Prince Edward Island Curriculum — Grade 12


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B621A.1.1.

Nervous System: Neurons - Students will be expected to

B621A.1.1.1.

Explain how the nervous system helps to maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B621A.1.1.1.a.

Identify requirements necessary for a nervous response to occur: (i) sensory receptors (skin, eye, ear); (ii) impulse transmission (neurons); (iii) interpretation and analysis of impulses (brain, spinal cord); (iv) effectors (muscles, glands).

B621A.1.1.1.b.

Describe the structure of the typical neuron and explain the function of each part: (i) dendrite; (ii) cell body; (iii) axon; (iv) axon terminal; (v) Schwann cells (myelin sheath and nodes of Ranvier).

B621A.1.1.1.c.

Describe the function of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.

B621A.1.1.1.d.

Describe the transmission of an impulse along the length of a neuron: (i) the ion distribution of the neural membrane (rest, depolarization, repolarization); (ii) threshold; (iii) action potential; (iv) all-or-none response.

B621A.1.1.1.e.

Describe the transmission of an impulse across a synapse and the effects of neurotransmitters involved: (i) acetylcholine; (ii) noradrenaline; (iii) glutamate; (iv) GABA; (v) dopamine; (vi) serotonin.

B621A.1.1.2.

Describe the critical role of cholinesterase in nerve transmission (314-4).

B621A.1.1.3.

Identify the role of certain compounds in neuron function (oxygen, glucose, ATP, sodium and potassium ions) (314-2).

B621A.1.2.

Nervous System: Structures - Students will be expected to

B621A.1.2.1.

Analyse the nervous system and explain its structure and dynamics (116-7).

B621A.1.2.1.a.

Explain the basic structure and function of the central nervous system: (i) brain; (ii) spinal cord.

B621A.1.2.1.b.

Explain how the nervous system is protected: (i) skull; (ii) meninges; (iii) cerebrospinal fluid.

B621A.1.2.1.c.

Explain the basic structure and function of the brain: (i) cerebrum; (ii) cerebellum; (iii) medulla oblongata; (iv) thalamus; (v) hypothalamus; (vi) midbrain; (vii) pons; (viii) corpus callosum.

B621A.1.2.1.d.

Describe the basic functions of a peripheral nervous system: (i) autonomic (sympathetic, parasympathetic); (ii) somatic.

B621A.1.3.

Nervous System: Neurons - Students will be expected to

B621A.1.3.1.

Design an experiment to investigate and collect data on the nervous system (reflexes) and identify specific variables involved (212-6).

B621A.1.3.2.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

B621A.1.3.3.

Identify and explain qualitatively sources of error and uncertainty in measurement and express results from this nervous system activity in a form that acknowledges the degree of uncertainty (214-10).

B621A.1.3.4.

Select and use symbolic and linguistic modes of representation to communicate ideas and results (215-2).

B621A.1.4.

Nervous System: Disrupting Homeostasis - Students will be expected to

B621A.1.4.1.

Analyse why and how technologies related to the treatment of nervous system disorders were developed and improved over time (115-5).

B621A.1.4.2.

Describe disorders linked to the nervous system and their effect on homeostasis of the system and the organism as a whole. (317-4).

B621A.1.4.3.

Describe how the use of prescription and nonprescription drugs can disrupt or help maintain homeostasis (317-7).

B621A.1.4.4.

Distinguish between questions that can be answered by science and those that cannot, and between problems that can be solved by technology and those that cannot (118-8).

B621A.1.4.5.

Propose courses of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account an array of perspectives, including that of sustainability. (118-10).

B621A.1.5.

Nervous System: Sense Organs - Students will be expected to

B621A.1.5.1.

Explain how the eye as a sense organ helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B621A.1.5.1.a.

Describe the general structure and function of the eye: (i) lens; (ii) iris; (iii) retina; (iv) cornea; (v) choroid layer; (vi) fovea centralis; (vii) rods; (viii) cones; (ix) pupil; (x) blind spot/optic disc; (xi) optic nerve; (xii) aqueous humour; (xiii) vitreous humour.

B621A.1.5.1.b.

Identify the structures of the eye through which light passes and explain how the amount of light entering the eye is regulated.

B621A.1.5.1.c.

Describe the general structure and function of the ear: (i) pinna; (ii) tympanic membrane; (iii) ossicles (i.e., malleus, incus, stapes); (iv) eustachian tube; (v) semicircular canals; (vi) vestibule; (vii) cochlea; (viii) auditory nerve.

B621A.1.5.1.d.

Trace the pathway of sound through the ear.

B621A.1.5.10.

Select and use appropriate symbolic and linguistic modes of representation to communicate ideas and results (215-2).

B621A.1.5.2.

Analyse and describe examples of disorders of the eye and where technologies for the correction of visual defects were developed based on scientific understanding (116-4).

B621A.1.5.2.a.

Eye disorders (glaucoma, cataracts, astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia).

B621A.1.5.2.b.

Treatments for eye disorders (corneal transplant, laser surgery, corrective lenses, lens replacement).

B621A.1.5.3.

Analyse and describe examples of disorders of the ear and where technologies for the correction of auditory defects were developed based on scientific understanding (116-4).

B621A.1.5.3.a.

