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation (213-5).

B801A.4.5.

Select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical, and linguistic modes of representation to communicate ideas, plans, and results (215-2).

B801A.4.6.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.4.6.a.

Evaluate disorders linked to the circulatory system.

B801A.4.7.

Propose alternative solutions to a given practical problem (disease/disorder) that may result from lifestyle choices, and select one as a basis for a plan (214-15).

B801A.4.8.

Analyse why and how a particular technology related to the treatment of circulatory disorders was developed and improved over time (115-5).

B801A.5.1.

Explain how blood in the human circulatory system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B801A.5.1.a.

Explain the role of the main components of blood.

B801A.5.2.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.5.2.a.

Evaluate disorders associated with blood.

B801A.5.3.

Analyse from a variety of perspectives the risks and benefits of blood storage, disposal, and transfusions (118-2).

B801A.5.4.

Identify and describe science- and technology-based careers related to blood and circulation (117-7).

B801A.5.5.

Explain how the human immune system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B801A.5.5.a.

Identify the first and second lines of defence.

B801A.5.5.b.

In general, explain how the immune system recognizes and destroys foreign agents.

B801A.5.6.

Predict the impact of environmental factors such as allergens on the homeostasis within an organism (317-6).

B801A.5.7.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.5.7.a.

Evaluate disorders linked to the immune system.

B801A.5.8.

Analyse from a variety of perspectives the benefits to society and the environment of applying scientific knowledge or introducing a particular technology (118-2).

B801A.6.1.

Explain how the human respiratory system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B801A.6.1.a.

Explain the need for a respiratory surface.

B801A.6.1.b.

Describe features that provide for efficient gas exchange in humans, including nasal hair, cilia, mucous membranes, large surface area of alveoli, cartilaginous rings in airway, and epiglottis.

B801A.6.1.c.

Investigate the mechanics of inhalation-exhalation and regulation of the breathing cycle.

B801A.6.2.

Design an experiment and identify specific variables (212-6).

B801A.6.3.

Select and use apparatus and materials safely (213-8).

B801A.6.4.

Compile and organize data using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation (213-5).

B801A.6.5.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.6.5.a.

Evaluate disorders linked to the respiratory system.

B801A.6.6.

Predict the impact of environmental factors such as allergens on homeostasis within an organism (317-6).

B801A.6.7.

Construct arguments to support a decision or judgment, using examples and evidence and recognizing various perspectives (118-6).

B801A.6.8.

Distinguish between questions that can be answered by science and those that cannot, and between problems that can be solved by technology and those that cannot (118-8).

B801A.6.9.

Identify and describe science and technology-based careers related to respiration (117-7).

B801A.7.1.

Explain how the human excretory system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B801A.7.1.a.

Describe the main structures of the human urinary system.

B801A.7.1.b.

Explain the role of the kidney as an excretory organ in removing metabolic waste.

B801A.7.1.c.

Explain the role of the skin as an excretory organ in removing metabolic waste.

B801A.7.2.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.7.2.a.

Evaluate disorders linked to the excretory system.

B801A.7.3.

Analyse why and how a particular technology related to the treatment of excretory disorders was developed and improved over time (115-5).

B801A.7.3.a.

Describe the role technology has in kidney treatment.

B801A.7.4.

Describe how the use of prescription and nonprescription drugs can disrupt or help maintain homeostasis (317-7).

B801A.7.4.a.

Describe the success of kidney transplants in relation to the development and use of present anti-rejection drugs.

B801A.7.5.

Identify multiple perspectives that influence a science-related decision or issue (215-4).

B801A.8.1.

Explain how the human skeletal system helps maintain homeostasis (371-1).

B801A.8.1.a.

Describe the functions of the skeletal system.

B801A.8.1.b.

Identify the major bones, using common and scientific names.

B801A.8.1.c.

Describe how bones grow.

B801A.8.1.d.

Identify and describe the types of bone tissue.

B801A.8.1.e.

Describe the types of joints.

B801A.8.2.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (317-4).

B801A.8.2.a.

Describe disorders linked to the skeletal system.

B801A.8.3.

Analyse why and how a particular technology related to the treatment of skeletal disorders was developed and improved over time (115-5).

B801A.9.1.

Explain how the human muscular system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B801A.9.1.a.

Compare the three types of muscles.

B801A.9.1.b.

Explain how the muscles move the body.

B801A.9.2.

Evaluate the impact of viral, bacterial, genetic, and environmental diseases on an organisms homeostasis (muscular system) (317-4).

B801A.9.2.a.

Describe the disorders and injuries linked to the muscular system.

B801A.9.5.

Identify and describe science- and technology-based careers related to movement (117-7).

C521A.1.1.

The Mole and Molar Mass - Students will be expected to

C521A.1.1.1.

Define atomic mass and perform atomic mass calculations (ACC-1).

C521A.1.1.1.a.

Define isotope and use isotopic notation.

C521A.1.1.1.b.

Explain the relative nature of atomic mass.

C521A.1.1.1.c.

Calculate average atomic mass.

C521A.1.1.10.

Select and use apparatus and materials safely (213-8).

C521A.1.1.11.

Identify and explain sources of error and uncertainty in measurement and express results in a form that acknowledges the degree of uncertainty (214-10).

C521A.1.1.12.

Explain how data support or refute the hypothesis or prediction (214-12).

C521A.1.1.13.

Identify and correct practical problems in the way a technological device or system functions (214-13).

C521A.1.1.2.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (213-3).

C521A.1.1.3.

Explain how a major scientific milestone, the mole, changed chemistry (115-3).

C521A.1.1.3.a.

Identify the unit for counting atoms, ions, or molecules as the mole.

C521A.1.1.3.b.

Define the mole as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12.

C521A.1.1.4.

Define molar mass and perform mole-mass inter-conversions for pure substances (323-1a).

C521A.1.1.4.a.

Define and calculate the molar mass of an element and compound.

C521A.1.1.4.b.

Solve a variety of problems by performing calculations relating the number of moles to the mass, volume (at STP), and representative particles of various substances. define STP and the molar volume of an ideal gas at STP.

C521A.1.1.5.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (213-3 ).

C521A.1.1.6.

Select and use apparatus and materials safely (213-8).

C521A.1.1.7.

Define molar mass and perform mole-mass interconversions for pure substances (323-1b).

C521A.1.1.7.b.

Calculate empirical formula from percent composition data.

C521A.1.1.7.c.

Calculate molecular formula from percent composition data and molar mass.

C521A.1.1.7.d.

Perform lab experiments to determine the empirical formula of a hydrate or an oxide.

C521A.1.1.8.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (213-3).

C521A.1.1.9.

Estimate quantities (213-4).

C521A.1.2.

Calculations and Chemical Equations - Students will be expected to

C521A.1.2.1.

Identify mole ratios of reactants and products from balanced chemical equations (323-10a).

C521A.1.2.1.a.