Ear disorders - conduction deafness, nerve deafness.

B621A.1.5.3.b.

Treatments for ear disorders - tympanostomy tube surgery, hearing aids.

B621A.1.5.4.

Evaluate, considering ethical issues, the consequences of medical treatments for visual and auditory disorders (317-5).

B621A.1.5.4.b.

Mandatory organ donation.

B621A.1.5.5.

Analyse and describe examples of disorders of the ear and where technologies for the correction of auditory defects were developed based on scientific understanding (116-4).

B621A.1.5.5.a.

Ear disorders - conduction deafness, nerve deafness.

B621A.1.5.5.b.

Treatments for ear disorders - tympanostomy tube surgery, hearing aids.

B621A.1.5.6.

Evaluate, considering ethical issues, the consequences of medical treatments for visual and auditory disorders (317-5).

B621A.1.5.6.b.

Mandatory organ donation.

B621A.1.5.7.

Perform an experiment to investigate and collect data on the nervous system (sense organs) and identify specific variables involved (212-6).

B621A.1.5.8.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

B621A.1.5.9.

Identify and explain sources of error and uncertainty in measurement and express results in a form that acknowledges the degree of uncertainty (214-10).

B621A.1.6.

Endocrine System: Maintaining Homeostasis - Students will be expected to

B621A.1.6.1.

Explain how the endocrine system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B621A.1.6.1.a.

Explain the difference between endocrine and exocrine gland.

B621A.1.6.1.b.

Explain the general concept of a hormone and target cell or organ.

B621A.1.6.1.c.

Compare how non-steroid and steroid hormones cause changes in target cells: (i) solubility in cell membrane; (ii) location of receptors; (iii) end result.

B621A.1.6.2.

Identify and describe the structure and function of important biochemical compounds, including non-steroid and steroid hormones (314-3).

B621A.1.6.2.a.

Identify hormones and their source glands, and explain their general effects on the human organism: (i) melatonin; (ii) thyroxine; (iii) adrenaline; (iv) somatotropin (HGH- human growth hormone); (v) insulin; (vi) glucagon.

B621A.1.7.

Endocrine System: Feedback Mechanisms - Students will be expected to

B621A.1.7.1.

Analyse homeostatic phenomena to identify the feedback mechanisms involved (317-2).

B621A.1.7.1.a.

Describe representative positive and negative feedback loops: (i) hypothalamus-pituitary complex as a negative feedback control; (ii) oxytocin as positive feedback control.

B621A.1.7.1.b.

Describe the regulation of blood sugar by controlled release of insulin and glucagon.

B621A.1.7.2.

Explain how the endocrine system helps maintain homeostasis (317-1).

B621A.1.7.2.a.

Identify the location and function of principal endocrine glands in the human organism: (i) pituitary; (ii) hypothalamus; (iii) pineal; (iv) thyroid; (v) parathyroid; (vi) adrenal; (vii) pancreas (Islets of Langerhans); (viii) thymus; (ix) ovaries; (x) testes.

B621A.1.7.3.

Describe disorders and treatments linked to the secretions of the endocrine system and their effect on the homeostasis of the system and the organism as a whole (317-4).

B621A.1.7.4.

Analyse examples of Canadian contributions to science and technology (117-11).

B621A.1.7.4.a.

Analyse the role played by Frederick Banting and Charles Best in the discovery of insulin.

B621A.1.7.5.

Distinguish between questions that can be answered by science and those that cannot, and between problems that can be solved by technology and those that cannot (118-8).

B621A.1.7.5.a.

Debate the merits of developing and using life support technology, identifying questions that are scientific, technological, and social in nature.

B621A.1.7.6.

Propose courses of action on the social issues related to life support technologies, taking into account an array of perspectives (118-10).

B621A.2.1.

Cell Division - Students will be expected to

B621A.2.1.1.

Describe mitosis (313-2).

B621A.2.1.1.a.

Describe the events of interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis (the cell cycle).

B621A.2.1.1.b.

Explain the importance of maintaining a constant number of chromosomes through the processes of cell and organism reproduction.

B621A.2.1.10.

Construct arguments to support a decision or judgement, using examples and evidence and recognizing various perspectives (118-6).

B621A.2.1.11.

Debate the merits of funding specific scientific or technological endeavours and not others (117-4).

B621A.2.1.12.

Distinguish between questions that can be answered by science and those that cannot, and between problems that can be solved by technology and those that cannot (118-8).

B621A.2.1.2.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data on the cell cycle (213-3).

B621A.2.1.2.a.

Observe, identify, and describe (using prepared slides of plant and animal cells) the events of the cell cycle: (i) growth; (ii) cytokinesis; (iii) chromosome behavior.

B621A.2.1.3.

Design an experiment, identifying and controlling major variables to observe the chromosomes during cell division (212-3).

B621A.2.1.4.

Select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence on cell division and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making (212-8).

B621A.2.1.5.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data on cell division (213-5).

B621A.2.1.6.

Evaluate the physiological and ethical consequences of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in cell division (317-5).

B621A.2.1.6.a.

Describe the use and effectiveness of these treatments.

B621A.2.1.6.b.

Describe positive and negative aspects of these treatments.

B621A.2.1.7.

Describe meiosis (313-2).

B621A.2.1.7.a.

Describe the events of meiosis (reduction-division) and cytokinesis.

B621A.2.1.7.b.

Explain the necessity of chromosome reduction during the production of sex cells.

B621A.2.1.7.c.

Describe the crossing-over process and explain its role in helping randomize the gene combinations for sex cells.

B621A.2.1.8.

Analyse and describe the function of spermatogenesis and oogenesis (313-3).

B621A.2.1.8.a.

Examine the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

B621A.2.1.8.b.

Analyse why there is only one functional egg produced during oogenesis.

B621A.2.1.8.c.

Describe and compare the structure of sperm and egg cells: (i) relative sizes; (ii) energy reserves; (iii) mitochondria; (iv) numbers produced; (v) motility; (vi) enzyme cap (acrosome).

B621A.2.1.9.

Identify and describe examples of technologies that were developed based on cell division. (116-3, 213-7).

B621A.2.2.

Reproductive Systems: Strategies - Students will be expected to

B621A.2.2.1.

Analyse natural reproductive strategies to interpret and explain their structure and dynamics (116-7).

B621A.2.2.1.a.

Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction.

B621A.2.2.1.b.

Define various types of asexual reproduction: (i) budding; (ii) binary fission; (iii) spore production; (iv) fragmentation; (v) parthenogenesis.

B621A.2.2.2.

Describe mitosis and meiosis within plant reproduction (313-2).

B621A.2.2.2.a.

Observe, identify, and give the function of the basic structures of sexual reproduction in angiosperms (flowering plants): (i) pistil; (ii) stamen; (iii) pollen; (iv) ovules; (v) seed; (vi) fruit.

B621A.2.2.2.b.

Describe the process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants.

B621A.2.2.3.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

B621A.2.2.4.

Select and use appropriate symbolic and linguistic modes of representation to communicate results (215-2).

B621A.2.3.

Reproductive Systems: Regulation - Students will be expected to

B621A.2.3.1.

Analyse and describe the structure and function of the human male reproductive system (313-3).

B621A.2.3.1.e.

Sperm duct (vas deferens)

B621A.2.3.1.f.

Cowpers (bulbourethral) gland

B621A.2.3.2.

Explain the human male reproductive cycles (313-4).

B621A.2.3.2.a.

Identify and state the functions of the principal reproductive hormones of the human male: (i) inhibin; (ii) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); (iii) luteinizing hormone (LH); (iv) testosterone.

B621A.2.3.2.b.

Explain the function and interactions among these hormones in maintaining the male reproductive system.

B621A.2.3.3.

Analyse and describe the structure and function of the human female reproductive system (313-3).

B621A.2.3.4.

Explain the human female reproductive cycle (313-4).

B621A.2.3.4.a.

Identify and state the functions of the principal reproductive hormones of the human female: (i) estrogen; (ii) progesterone; (iii) luteinizing hormone (LH); (iv) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

B621A.2.3.4.b.

Explain the function and interactions among these hormones in the menstrual cycle.

B621A.2.3.4.c.

Research and evaluate the uses and effects of estrogen/progesterone treatment on the health of women (including hormone therapy among menopausal women, and the use of birth control pills).

B621A.2.3.5.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

B621A.2.3.6.

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources or from several parts of the same source (213-7).

B621A.2.3.7.

Identify and evaluate potential applications of findings (214-18).

B621A.2.3.8.

Select appropriate numeric, graphical, and linguistic modes of representation to communicate ideas, plans, and results (215-2).

B621A.2.3.9.

Explain the human reproductive cycles (313-4).

B621A.2.3.9.a.

Research and describe the potential health risks for individuals and groups associated with exposure to sexually transmitted infections: (i) HIV and AIDS; (ii) chlamydia; (iii) hepatitis B; (iv) genital herpes; (v) syphilis; (vi) gonorrhea.

B621A.2.4.

Reproductive Technologies - Students will be expected to

B621A.2.4.1.

Distinguish between scientific questions and technological problems (115-1).

B621A.2.4.2.

Evaluate the use of reproductive technologies for humans (313-5, 313-6).

B621A.2.4.2.a.

Identify causes of human infertility: (i) blocked oviducts; (ii) failure to ovulate; (iii) endometriosis; (iv) damaged egg; (v) obstruction in the vas deferens or epididymis; (vi) low sperm count; (vii) abnormal sperm.

B621A.2.4.2.b.

Evaluate technological solutions to human infertility: (i) artificial insemination (AI); (ii) in vitro fertilization (IVF); (iii) in vitro maturation (IVM); (iv) surrogate motherhood; (v) superovulation using fertility drugs; (vi) embryo storage (cryopreservation).

B621A.2.4.3.

Evaluate the design of birth control technologies/techniques and the ways they function (118-4).

B621A.2.4.4.

Construct arguments to support a decision or judgement, using examples and evidence and recognizing various perspectives (118-6).

B621A.2.4.4.a.

Assess the effects of birth control technology on the population demographics of developed and underdeveloped countries.

B621A.2.4.5.

Identify and apply criteria, including the presence of bias, for evaluating evidence and sources of information (214-9).

B621A.2.4.6.

Debate the merits of funding solutions to human fertility problems versus human population control (117-4).

B621A.2.5.

Embryonic Differentiation and Development - Students will be expected to

B621A.2.5.1.