Identify the mole ratios of reactants and products in a chemical reaction as the coefficients in a balanced equation.

C521A.1.2.1.b.

State the Law of Conservation of Mass.

C521A.1.2.1.c.

Demonstrate an understanding that only mass and atoms are always conserved in a balanced chemical equation.

C521A.1.2.1.d.

Perform calculations involving mole-to-mole stoichiometric problems.

C521A.1.2.2.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (213-3).

C521A.1.2.3.

Select and use apparatus and materials safely (213-8).

C521A.1.2.5.

Identify practical problems that involve technology where equations were used (214-13).

C521A.1.2.6.

Perform stoichiometric calculations related to chemical equations (323-11a).

C521A.1.2.6.a.

Perform mole to mass, mass to mole, and mass to mass stoichiometric calculations.

C521A.1.2.6.c.

Perform calculations involving limiting reactant in chemical reactions.

C521A.1.3.

Stoichiometric Experimentation - Students will be expected to

C521A.1.3.2.

Predict how the yield of a particular chemical process can be maximized (323-13).

C521A.1.3.3.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (213-3).

C521A.1.3.4.

Select and use apparatus and materials safely (213-8).

C521A.1.3.5.

Identify and explain sources of error and uncertainty in measurement using precision and accuracy (214-10).

C521A.1.4.

Applications of Stoichiometry - Students will be expected to

C521A.1.4.1.

Identify various stoichiometric applications (323-12).

C521A.1.4.3.

Compare processes used in science with those used in technology (114-7).

C521A.1.4.4.

Analyse society's influence on science and technology (117-2).

C521A.1.4.5.

Identify various constraints that result in trade-offs during the development and improvement of technologies (114-4).

C521A.2.1.

Chemistry & Consumer Products - Students will be expected to

C521A.2.1.1.

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources or from several parts of the same source (213-7).

C521A.2.1.1.a.

Research ingredients and additives in consumer products.

C521A.2.1.2.

Identify consumer products and investigate the claims made by companies about the products (212-5).

C521A.2.1.3.

Use library and electronic research tools to collect bonding information (213-6).

C521A.2.1.4.

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources (213-7).

C521A.2.1.5.

Compile and display evidence and information, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, and graphs (214-3).

C521A.2.2.

Properties of Ionic and Molecular Compounds and Metallic Substances - Students will be expected to

C521A.2.2.1.

Identify and describe the properties of ionic and molecular compounds and metallic substances (321-7).

C521A.2.2.1.a.

Observe physical properties of representative samples of ionic, molecular, and metallic substances.

C521A.2.2.1.b.

Tabulate the physical properties of representative samples of ionic, molecular, and metallic substances.

C521A.2.2.2.

Classify ionic, molecular, and metallic substances according to their properties (321-9).

C521A.2.2.2.a.

Classify substances as ionic, molecular, or metallic, based on observed physical properties.

C521A.2.3.

Bonding - Students will be expected to

C521A.2.3.1.

Illustrate and explain the formation of ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds (321-4a).

C521A.2.3.1.a.

Define valence electrons, electronegativity, ionic, metallic bond, nonpolar covalent and polar covalent bond, coordinate covalent bond.

C521A.2.3.1.b.

Identify the possible bond type, ionic or covalent, from a chemical formula.

C521A.2.3.1.c.

Demonstrate ionic, covalent, and metallic bonding using the position of the considered elements in the periodic table.

C521A.2.3.1.d.

Predict the ionic charge for ions in the main group elements from their group number and using the octet rule.

C521A.2.3.1.e.

Describe the bonding continuum from complete electron transfer, which is ionic, to unequal sharing of electrons, which is polar covalent, to equal sharing of electrons, nonpolar covalent identify the possible bond type, ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent using a table of electronegativities.

C521A.2.3.1.f.

Explain the octet rule in relation to ionic and covalent bond formation.

C521A.2.3.1.g.

Explain the importance of electron transfer in ionic bond formation.

C521A.2.3.1.h.

Define and identify single, double, and triple covalent bonds.

C521A.2.3.1.i.

Define a metallic bond, and use it to explain bonding within metals.

C521A.2.3.1.j.

Use electron dot diagrams to illustrate the formation of ions, ionic bonds, and covalent bonds.

C521A.2.3.1.k.

Define, explain, and write Lewis structures for monatomic ions, polyatomic ions, ionic compounds and molecular compounds.

C521A.2.3.1.l.

Define, explain, and illustrate the coordinate covalent bond within a Lewis structure.

C521A.2.3.1.m.

Define formula unit and explain the arrangement of ions in a crystal lattice.

C521A.2.3.2.

Identify limitations of categorizing bond types based on differences in electronegativity between the elements and compounds (214-2).

C521A.2.3.3.

Explain, in simple terms, the energy changes of bond breaking and bond formation, and relate this to energy changes for exothermic and endothermic reactions (114-2).

C521A.2.4.

Structural Models of Bonding - Students will be expected to

C521A.2.4.1.

Explain the structural model of a substance in terms of the various bonds that define it (321-11).

C521A.2.4.1.a.

Explain the three-dimensional geometry of molecules using VSEPR theory.

C521A.2.4.1.b.

Build models depicting the shape of simple covalent molecules.

C521A.2.4.1.c.

Determine molecular polarity based on nonbonding electrons on the central atom, three-dimensional geometry, and bond polarity.

C521A.2.4.2.

Analyse, from a variety of perspectives, the risks and benefits to society and the environment of applying bonding knowledge or introducing a particular technology (118-2).

C521A.2.4.3.

Explain how bonding evolved as new evidence and theories are tested and subsequently revised or replaced (115-7).

C521A.2.4.5.

Analyse and describe examples where technologies were developed based on bonding (116-4).

C521A.2.5.

Intermolecular Forces - Students will be expected to

C521A.2.5.1.

Illustrate and explain hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces (321-5).

C521A.2.5.1.a.

Identify types of intermolecular forces between molecules in a substance.

C521A.2.5.1.b.

Compare the strength of dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding.

C521A.2.6.

Properties of Ionic and Molecular Compounds and Metallic Substances - Students will be expected to

C521A.2.6.1.

Describe how the different types of bonds account for the properties of ionic and molecular compounds and metallic substances (321-8).

C521A.2.6.1.a.

Explain the general properties of ionic and covalent compounds such as brittleness, melting and boiling points, and the ability to conduct electricity.

C521A.2.6.1.b.

Explain why metals are malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity and why they have a wide range of melting and boiling points.

C521A.2.7.

Solution Properties and Solubility - Students will be expected to

C521A.2.7.1.

Compile and organize solution data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of solubility (213-5).

C521A.2.7.1.a.

Explain and give examples of solutes, solvents, and solutions.

C521A.2.7.1.b.

Explain and give examples of these terms: diluted, concentrated, saturated, unsaturated, supersaturated, electrolytes and non-electrolytes.

C521A.2.7.1.c.

Explain and give examples of intermolecular forces of attraction involving solute and solvent particles.

C521A.2.7.2.

Explain solubility, using the concept of equilibrium (323-4).

C521A.2.7.3.

Explain the variations in the solubility of various pure substances, given the same solvent (323-7).

C521A.2.7.3.b.

Explain how ionic and molecular compounds form solutions by relating it to intermolecular forces and forces of attraction.

C521A.2.7.3.c.

Describe the solubility of ionic and molecular compounds in polar and nonpolar solvents.

C521A.2.7.3.d.

Develop an understanding that solutions are mixtures formed by physically mixing at the particle level and do not involve a chemical change.

C521A.2.7.4.

Identify and explain sources of error and uncertainty (214-10).

C521A.2.7.4.a.

Perform a lab involving solubility curves.

C521A.2.7.4.b.

Plot the solubility and average temperature data.

C521A.2.7.4.c.

Calculate solubility and perform calculations involving solubility.

C521A.2.7.5.

Use the solubility generalizations to predict the formation of precipitates (323-8).

C521A.2.7.5.a.

Conduct a precipitate lab and include recording, observing and collecting data, writing ionic and net ionic equations, and analysing results.

C521A.3.1.

So Many Compounds - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.1.1.

Explain the large number and diversity of organic compounds with reference to the unique nature of the carbon atom (319-4a).

C521A.3.1.1.a.

Compare organic and inorganic compounds in terms of the presence of carbon, variety of compounds formed, and relative molecular size and mass.

C521A.3.1.1.b.

Develop an understanding of the historical significance of the name organic chemistry.

C521A.3.1.1.c.

List natural sources of organic compounds.

C521A.3.1.2.

Explain the large number and diversity of organic compounds with reference to the unique nature of the carbon atom (319-4b).

C521A.3.1.2.a.

Understand carbon's bonding capacity and carbon's ability to form multiple bonds and to bond in a variety of stable structures.

C521A.3.1.2.b.

Identify the geometry of carbon compounds, the strong bonds between carbon atoms, and the low reactivity of carbon compounds.

C521A.3.1.2.c.

Use model kits to investigate the symmetry of simple organic compounds.

C521A.3.1.2.d.

Represent hydrocarbons using: molecular formula, expanded molecular formula, complete structural diagram, condensed structural diagram, line structure diagram.

C521A.3.10.

Risks and Benefits of Organic Compounds: STSE Perspectives - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.10.1.

Communicate questions, ideas, and intentions, and receive, interpret, understand, support, and respond to the ideas of others (215-1).

C521A.3.10.2.

Describe and evaluate the design of technological solutions and the way they function using scientific principles (116-6).

C521A.3.10.3.

Analyse from a variety of perspectives the risks and benefits to society and the environment of applying organic chemistry knowledge or introducing a particular technology (118-2).

C521A.3.10.4.

Develop, present, and defend a position or course of action on organic chemistry based on findings (215-5).

C521A.3.10.5.

Select, integrate, and synthesize information from multiple sources including various print and electronic sources, and make inferences on this information (213-7, 215-3).

C521A.3.10.6.

Debate the merits of funding specific scientific or technological endeavours and not others (117-4).

C521A.3.2.

Influences of Organic Compounds on Society - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.2.1.

Analyse natural and technological systems to interpret and explain the influence of organic compounds on society (116-7).

C521A.3.2.2.

Explain how synthesizing organic molecules revolutionized thinking in the scientific community (115-3).

C521A.3.2.3.

Explain how organic chemistry evolves as new evidence comes to light (115-6).

C521A.3.2.4.

Distinguish between scientific questions and technological problems (115-1).

C521A.3.3.

Classifying Organic Compounds - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.3.1.

Classify various organic compounds by determining to which families they belong, based on their names or structures (319-7).

C521A.3.3.1.a.

Classify aliphatic hydrocarbons as belonging to the family of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and cyclics based on their names and structural formulas.

C521A.3.3.1.b.

Classify aromatic hydrocarbons as compounds that have a benzene ring as part of their structure.

C521A.3.3.1.c.

Define "functional group".

C521A.3.3.1.d.

Classify hydrocarbon derivatives as belonging to the family of alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters from their names and the functional groups in their structural formulas.

C521A.3.3.1.e.

Draw bonds and use molecular models to represent aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon derivatives.

C521A.3.4.

Naming and Writing Organic Compounds - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.4.1.

Write the formula and provide the IUPAC name for a variety of organic compounds (319-5a).

C521A.3.4.1.a.

Name all the prefixes for one to ten carbons in a compound or alkyl group.

C521A.3.4.1.c.

Use the IUPAC naming system, write molecular formulas, and draw structural, condensed structural and line structural formulas for aliphatic hydrocarbons (straight chain , branched chain, and cyclic).

C521A.3.4.1.d.

Define and give examples of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

C521A.3.4.1.e.

Write the general formulas for aliphatic hydrocarbons (CnH2n+2, CnH2n, CnH2n-2, etc...) for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, and cycloalkenes.

C521A.3.4.1.f.

Use the IUPAC naming system, write molecular formulas, and draw structural formulas, condensed structural formulas and line structural formulas for simple monosubstituted and disubstituted benzene compounds.

C521A.3.4.2.

Write the formula and provide the IUPAC name for a variety of organic compounds (319-5b).

C521A.3.4.2.a.

Use the IUPAC naming system, write molecular formulas, and draw structural formulas, condensed structural formulas, and line structural formulas for hydrocarbon derivatives belonging to the family of alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters limited to only one functional group and a parent chain no longer than 10 carbons.

C521A.3.4.3.

Identify limitations of the IUPAC classification system and identify alternative ways of classifying to accommodate anomalies (214-2).

C521A.3.5.

Applications of Organic Chemistry - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.5.1.

Provide a statement that describes the relationship between bonding and organic chemistry investigated in light of the link between data and the conclusion (214-11).

C521A.3.5.1.a.

Explain the trend in boiling point in relation to the number of carbon in, and branching of, the hydrocarbon chain.

C521A.3.5.2.

Provide organic examples of how science and technology are an integral part of their lives and their community (117-5).

C521A.3.5.2.a.

Describe fractional distillation in relation to refining of petroleum.

C521A.3.5.2.b.

Describe, in general, the processes of cracking and reforming.

C521A.3.5.3.

Identify various constraints that result in trade-offs during the development and improvement of technologies (114-4).

C521A.3.5.4.

Evaluate the design of a technology and the way it functions, on the basis of a variety of criteria that they have identified themselves (118-4).

C521A.3.5.5.

Identify and apply criteria, including the presence of bias, for evaluating evidence and sources of information on an organic topic (214-9).

C521A.3.6.

Isomers in Organic Chemistry - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.6.1.

Define isomers and illustrate the structural formulas for a variety of organic isomers (319-6).