Explain the processes of fertilization and development in human reproduction (313-4).

B621A.2.5.1.a.

Trace the journey of sperm and egg from their origin until fertilization and implantation.

B621A.2.5.1.b.

Explain how fraternal and identical offspring are produced.

B621A.2.5.1.c.

Describe the following basic stages of embryonic development: (i) cleavage; (ii) morula; (iii) blastocyst (blastula); (iv) gastrula; (v) germ layers; (vi) neural development.

B621A.2.5.2.

Describe the functions of primary membranes during the embryonic development of animals (313-4): (i) yolk; (ii) allantois; (iii) amnion; (iv) chorion.

B621A.2.5.3.

Explain the processes of development and birth in human reproduction (313-4).

B621A.2.5.3.a.

Describe the process of childbirth: (i) dilation stage; (ii) expulsion stage; (iii) placental stage.

B621A.2.5.3.b.

Describe the roles of the placenta and umbilical cord during pregnancy.

B621A.2.5.3.c.

Identify chemical control hormones associated with implantation, birth, and lactation: (i) progesterone; (ii) estrogen; (iii) oxytocin; (iv) prolactin; (v) human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).

B621A.2.5.3.d.

Assess the effects of teratogens on the development of the embryo: (i) cigarette smoke; (ii) alcohol; (iii) prescription drugs.

B621A.2.5.4.

Analyse examples where scientific understanding was enhanced or revised as a result of technology (116-2).

B621A.2.5.4.a.

Describe techniques used to monitor various stages of embryonic or fetal development: (i) ultrasound; (ii) amniocentesis; (iii) fetoscopy; (vi) CVS (chorionic villi sampling).

B621A.3.1.

Genetics: Mendelian - Students will be expected to

B621A.3.1.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of Mendelian genetics (315-3).

B621A.3.1.1.a.

Define the terms heredity and genetics.

B621A.3.1.1.b.

Explain Mendels concept of unit characters and describe the unit theory of inheritance.

B621A.3.1.1.c.

Explain the meaning of the relevant terms: (i) trait; (ii) P generation (parent generation); (iii) F1 and F2 generation (first and second filial generation); (iv) hybrid; (v) purebred; (vi) dihybrid; (vii) monohybrid; (viii) dominant; (ix) recessive; (x) gene; (xi) allele; (xii) homozygous; (xiii) heterozygous; (xiv) product rule; (xv) Punnett square; (xvi) genotype; (xvii) phenotype.

B621A.3.1.1.d.

Explain how Mendels experiments support: (i) principle of dominance; (ii) law of segregation; (iii) law of independent assortment.

B621A.3.1.2.

Interpret patterns and trends in genetic data (214-5).

B621A.3.1.3.

State a prediction and a hypothesis based on available genetic evidence using genetic problems (212-4).

B621A.3.1.3.a.

Determine the outcome of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.

B621A.3.1.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of Mendelian genetics (315-3).

B621A.3.1.4.a.

Explain the meaning of relevant terms: (i) incomplete dominance; (ii) co-dominance; (iii) multiple alleles.

B621A.3.1.5.

State a prediction and a hypothesis based on available genetic evidence using genetic problems (212-4).

B621A.3.1.6.

Interpret patterns and trends in genetic data (214-5).

B621A.3.1.6.a.

Predict the outcome of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses for incomplete and co-dominance.

B621A.3.1.6.b.

Demonstrate the inheritance of traits governed by multiple alleles by predicting the genotypic and phenotypic ratios in crosses involving human blood types (ABO groups).

B621A.3.1.6.c.

Explain the significance of a test cross.

B621A.3.1.6.d.

Use a test cross to determine the unknown genotype of a dominant organism.

B621A.3.2.

Genetics: Modern Ideas - Students will be expected to

B621A.3.2.1.

Summarize the main scientific discoveries that led to the modern concept of the gene (315-1).

B621A.3.2.2.

Describe and illustrate the role of the chromosomes in the transmission of hereditary information from one cell to another (315-2).

B621A.3.2.2.a.

Explain how the work of Gregor Mendel and Walter Sutton led to the chromosome theory of inheritance.

B621A.3.2.2.b.

State and explain the chromosome theory of inheritance.

B621A.3.2.2.c.

Describe Morgans experiments with Drosophila and explain how his observations supported the chromosome theory of inheritance.

B621A.3.2.2.d.

Explain the concepts of gene linkage (linked genes) and crossing-over.

B621A.3.2.2.e.

Outline, in general terms, the gene-chromosome theory of inheritance.

B621A.3.2.2.f.

Explain how the discovery of gene linkage affected our understanding of Mendels law of independent assortment.

B621A.3.2.2.g.

State the law of independent assortment in modern terms.

B621A.3.2.3.

Summarize the main scientific discoveries that led to the modern concept of the gene (315-1).

B621A.3.2.3.b.

Explain why sex-linked defects are more common in males than females Genetics: Modern Ideas continued...

B621A.3.2.3.c.

Distinguish between genotypes and phenotypes evident in autosomal and sex-linked inheritance.

B621A.3.2.3.d.

Explain the influence of polygenic traits on inheritance patterns.

B621A.3.2.4.

Interpret patterns and trends in genetic data (214-5).