C521A.3.6.1.a.

Define isomer, structural isomer, and geometric isomer.

C521A.3.6.1.b.

Explore isomers by drawing structural formulas, using models to build isomers, and naming the isomers of a variety of organic molecules.

C521A.3.6.1.c.

Draw structural isomers of hydrocarbons with the general formulas CnH2n+2, CnH2n, and CnH2n-2.

C521A.3.6.1.d.

Draw geometric isomers (cis and trans) for alkenes.

C521A.3.7.

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.7.1.

Write and balance chemical equations to predict the reactions of selected organic compounds (319-8).

C521A.3.7.1.a.

Draw structural diagrams of all organic reactants and products involved in: i) addition (alkenes & alkynes); ii) substitution (alkanes benzene); iii) esterification; iv) complete combustion; v) incomplete combustion; vi) cracking/reforming reactions.

C521A.3.7.1.b.

Predict the relative reactivity of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.

C521A.3.8.

Polymerization - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.8.1.

Describe processes of polymerization and identify some important natural and synthetic polymers (319-9).

C521A.3.8.1.a.

Define and outline the structures of monomers, polymers, and polymerization identify addition and condensation polymerization reactions.

C521A.3.8.2.

Define problems to facilitate investigation of polymers (212-2).

C521A.3.9.

Organic Experimentation - Students will be expected to

C521A.3.9.1.

Design an experiment identifying and controlling major variables (212-3).

C521A.3.9.2.

Select and use apparatus and material safely (213-8).

GEO521A.1.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the study of geography.

GEO521A.1.2.

Demonstrate an understanding of the essential elements of geography.

GEO521A.1.4.

Compare common map projections to determine their most appropriate applications.

GEO521A.1.5.

Use maps, atlases, and globes to collect and interpret data about world geography.

GEO521A.1.6.

Explain the operation and applications of various locational technologies or systems.

GEO521A.1.7.

Apply standard geographic inquiry methods.

GEO521A.2.1.

Explain internal and external physical forces that impact Earth.

GEO521A.2.2.

Identify and locate major land masses and bodies of water.

GEO521A.2.3.

Explain how the relationship between Earth and Sun is critical to the study of geography.

GEO521A.2.4.

Explain the significance of water as a renewable resource.

GEO521A.2.5.

Relate major climate vegetation regions of the world.

GEO521A.2.6.

Describe factors that influence climate regions.

GEO521A.2.7.

Analyse the change over time in the value, distribution, and management of Earths natural resources.

GEO521A.3.1.

Define culture, cultural region, and cultural diffusion.

GEO521A.3.2.

Identify major cultural regions of the world and significant countries or States and population centres within each region.

GEO521A.3.3.

Analyse factors that influence human movement and settlement patterns.

GEO521A.3.4.

Analyse factors that influence development within regions.

GEO521A.3.5.

Distinguish between developed and developing nations.

GEO521A.3.6.

Analyse current opportunities and challenges for a selected region.

GEO521A.3.7.

Articulate an understanding of perspective in relation to people living in cultural regions that are different from their own.

GEO521A.3.8.

Engage in an active citizenship project.

GEO531A.1.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the study of geography.

GEO531A.1.2.

Demonstrate an understanding of the themes of geography.

GEO531A.1.4.

Use maps, atlases, and globes to collect and interpret data about world geography.

GEO531A.1.5.

Explain the operation and applications of various locational tools.

GEO531A.1.6.

Apply standard geographic inquiry methods to find answers to real-life queries.

GEO531A.2.1.

Explain internal and external physical forces that impact Earth.

GEO531A.2.2.

Identify and locate major land masses and bodies of water.

GEO531A.2.3.

Explain the impact of the Earth and Sun pattern on world geography.

GEO531A.2.4.

Explain the significance of water as a renewable resource.

GEO531A.2.5.

Explain how climate and vegetation are related in major regions of the world.

GEO531A.2.6.

Describe factors that influence climate regions.

GEO531A.2.7.

Trace the change over time of a natural resource including its value, distribution, and management.

GEO531A.3.1.

Define culture, cultural regions, and cultural diffusion.

GEO531A.3.2.

Locate major cultural regions of the world and identify significant countries, states, or population centres within each region.

GEO531A.3.3.

Describe factors that influence human movement, settlement patterns, and development of a selected area.

GEO531A.3.4.

Explain the difference between developed and developing nations.

GEO531A.3.5.

Conduct a geographic inquiry into a selected region to learn more about its current challenges and opportunities.

LAW521A.1.1.

Section 1: The Fundamentals of Law

LAW521A.1.1.1.

Explain the need for and purpose of law.

LAW521A.1.1.2.

Describe the historical roots and influences on Canadian law.

LAW521A.1.1.3.

Identify and describe the sources that create the basis of Canadian law.

LAW521A.1.1.4.

Differentiate among primary categories of Canadian law.

LAW521A.1.1.5.

Analyse factors that influence change in law.

LAW521A.1.2.

Section 2: The Process of Lawmaking

LAW521A.1.2.1.

Explain the division of powers among federal, provincial, and municipal governments.

LAW521A.1.2.2.

Demonstrate an understanding of issues related to Aboriginal self-government within Canada.

LAW521A.1.2.3.

Explain the lawmaking process at various levels of government in Canada.

LAW521A.1.2.4.

Describe the structure and powers of the federal and provincial courts.

LAW521A.1.3.

Section 3: The Rights and Freedoms of Canadians

LAW521A.1.3.1.

Assess the impact of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms on Canadians.

LAW521A.1.3.2.

Analyse the impact of past and present legislation concerning Aboriginal peoples.

LAW521A.1.3.3.

Explain the role of the Supreme Court in decisions related to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

LAW521A.1.3.4.

Compare the Canadian Human Rights Act and the PEI Human Rights Act.

LAW521A.2.1.

Section 1: Understanding Criminal Law

LAW521A.2.1.1.

Explain societys need to criminalize certain behaviours.

LAW521A.2.1.2.

Define crime, criminal law, and the Criminal Code of Canada.

LAW521A.2.1.3.

Explain the elements of a criminal offence and of selected specific offences.

LAW521A.2.1.4.

Identify parties to an offence.

LAW521A.2.1.5.

Distinguish among indictable, summary, and hybrid conviction offences.

LAW521A.2.1.6.

Analyse cases according to the Criminal Code of Canada.

LAW521A.2.2.

Section 2: Bringing the Accused to Trial

LAW521A.2.2.1.

Describe the legal aspects of police investigation.

LAW521A.2.2.2.

Compare the rights of citizens and the responsibilities of police upon arrest or detention.

LAW521A.2.2.3.

Identify release and pre-trial procedures.

LAW521A.2.3.

Section 3: Trial Procedure

LAW521A.2.3.1.

Explain the role(s) of the court and its various officers.

LAW521A.2.3.2.

Describe trial procedures.

LAW521A.2.3.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of the types of evidence and rules of evidence in a criminal trial.

LAW521A.2.3.4.

Analyse elements of the jury system, including jury selection and duties.

LAW521A.2.3.5.

Describe standard defences to criminal charges.

LAW521A.2.4.1.

Explain the objectives of sentencing.

LAW521A.2.4.2.

Demonstrate an understanding of types of sentencing as well as alternative justice measures.

LAW521A.2.4.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of release procedures.

LAW521A.2.4.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of Canadas correctional system.

LAW521A.2.5.

Section 5: Youth and Law

LAW521A.2.5.1.

Explain changing attitudes over time toward the treatment of young offenders.

LAW521A.2.5.2.

Compare the provisions of the Juvenile Delinquents Act, the Young Offenders Act, and the Youth Criminal Justice Act, and current or proposed legislation.

LAW521A.2.5.3.

Identify special rights and protections currently provided to young offenders upon arrest and detention, during trial, and with respect to dispositions and alternative measures.

LAW521A.2.5.4.

Assess the validity of treating young offenders differently from adults.

LAW521A.3.1.

Section 1: Understanding Civil Law

LAW521A.3.1.1.

Distinguish between civil and criminal matters and different types of civil law.

LAW521A.3.1.2.

Contrast civil court procedures with criminal court procedures.

LAW521A.3.2.

Section 2: Understanding Torts

LAW521A.3.2.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of torts and purposes of tort law.

LAW521A.3.2.2.

Distinguish between intentional and unintentional torts.

LAW521A.3.2.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of the three categories of torts -- negligence, intentional, and strict liability.

LAW521A.3.2.4.

Explain various types of special liability.

LAW521A.3.3.

Section 3: Remedies and Defences

LAW521A.3.3.1.

Describe remedies available for victims of civil wrong-doings.

LAW521A.3.3.2.

Identify specific defences to various torts.

LAW521A.3.3.3.

Apply their understanding of tort law to specific cases.

LAW521A.4.1.1.

Explain the difference between common-law relationships and marriage, and the legal implications of both.

LAW521A.4.1.2.

Examine the legal processes involved in separation and divorce.

LAW521A.4.1.3.

Examine the issues related to child/spousal support and child custody.

LAW521A.4.2.1.

Identify the essential elements and types of contracts.

LAW521A.4.2.2.

Analyse issues regarding validity of contracts.

LAW521A.4.2.3.

Outline the processes and remedies available for breach of contract.

LAW521A.4.3.1.

Analyse legal issues surrounding the Indian Act (1876) and the Constitution Act (1982) for Aboriginal peoples.

LAW521A.4.3.2.

Identify unique circumstances that may exist within civil or criminal law cases involving Aboriginals.

LAW521A.4.3.3.

Describe the cultural and legal distinctions among Canadas Aboriginal peoples.

LAW521A.4.3.4.

Evaluate the legal impact of Aboriginal rights and treaty rights.

LAW521A.4.4.1.

Examine international institutions (e.g., NATO, UN).

LAW521A.4.4.2.

Explain how International Law is made and applied.

LAW521A.4.4.3.

Examine the role of international courts (e.g., Nuremberg Trials, International Court of Justice).

LAW521A.4.4.4.

Examine international co-operation in relation to global justice issues terrorism, extradition, POWs, U.S. and Canadian no-fly lists.

LAW521A.4.5.1.

Chart the immigration process as defined by immigration law, including the appeal process.

LAW521A.4.5.2.

Examine the important role of immigration in the development of Canada, in the past and for the future.

LAW521A.4.6.1.

Explain the purposes and types of environmental protection laws in Canada and the areas of jurisdiction for federal, provincial, and municipal governments.

LAW521A.4.6.2.

Evaluate the effectiveness of environmental laws in protecting natural resources, including national parks, endangered species, forests, fish, and water, and in preventing various types of pollution.

LAW521A.4.7.1.

Examine common law and the statutes that govern employment, including wages, hours, and working conditions.

LAW521A.4.7.2.

Analyse issues relating to employment, such as discrimination, hiring practices, equity, harassment, and unions.

LAW521A.4.8.1.

Research the purposes and types of consumer protection laws in Canada, including areas of jurisdiction for federal, provincial, and municipal governments.

LAW521A.4.8.2.

Evaluate the effectiveness of consumer protection laws in Canada, including the Food and Drugs Act, the Hazardous Products Act, and laws related to packaging and labelling.

LAW521A.4.9.1.

Examine the role of law as it pertains to Internet activity, including copyright, commerce, and freedom of speech.

LAW521A.4.9.2.

Analyse the limitations of Canadian law as it relates to Internet activity.

LAW531A.1.1.

Section 1: Fundamentals of Law

LAW531A.1.1.1.

Explain the need for and purpose of law.

LAW531A.1.1.2.

Describe some of the factors that influence change in law.

LAW531A.1.1.3.

Explain the division of powers among federal, provincial, municipal, and Aboriginal governments.

LAW531A.1.1.4.

Identify similarities in Canadas lawmaking process among the various levels of government.

LAW531A.1.2.

Section 2: Rights and Freedoms of Canadians

LAW531A.1.2.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the rights and freedoms as stated in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

LAW531A.1.2.2.

Explain the significance of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

LAW531A.1.2.3.

Compare human rights to charter rights.

LAW531A.2.1.

Section 1: Understanding Criminal Law

LAW531A.2.1.1.

Explain societys need to criminalize certain behaviours.

LAW531A.2.1.2.

Define crime, criminal law, and the Criminal Code of Canada.

LAW531A.2.1.3.

Explain the elements of a criminal offence and apply to specific offences.

LAW531A.2.1.4.

Identify parties to an offence.

LAW531A.2.1.5.

Distinguish among indictable, summary, and hybrid conviction offences.

LAW531A.2.2.

Section 2: Bringing the Accused to Trial

LAW531A.2.2.1.

Describe the legal aspects of police investigation.

LAW531A.2.2.2.

Compare the rights of citizens and the responsibilities of police upon arrest or detention.

LAW531A.2.2.3.

Identify release and pre-trial procedures.

LAW531A.2.3.

Section 3: Trial Procedure

LAW531A.2.3.1.

Describe the role(s) of the court and its various officers.

LAW531A.2.3.2.

Explain the importance of impartiality on the part of judges.

LAW531A.2.3.3.

Describe trial procedures.

LAW531A.2.3.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of types of evidence.

LAW531A.2.3.5.

Describe the selection process and role of a jury.

LAW531A.2.3.6.

Describe standard defences to criminal charges.

LAW531A.2.4.1.

Explain the objectives of sentencing.

LAW531A.2.4.2.

Demonstrate an understanding of types of sentencing as well as alternative justice measures.

LAW531A.2.4.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of release procedures.

LAW531A.2.4.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of Canadas correctional system.

LAW531A.2.5.