B621A.3.2.4.a.

Predict the outcome of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses involving sex-linked traits.

B621A.3.3.

Genetics: Implications - Students will be expected to

B621A.3.3.1.

Identify in general terms the impact of genetic diseases on the homeostasis of an organism and explain the circumstances that lead to genetic diseases (317-4, 315-8).

B621A.3.3.2.

Describe and evaluate the design of technological solutions and the way they function, using genetic principles (116-6).

B621A.3.3.3.

Construct arguments to support a decision concerning the use of genetic engineering, using evidence and recognizing various perspectives (118-6).

B621A.3.3.4.

Analyse and describe examples where genetics-based technologies were developed and based on scientific understanding (116-4).

B621A.3.3.5.

Analyse, from a variety of perspectives, the risks and benefits of applying the scientific knowledge gained through genetic research (118-2).

B621A.3.4.

Genetics: Molecular - Students will be expected to

B621A.3.4.1.

Summarize the main scientific discoveries that led to the modern concept of the gene (315-1).

B621A.3.4.10.

Describe factors that may lead to mutations in a cells genetic information (315-6).

B621A.3.4.10.a.

Describe how McClintocks jumping genes contribute to genetic variation.

B621A.3.4.10.b.

Distinguish among the different types of chromosome mutations: (i) deletion; (ii) duplication; (iii) inversion; (iv) translocation; (v) nondisjunction (monosomy, trisomy).

B621A.3.4.11.

Identify in general terms the impact of genetic diseases on the homeostasis of an organism (317-4).

B621A.3.4.12.

Interpret patterns and trends in genetic data (215-5).

B621A.3.4.12.a.

Analyse and interpret models of human karyotypes.

B621A.3.4.13.

State a prediction based on available evidence and background information (212-4).

B621A.3.4.14.

Explain how data support or refute the prediction (214-12).

B621A.3.4.2.

Explain the role of evidence, theories, and paradigms in the development of the gene concept (114-2).

B621A.3.4.2.a.

Describe the contributions of scientists to the understanding of the structure and function of DNA: (i) Mendel; (ii) Sutton and Boveri; (iii) Levene; (iv) Griffith; (v) MacLeod, McCarty, and Avery; (vi) Chargaff; (vii) Franklin and Wilkins; (viii) Beadle and Tatum; (ix) Hershey and Chase; (x) Watson and Crick; (xi) McClintock.

B621A.3.4.3.

Explain how a major scientific milestone revolutionized thinking in the scientific communities (115-3).

B621A.3.4.3.a.

Describe the Watson and Crick double helix model of DNA.

B621A.3.4.4.

Identify and describe the structure and function of important biochemical compounds such as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) (314-3).

B621A.3.4.4.a.

Compare and contrast the structure of DNA and RNA.

B621A.3.4.5.

Explain the semi-conservative model of DNA replication (315-5).

B621A.3.4.5.a.

Describe the four steps of DNA replication: (i) initiation; (ii) elongation; (iii) termination; (iv) proofreading and correction.

B621A.3.4.6.

Evaluate and select appropriate models for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making (212-8).

B621A.3.4.7.

Select and use appropriate symbolic modes of representation to communicate ideas and results (215-2).

B621A.3.4.8.

Explain the role of DNA and RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA) in protein synthesis (315-4): (i) transcription; (ii) translation.

B621A.3.4.8.a.

Discuss the influence of hormonal and environmental factors on gene expression.

B621A.3.4.9.

Predict the effects of mutations on protein synthesis, phenotypes, and heredity (315-7).

B621A.3.4.9.a.

Explain the meaning of mutation and what causes it.

B621A.3.4.9.b.

Explain what is meant by a gene mutation and predict, in general, its effect on protein synthesis.

B621A.3.4.9.c.

Distinguish between somatic and germ mutation and compare the inheritability of each.

B621A.3.4.9.d.

Distinguish between the two types of point mutations (gene mutations): (i) substitution (-silent, -mis-sense, -nonsense); (ii) frame shift (-insertion, -deletion).

B621A.3.5.

Genetics: Implications - Students will be expected to

B621A.3.5.1.

Interpret patterns and trends in genetic data (214-5).

B621A.3.5.1.a.

Draw and interpret the patterns of inheritance shown on pedigree charts.

B621A.3.5.10.

Present and defend a course of action on the use of GMO and GMF, based on findings (215-5).

B621A.3.5.11.

Analyse from a biological, social, ethical, and environmental perspective the risks and benefits of cloning organisms (118-2).

B621A.3.5.11.b.

Identify and explain the major benefits and risks associated with cloning.

B621A.3.5.12.

Identify and describe science-based careers related to the field of biotechnology (117-7).

B621A.3.5.2.

Describe and evaluate the design of technological solutions and the way they function, using genetic principles (116-6).

B621A.3.5.2.a.

Describe the importance of genetic counselling.

B621A.3.5.2.b.

Describe various methods of detecting genetic disorders: (i) amniocentesis; (ii) CVS (chorionic villi sampling); (iii) fetoscopy; (iv) genetic markers (linked marker and gene specific marker).

B621A.3.5.2.c.

Describe various methods of treating genetic disorders: (i) screening and prevention; (ii) surgery; (iii) environmental control; (iv) gene therapy.

B621A.3.5.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of genetic engineering, using knowledge of DNA (315-9).

B621A.3.5.3.a.

Define genetic engineering.

B621A.3.5.3.b.

Describe the tools and techniques used in genetic engineering: (i) restriction enzymes; (ii) recombinant DNA; (iii) DNA amplification (bacterial vectors, viral vectors, polymerase chain reaction); (iv) gel electrophoresis; (v) DNA sequencing.

B621A.3.5.4.

Explain the importance of the Human Genome Project and why it was initiated (315-10, 117-2).

B621A.3.5.4.a.

Describe the Human Genome Project.

B621A.3.5.4.b.

Describe the major findings of the project.

B621A.3.5.5.

Analyse, from a variety of perspectives, the risks and benefits to society of applying the scientific knowledge gained through the Human Genome Project (118-2).

B621A.3.5.5.a.

Risks: (i) privacy; (ii) financial; (iii) ethical.

B621A.3.5.5.b.

Benefits: (i) knowledge of predisposition to disease; (ii) analysis, prevention, and treatment of disease.

B621A.3.5.6.

Select and integrate information from various sources on genetically modified organisms and genetically modified foods (213-7).

B621A.3.5.7.

Analyse from a biological, social, ethical, and environmental perspective the risks and benefits of the development of GMFs and GMOs (118-2).

B621A.3.5.8.

Analyse from a biological, social, ethical, and environmental perspective the risks and benefits of the development of GMFs and GMOs (118-2) (contd).

B621A.3.5.8.a.

Identify and explain the major risks associated with GMOs and GMFs: (i) environmental threats; (ii) health effects; (iii) social and economic issues.

B621A.3.5.9.

Construct arguments to support or oppose the use of GMOs and GMFs in society (118-6).

B621A.4.1.

Evolutionary Change: Historical Perspectives - Students will be expected to

B621A.4.1.1.

Describe historical and cultural contexts that have changed evolutionary concepts (316-1).

B621A.4.1.2.

Describe the importance of peer review in the development of evolutionary knowledge (114-5).

B621A.4.1.2.a.

Describe key contributions: (i) Charles Lyell; (ii) Thomas Malthus; (iii) Alfred Wallace; (iv) Georges Cuvier.

B621A.4.1.3.

Explain the roles of evidence, theories, and paradigms in the development of evolutionary knowledge (114-2).

B621A.4.1.3.a.

Describe the theories put forth by Larmarck and Darwin.

B621A.4.1.3.b.

Compare and contrast Lamarckian and Darwinian evolutionary theories.

B621A.4.2.

Evolutionary Change: Modern Perspectives - Students will be expected to

B621A.4.2.1.

Evaluate current evidence that supports the theory of evolution and that feeds the debate on gradualism and punctuated equilibrium (316-2).

B621A.4.2.1.g.

Identify the conditions necessary to maintain a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

B621A.4.2.2.

Explain how knowledge of evolution evolves as new evidence comes to light and as laws and theories are tested and subsequently restricted, revised, or replaced (115-7).

B621A.4.2.3.

Analyse and describe examples where scientific understanding was enhanced or revised as the result of the invention of a technology (116-2).

B621A.4.2.4.

Analyse evolutionary mechanisms such as natural selection, genetic variation, genetic drift, artificial selection, and biotechnology, and their effects on biodiversity and extinction (316-3).

B621A.4.2.5.

Use library and electronic research tools to collect information on the origin, development, and diversity of living organisms on earth (213-6).

B621A.4.2.6.

Identify questions to investigate that arise from practical problems and issues (212-1).

B621A.4.2.6.a.

Analyse the role of sexually produced genetic variations and mutations on the process of natural selection.

B621A.4.3.

Evolution: Implications - Students will be expected to

B621A.4.3.1.

Outline evidence and arguments pertaining to the origin, development, and diversity of living organisms on Earth (316-4).

B621A.4.3.2.

Identify multiple perspectives that influence a science-related decision or issue (215-4).

B621A.4.3.3.

Construct arguments to support a decision or judgment, using examples and evidence and recognizing various perspectives (118-6).

B621A.4.3.4.

Identify new questions or problems that arise from what was learned (214-17).

B621A.4.3.5.

Use library and electronic research tools to collect information on a given topic (213-6).

C621A.1.1.

Thermochemistry STSE - Students will be expected to

C621A.1.1.2.

Analyse from a variety of perspectives the risks and benefits to society and the environment by applying thermochemistry (118-2).

C621A.1.1.3.

Distinguish between questions that can be answered using thermochemistry and those that cannot, and between problems that can be solved by technology and those that cannot (118-8).

C621A.1.1.4.

Propose courses of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account an array of perspectives, including that of sustainability (118-10).

C621A.1.2.

Science Decisions Involving Thermochemistry - Students will be expected to

C621A.1.2.1.

Describe the importance of peer review in the development of your knowledge about thermochemistry (114-5).

C621A.1.2.2.

Use library and electronic research tools to collect information on a given topic (213-6).

C621A.1.2.3.

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources or from several parts of the same source (213-7).

C621A.1.2.4.

Identify multiple perspectives that influence a science-related decision or issue involving thermochemistry (215-4).

C621A.1.3.

Enthalpy Changes - Students will be expected to

C621A.1.3.1.