Section 5: Youth and Law

LAW531A.2.5.1.

Explain changing attitudes over time toward the treatment of young offenders.

LAW531A.2.5.2.

Identify special rights and protections currently provided to young offenders upon arrest and detention, during trial, and with respect to dispositions and alternative measures.

LAW531A.2.5.3.

Explain the rationale for treating young offenders differently from adults.

LAW531A.3.1.

Section 1: Understanding Civil Law

LAW531A.3.1.1.

Distinguish between civil and criminal matters and different types of civil law.

LAW531A.3.2.

Section 2: Understanding Torts

LAW531A.3.2.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of torts and purposes of tort law.

LAW531A.3.2.2.

Distinguish between intentional and unintentional torts.

LAW531A.3.2.3.

Explain the fundamental legal elements of cases involving negligence.

LAW531A.3.2.4.

Describe remedies available through civil courts.

LAW531A.3.2.5.

Identify defences to various torts.

LAW531A.3.3.1.

Explain the difference between common-law relationships and marriage, including the legal implications of both.

LAW531A.3.3.2.

Summarize the legal processes involved in separation and divorce.

LAW531A.3.3.3.

Identify common issues related to child/spousal support and child custody.

LAW531A.3.3.4.

Describe childrens rights within the family, including child protection and adoption.

MAT521A.G1.A.

Generalize, using inductive reasoning, the relationship between pairs of angles formed by transversals and parallel lines, with or without technology.

MAT521A.G1.B.

Prove, using deductive reasoning, properties of angles formed by transversals and parallel lines, including the sum of the angles in a triangle.

MAT521A.G1.C.

Generalize, using inductive reasoning, a rule for the relationship between the sum of the interior angles and the number of sides, n, in a polygon, with or without technology.

MAT521A.G1.D.

Identify and correct errors in a given proof of a property involving angles.

MAT521A.G1.E.

Verify, with examples, that if lines are not parallel, the angle properties do not apply.

MAT521A.G2.A.

Determine the measures of angles in a diagram that involves parallel lines, angles and triangles, and justify the reasoning.

MAT521A.G2.B.

Identify and correct errors in a given solution to a given problem that involves the measures of angles.

MAT521A.G2.C.

Solve a contextual problem that involves angles or triangles.

MAT521A.G2.E.

Determine if lines are parallel, given the measure of an angle at each intersection formed by the lines and a transversal.

MAT521A.LR1.A.

Make conjectures by observing patterns and identifying properties, and justify the reasoning.

MAT521A.LR1.B.

Explain why inductive reasoning may lead to a false conjecture.

MAT521A.LR1.C.

Compare, using examples, inductive and deductive reasoning.

MAT521A.LR1.E.

Prove algebraic and number relationships, such as divisibility rules, number properties, mental mathematics strategies or algebraic number tricks.

MAT521A.LR1.F.

Prove a conjecture, using deductive reasoning (not limited to two column proofs).

MAT521A.LR1.G.

Determine if a given argument is valid, and justify the reasoning.

MAT521A.LR1.I.

Solve a contextual problem involving inductive or deductive reasoning.

MAT521A.LR2.A.

Determine, explain and verify a strategy to solve a puzzle or to win a game; e.g.: guess and check; look for a pattern; make a systematic list; draw or model; eliminate possibilities; simplify the original problem; work backward; develop alternate approaches.

MAT521A.LR2.B.

Identify and correct errors in a solution to a puzzle or in a strategy for winning a game.

MAT521A.LR2.C.

Create a variation on a puzzle or a game, and describe a strategy for solving the puzzle or winning the game.

MAT521A.M1.A.

Interpret rates in a given context, such as the arts, commerce, the environment, medicine or recreation.

MAT521A.M1.B.

Solve a rate problem that requires the isolation of a variable.

MAT521A.M1.C.

Determine and compare rates and unit rates.

MAT521A.M1.D.

Make and justify a decision, using rates.

MAT521A.M1.E.

Represent a given rate pictorially.

MAT521A.M1.F.

Draw a graph to represent a rate.

MAT521A.M1.G.

Explain, using examples, the relationship between the slope of a graph and a rate.

MAT521A.M1.H.

Describe a context for a given rate or unit rate.

MAT521A.M1.I.

Identify and explain factors that influence a rate in a given context.

MAT521A.M1.J.

Solve a contextual problem that involves rates or unit rates.

MAT521A.M2.A.

Explain, using examples, how scale diagrams are used to model a 2-D shape or a 3-D object.

MAT521A.M2.B.

Determine, using proportional reasoning, the scale factor, given one dimension of a 2-D shape or a 3-D object and its representation.

MAT521A.M2.C.

Determine, using proportional reasoning, an unknown dimension of a 2-D shape or a 3-D object, given a scale diagram or a model.

MAT521A.M2.D.

Draw, with or without technology, a scale diagram of a given 2-D shape according to a specified scale factor (enlargement or reduction).

MAT521A.M2.E.

Solve a contextual problem that involves scale diagrams.

MAT521A.M3.A.

Determine the area of a 2-D shape, given the scale diagram, and justify the reasonableness of the result.

MAT521A.M3.B.

Determine the surface area and volume of a 3-D object, given the scale diagram, and justify the reasonableness of the result.

MAT521A.M3.C.

Explain, using examples, the effect of a change in the scale factor on the area of a 2-D shape.

MAT521A.M3.D.

Explain, using examples, the effect of a change in the scale factor on the surface area of a 3-D object.

MAT521A.M3.E.

Explain, using examples, the effect of a change in the scale factor on the volume of a 3-D object.

MAT521A.M3.F.

Explain, using examples, the relationships among scale factor, area of a 2-D shape, surface area of a 3-D object and volume of a 3-D object.

MAT521A.M3.G.

Solve a spatial problem that requires the manipulation of formulas.

MAT521A.M3.H.

Solve a contextual problem that involves the relationships among scale factors, areas and volumes.

MAT521A.MRP1.A.

Collect primary or secondary data (statistical or informational) related to the topic.

MAT521A.MRP1.B.

Assess the accuracy, reliability and relevance of the primary and secondary data collected by: identifying examples of bias and points of view; identifying and describing the data collection methods; determining if the data is relevant; determining if the data is consistent with information obtained from other sources on the same topic.

MAT521A.MRP1.C.

Interpret data, using statistical methods if applicable.

MAT521A.MRP1.D.

Identify controversial issues, if any, and present multiple sides of the issues with supporting data.

MAT521A.RF1.B.

Graph the boundary line between two half planes for each inequality in a system of linear inequalities, and justify the choice of solid or broken lines.

MAT521A.RF1.C.

Determine and explain the solution region that satisfies a linear inequality, using a test point when given a boundary line.

MAT521A.RF1.D.

Determine, graphically, the solution region for a system of linear inequalities, and verify the solution.

MAT521A.RF1.E.

Explain, using examples, the significance of the shaded region in the graphical solution of a system of linear inequalities.