Define endothermic reaction, exothermic reaction, specific heat, enthalpy, bond energy, heat of reaction, and molar enthalpy (324-2).

C621A.1.3.1.a.

Define thermochemistry and thermodynamics.

C621A.1.3.1.b.

Differentiate between endothermic and exothermic changes.

C621A.1.3.1.c.

Calculate specific heat capacity.

C621A.1.3.1.d.

Use specific heat capacity in calculations.

C621A.1.3.2.

Illustrate changes in energy of various chemical reactions, using potential energy diagrams (324-5).

C621A.1.3.2.a.

Identify exothermic and endothermic processes from the sign of H , from thermochemical equations, and from labelled enthalpy/potential energy diagrams.

C621A.1.3.3.

Compile and display evidence and information on heats of formation in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, and graphs (214-3).

C621A.1.3.3.a.

Write thermochemical equations including the quantity of energy exchanged given either the value of H or a labelled enthalpy diagram, and vice versa.

C621A.1.3.4.

Compare the molar enthalpies of several combustion reactions involving organic compounds (324-7).

C621A.1.3.5.

Write and balance chemical equations for combustion reactions of alkanes, including energy amounts (324-1).

C621A.1.4.

Thermochemistry Experimentation - Students will be expected to

C621A.1.4.1.

Work cooperatively with team members to develop and carry out thermochemistry experiments (215-6).

C621A.1.4.2.

Evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving and inquiring (212-8).

C621A.1.4.3.

Design a thermochemistry experiment identifying and controlling major variables (212-3).

C621A.1.4.4.

Determine experimentally the changes in energy of various chemical reactions (324-6).

C621A.1.4.5.

Analyse the knowledge and skills acquired in their study of thermochemistry to identify areas of further study related to science and technology (117-9).

C621A.1.4.5.a.

Compare physical, chemical, and nuclear changes in terms of the species and the magnitude of energy changes involved.

C621A.1.4.6.

Propose alternative solutions to solving energy problems and identify the potential strengths and weaknesses of each (214-15).

C621A.1.4.6.a.

Explain, in simple terms, the energy changes of bond breaking and bond formation.

C621A.2.1.

Solution Concentration - Students will be expected to

C621A.2.1.1.

Determine the molar solubility of a pure substance in water (323-6).

C621A.2.1.1.a.

Calculate the concentration in mol/L or molarity, M, of solutions based on mass and/or moles of the solute (or solute ions) and volume of the solution.

C621A.2.1.1.b.

Know that [ ] always implies concentration in mol/L.

C621A.2.1.1.c.

Perform experiments involving the creation of stock solutions and relevant calculations.

C621A.2.1.1.d.

Perform experiments involving dilutions and relevant dilution calculations.

C621A.2.1.2.

Identify and describe science- and technology-based careers related to solutions and equilibrium (117-7).

C621A.2.2.

Kinetics and Rate of Reaction - Students will be expected to

C621A.2.2.1.

Identify and discuss the properties and situations in which the rate of reaction is a factor (321-3).

C621A.2.2.1.a.

Identify the factors that affect rate of reaction and how these can be controlled.

C621A.2.2.1.b.

Perform an experiment to determine the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

C621A.2.3.

Collision Theory, Reaction Mechanisms, and Catalysts - Students will be expected to

C621A.2.3.1.

Describe collision theory and its connection to factors involved in altering reaction rates (ACC-1).

C621A.2.3.1.a.

Describe the role of the following in reaction rate: nature of reactants, surface area, temperature, catalyst, and concentration.

C621A.2.3.1.b.

Explain how various factors can affect the rate of a reaction using the kinetic molecular theory and collision theory.

C621A.2.3.2.

Describe a reaction mechanism and catalysts role in a chemical reaction (ACC-2).

C621A.2.3.2.a.

Draw and label a potential energy diagram to show the effect of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction.

C621A.2.3.2.b.

Define, draw, and label the following on a potential energy diagram for an exothermic and endothermic reaction: activation energy, activated complex, transition state, H, reactants, and products.

C621A.2.3.2.c.

Define reaction mechanism as a series of elementary reactions.

C621A.2.3.2.d.

Identify the following components of a reaction mechanism: rate-determining step, reaction intermediates, and catalysts.

C621A.2.3.2.e.

Write the overall reaction equation from a reaction mechanism.

C621A.2.4.

Chemical Equilibrium - Students will be expected to

C621A.2.4.1.

Compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (213-5).

C621A.2.4.1.a.

Compile and organize data from a laboratory activity to demonstrate an understanding of the concept of equilibrium.

C621A.2.4.2.

Define the concept of equilibrium as it pertains to solutions (323-3).

C621A.2.4.2.a.

Describe an equilibrium system of a solid in a saturated solution in terms of equal rates of dissolving and crystallizing.

C621A.2.4.3.

Develop an implement appropriate sampling procedures for equilibrium expressions (213-1, 212-9).

C621A.2.4.3.a.

Write equilibrium constant expressions.

C621A.2.4.3.b.

Calculate equilibrium constant, Kc or Keq, for chemical systems when concentrations at equilibrium are known.

C621A.2.4.3.c.

Perform Kc calculations involving the initial concentrations, the changes that occur in each substance, and the resulting equilibrium concentrations.