MAT521A.RF1.F.

Solve an optimization problem, using linear programming.

MAT521A.RF2.A.

Determine, with or without technology. the intercepts of the graph of a quadratic function.

MAT521A.RF2.B.

Determine, by factoring, the roots of a quadratic equation, and verify by substitution.

MAT521A.RF2.C.

Determine, using the quadratic formula, the roots of a quadratic equation.

MAT521A.RF2.D.

Explain the relationships among the roots of an equation, the zeros of the corresponding function, and the x-intercepts of the graph of the function.

MAT521A.RF2.E.

Explain, using examples, why the graph of a quadratic function may have zero, one or two x-intercepts.

MAT521A.RF2.F.

Express a quadratic equation in factored form, using the zeros of the corresponding function or the x-intercepts of its graph.

MAT521A.RF2.G.

Determine, with or without technology, the coordinates of a vertex of the graph of a quadratic function.

MAT521A.RF2.H.

Determine the equation of the axis of symmetry of the graph of a quadratic function, given the x-intercepts of the graph.

MAT521A.RF2.I.

Determine the coordinates of the vertex of the graph of a quadratic function, given the equation of the function and the axis of symmetry, and determine if the y-coordinate of the vertex is a maximum or a minimum.

MAT521A.RF2.K.

Sketch the graph of a quadratic function.

MAT521A.RF2.L.

Solve a contextual problem that involves the characteristics of a quadratic function.

MAT521A.S1.A.

Explain, using examples, the meaning of standard deviation.

MAT521A.S1.B.

Calculate, using technology, the population standard deviation of a data set.

MAT521A.S1.C.

Explain, using examples, the properties of a normal curve, including the mean, median, mode, standard deviation, symmetry and area under the curve.

MAT521A.S1.D.

Determine if a data set approximates a normal distribution, and explain the reasoning.

MAT521A.S1.E.

Compare the properties of two or more normally distributed data sets.

MAT521A.S1.F.

Explain, using examples that represent multiple perspectives, the application of standard deviation for making decisions in situations such as those involving warranties, insurance or opinion polls.

MAT521A.S1.G.

Solve a contextual problem that involves the interpretation of standard deviation.

MAT521A.S1.H.

Determine, with or without technology, and explain the z-score for a given value in a normally distributed data set.

MAT521A.S1.I.

Solve a contextual problem that involves normal distribution.

MAT521A.S1.K.

Create frequency tables and graphs from a set of data.

MAT521A.S2.A.

Explain, using examples, how confidence levels, margins of error and confidence intervals may vary depending on the size of the random sample.

MAT521A.S2.B.

Explain, using examples, the significance of a confidence interval, margin of error or confidence level.

MAT521A.S2.C.

Make inferences about a population from sample data, using given confidence intervals, and explain the reasoning.

MAT521A.S2.D.

Provide examples from print or electronic media in which confidence intervals and confidence levels are used to support a particular position.

MAT521A.S2.E.

Interpret and explain confidence intervals and margins of error, using examples found in print or electronic media.

MAT521B.AN1.A.

Determine the distance of two real numbers of the form a, aR, from 0 on a number line, and relate this to the absolute value of a (|a|).

MAT521B.AN1.B.

Determine the absolute value of a real number.

MAT521B.AN1.C.

Explain, using examples, how the distance between two points on a number line can be expressed in terms of absolute value.

MAT521B.AN1.D.

Determine the absolute value of a numerical expression.

MAT521B.AN1.E.

Compare and order the absolute values of real numbers in a given set.

MAT521B.AN2.B.

Express an entire radical with a numerical radicand as a mixed radical.

MAT521B.AN2.C.

Express a mixed radical with a numerical radicand as an entire radical.

MAT521B.AN2.D.

Perform one or more operations to simplify radical expressions with numerical or variable radicands.

MAT521B.AN2.E.

Rationalize the denominator of a rational expression with monomial or binomial denominators.

MAT521B.AN2.G.

Explain, using examples, that (-x)^2 = x^2, _(x^2) = |x| and _(x^2) x; e.g.: _9 3.

MAT521B.AN2.H.

Identify the values of the variable for which a given radical expression is defined.

MAT521B.AN2.I.

Solve a problem that involves radical expressions.

MAT521B.AN3.A.

Determine any restrictions on the values for the variable in a radical equation.

MAT521B.AN3.B.

Determine the roots of a radical equation algebraically, and explain the process used to solve the equation.

MAT521B.AN3.C.

Verify, by substitution, that the values determined in solving a radical equation algebraically are roots of the equation.

MAT521B.AN3.D.

Explain why some roots determined in solving a radical equation algebraically are extraneous.

MAT521B.AN3.E.

Solve problems by modelling a situation using a radical equation.

MAT521B.AN4.A.

Compare the strategies for writing equivalent forms of rational expressions to the strategies for writing equivalent forms of rational numbers.

MAT521B.AN4.B.

Explain why a given value is non-permissible for a given rational expression.

MAT521B.AN4.C.

Determine the non-permissible values for a rational expression.

MAT521B.AN4.D.

Determine a rational expression that is equivalent to a given rational expression by multiplying the numerator and denominator by the same factor (limited to a monomial or a binomial), and state the non-permissible values of the equivalent rational expression.

MAT521B.AN4.E.

Simplify a rational expression.

MAT521B.AN4.F.

Explain why the non-permissible values of a given rational expression and of its simplified form are the same.

MAT521B.AN4.G.

Identify and correct errors in a simplification of a rational expression, and explain the reasoning.

MAT521B.AN5.A.

Compare the strategies for performing a given operation on rational expressions to the strategies for performing the same operation on rational numbers.

MAT521B.AN5.B.

Determine the non-permissible values when performing operations on rational expressions.

MAT521B.AN5.C.

Determine, in simplified form, the sum or difference of rational expressions with the same denominator.

MAT521B.AN5.D.

Determine, in simplified form, the sum or difference of rational expressions in which the denominators are not the same and which may or may not contain common factors.

MAT521B.AN5.E.

Determine, in simplified form, the product or quotient of rational expressions.

MAT521B.AN5.F.

Simplify an expression that involves two or more operations on rational expressions.

MAT521B.AN6.A.

Determine the non-permissible values for the variable in a rational equation.

MAT521B.AN6.B.

Determine the solution to a rational equation algebraically, and explain the process used to solve the equation.

MAT521B.AN6.C.

Explain why a value obtained in solving a rational equation may not be a solution of the equation.

MAT521B.RF1.A.

Factor a given polynomial expression that requires the identification of common factors.

MAT521B.RF1.B.

Determine whether a given binomial is a factor for a given polynomial expression, and explain why or why not.

MAT521B.RF1.C.

Factor a given polynomial expression of the form: (ax)^2 + bx + c, a 0; (a^2)(x^2) (b^2)(y^2), a 0, b 0.

MAT521B.RF1.D.

Factor a given polynomial expression that has a quadratic pattern, including: a[f(x)]^2 + b[f(x)]^2 + c, a 0; (a^2)[f(x)]^2 (b^2)[g(y)]^2, a 0, b 0.

MAT521B.RF10.A.

Identify assumptions made when identifying a geometric sequence or series.

MAT521B.RF10.B.

Provide and justify an example of a geometric sequence.

MAT521B.RF10.C.

Derive a rule for determining the general term of a geometric sequence.

MAT521B.RF10.D.

Determine t1, r, n, or tn in a problem that involves a geometric sequence.

MAT521B.RF10.E.

Derive a rule for determining the sum of n terms of a geometric series.

MAT521B.RF10.F.

Determine t1, r, n, or Sn in a problem that involves a geometric series.

MAT521B.RF10.G.

Generalize, using inductive reasoning, a rule for determining the sum of an infinite geometric series.

MAT521B.RF10.H.

Explain why a geometric series is convergent or divergent.

MAT521B.RF10.I.

Solve a problem that involves a geometric sequence or series.

MAT521B.RF2.A.

Create a table of values for y = |f(x)|, given a table of values for y = f(x).

MAT521B.RF2.C.

Sketch the graph of y =|f(x)|, then state the intercepts, domain and range, and explain the strategy used.

MAT521B.RF2.D.

Solve an absolute value equation graphically, with or without technology.

MAT521B.RF2.F.

Explain why the absolute value inequality |f(x)| < 0 has no solution.

MAT521B.RF3.A.

Explain why a function given in the form y = a(x-p)^2 + q is a quadratic function.

MAT521B.RF3.B.

Compare the graphs of a set of functions of the form y = (ax)^2 to the graph of y = x^2, and generalize, using inductive reasoning, a rule about the effect of a.

MAT521B.RF3.C.

Compare the graphs of a set of functions of the form y = x^2 + q to the graph of y = x^2, and generalize, using inductive reasoning, a rule about the effect of q.

MAT521B.RF3.D.

Compare the graphs of a set of functions of the form y = (x-p)^2 to the graph of y = x^2, and generalize, using inductive reasoning, a rule about the effect of p.

MAT521B.RF3.E.

Determine the coordinates of the vertex for a quadratic function of the form y = a(x-p)^2 + q, and verify, with or without technology.

MAT521B.RF3.F.

Generalize, using inductive reasoning, a rule for determining the coordinates of the vertex for quadratic functions of the form y = a(x-p)^2 + q.

MAT521B.RF3.G.

Sketch the graph of y = a(x-p)^2 + q, using transformations, and identify the vertex, domain and range, direction of opening, axis of symmetry, and x- and y-intercepts.

MAT521B.RF3.H.

Explain, using examples, how the values of a and q may be used to determine whether a quadratic function has zero, one or two x-intercepts.

MAT521B.RF4.A.

Explain the reasoning for the process of completing the square as shown in a given example.

MAT521B.RF4.B.

Write a quadratic function given in the form y = ax^2 + bx + c as a quadratic function in the form y = a(x-p)^2 + q by completing the square.

MAT521B.RF4.C.

Identify, explain and correct errors in an example of completing the square.

MAT521B.RF4.D.

Determine the characteristics of a quadratic function given in the form y = (ax)^2 + bx + c, and explain the strategy used.

MAT521B.RF4.E.

Sketch the graph of a quadratic function given in the form y = (ax)^2 + bx + c.

MAT521B.RF4.F.

Verify, with or without technology, that a quadratic function in the form y = (ax)^2 + bx + c represents the same function as a given quadratic function in the form y = a(x-p)^2 + q.

MAT521B.RF4.G.

Write a quadratic function that models a given situation, and explain any assumptions made.

MAT521B.RF4.H.

Solve a problem, with or without technology, by analysing a quadratic function.

MAT521B.RF5.A.

Explain, using examples, the relationships among the roots of a quadratic equation, the zeros of its corresponding quadratic function and the x-intercepts of the graph of the quadratic function.

MAT521B.RF5.B.

Derive the quadratic formula, using deductive reasoning.

MAT521B.RF5.C.

Solve a quadratic equation of the form (ax)^2 + bx + c = 0 by using strategies such as: determining square roots; factoring; completing the square; applying the quadratic formula; graphing its corresponding function.

MAT521B.RF5.D.

Select a method for solving a quadratic equation, justify the choice, and verify the solution.

MAT521B.RF5.E.

Explain, using examples, how the discriminant may be used to determine whether a quadratic equation has two, one, or no real roots, and relate the number of zeros to the graph of the corresponding quadratic function.

MAT521B.RF5.F.

Identify and correct errors in a solution to a quadratic equation.

MAT521B.RF5.G.

Solve a problem by: analysing a quadratic equation; determining and analysing a quadratic equation.

MAT521B.RF6.A.

Model a situation, using a system of linear-quadratic or quadratic-quadratic equations.

MAT521B.RF6.B.

Relate a system of linear-quadratic or quadratic-quadratic equations to the context of a given problem.

MAT521B.RF6.C.

Determine and verify the solution of a system of linear-quadratic or quadratic-quadratic equations graphically, with technology.

MAT521B.RF6.D.

Determine and verify the solution of a system of linear-quadratic or quadratic-quadratic equations algebraically.

MAT521B.RF6.E.

Explain the meaning of the points of intersection of a system of linear-quadratic or quadratic-quadratic equations.

MAT521B.RF6.F.

Explain, using examples, why a system of linear-quadratic or quadratic-quadratic equations may have zero, one, two, or an infinite number of solutions.

MAT521B.RF6.G.

Solve a problem that involves a system of linear-quadratic or quadratic-quadratic equations, and explain the strategy used.

MAT521B.RF7.A.

Explain, using examples, how test points can be used to determine the solution region that satisfies an inequality.

MAT521B.RF7.B.

Explain, using examples, when a solid or broken line should be used in the solution for an inequality.

MAT521B.RF7.C.

Sketch, with or without technology, the graph of a linear or quadratic inequality.

MAT521B.RF7.D.

Solve a problem that involves a linear or quadratic inequality.

MAT521B.RF8.A.

Determine the solution of a quadratic inequality in one variable, using strategies such as case analysis, graphing, roots and test points, or sign analysis; and explain the strategy used.

MAT521B.RF8.B.

Represent and solve a problem that involves a quadratic inequality in one variable.

MAT521B.RF8.C.

Interpret the solution to a problem that involves a quadratic inequality in one variable.

MAT521B.RF9.A.

Identify the assumption(s) made when defining an arithmetic sequence or series.

MAT521B.RF9.B.

Provide and justify an example of an arithmetic sequence.

MAT521B.RF9.C.

Derive a rule for determining the general term of an arithmetic sequence.

MAT521B.RF9.D.

Describe the relationship between arithmetic sequences and linear functions.