C621A.2.4.3.d.

Predict the favourability of reactant or products in a reversible reaction, on the basis of the magnitude of the equilibrium constant.

C621A.2.4.4.

Explain how different factors affect solubility, using the concept of equilibrium (323-5).

C621A.2.4.4.a.

Use Le Chteliers Principle to determine how the concentrations of reactants and products change after a change of temperature, pressure, volume or concentrations is imposed on a system at equilibrium.

C621A.2.4.4.b.

Explain how a catalyst and the surface area have an effect on the time it takes to reach equilibrium.

C621A.2.4.5.

Explain the roles of evidence, theories, and paradigms in Le Chteliers Principle (114-2).

C621A.2.4.5.a.

Perform an experiment involving Le Chteliers Principle to explore how stress affects equilibrium and apply Le Chteliers Principle to the changes made to this system at equilibrium.

C621A.2.4.6.

Analyse and describe examples where scientific understanding was enhanced or revised as a result of the invention of a technology (116-2).

C621A.2.4.7.

Analyse and describe examples where technologies were developed based on scientific understanding (116-4).

C621A.3.1.

Properties and Definitions of Acids and Bases - Students will be expected to

C621A.3.1.1.

Describe and apply classification systems and nomenclature used in acids and bases (214-1).

C621A.3.1.1.a.

Define acids and bases operationally in terms of their effect on pH, taste, reactions with metals, reactions with each other, conductivity, and indicators.

C621A.3.1.2.

Describe various acid-base definitions up to the Brnsted-Lowry definition (320-1).

C621A.3.1.2.a.

Define and identify Arrhenius acids.

C621A.3.1.2.b.

Write ionization equations for the behaviour of Arrhenius acids in water.

C621A.3.1.2.c.

Define and identify Arrhenius bases.

C621A.3.1.2.d.

Write dissociation equations for the behaviour of Arrhenius bases.

C621A.3.1.3.

Explain how acid-base theory evolved as new evidence and laws and theories were tested and revised, or replaced (115-7).

C621A.3.1.3.a.

Define a Brnsted-Lowry acid and a Brnsted-Lowry base.

C621A.3.1.3.b.

Interpret equations in Brnsted- Lowry terms and identify the acid and base species.

C621A.3.1.4.

Explain the roles of evidence, theories, and paradigms in acid-base theories (114-2).

C621A.3.1.4.a.

Trace the development of acid-base theories from the original Arrhenius definition to the modern revised Arrhenius concept up to the Brnsted-Lowry theory.

C621A.3.1.4.b.

Define and identify amphoteric substances.

C621A.3.2.

Acid/Base Reactions - Students will be expected to

C621A.3.2.1.

Predict products of acid-base reactions (320-2).

C621A.3.2.1.a.

Write chemical, ionic, and net ionic equations specific to acid-base reactions.

C621A.3.2.2.

Identify new questions or problems that arise from what was learned (214-17).

C621A.3.2.2.a.

Identify the Brnsted-Lowry acid and Brnsted-Lowry base in strong acid-base neutralization reactions.

C621A.3.2.2.b.

Define and identify Brnsted-Lowry conjugate acid-base pairs.

C621A.3.2.3.

Explain the importance of communicating the results of acid-base reactions using appropriate language and conventions (114-9).

C621A.3.3.

H+, OH, and Le Chtelier - Students will be expected to

C621A.3.3.1.

Describe the interactions between H+ ions and OH- ions using Le Chteliers principle (320-5).

C621A.3.3.1.a.

Use Le Chteliers principle to predict, qualitatively, shifts in acid-base equilibrium.

C621A.3.3.1.b.

Write the equation for, and explain, the self-ionization of water.

C621A.3.3.1.c.

Write the equation for the reaction between water and the hydrogen ion to produce hydronium ion.

C621A.3.3.1.d.

Identify the [H+] and [OH-] associated with acidic and basic solutions.

C621A.3.3.2.

Analyse societys influence on acid and base scientific and technological endeavours (117-2).

C621A.3.3.3.

Construct arguments to support a decision using examples and evidence and recognizing various perspectives (118-6).

C621A.3.3.4.

Identify and describe science- and technology-based careers related to acids and bases (117-7).

C621A.3.4.

Using the Equilibrium Concept with Acids and Bases - Students will be expected to

C621A.3.4.1.

Compare strong and weak acids and bases using the concept of equilibrium (320-3).

C621A.3.4.1.c.

Define % dissociation, Ka and Kb qualitatively and relate their values to acid and base strength.

C621A.3.5.

Acid/Base Titrations - Students will be expected to

C621A.3.5.1.

Determine the concentration of an acid or base solution using stoichiometry (320-6).

C621A.3.5.12.

State a prediction and hypothesis based on available evidence and background information (212-4).

C621A.3.5.2.

Select and use apparatus and material safely (213-8).

C621A.3.5.3.

Use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting titration data (213-3).

C621A.3.5.4.

Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer or calculate relationships among variables from titration labs (214-5).

C621A.3.5.5.

Work co-operatively with team members to develop and carry out a plan for a titration lab, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (215-6).

C621A.3.5.6.

Evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for titrations (212-8).

C621A.3.5.7.

Select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical, and linguistic modes of representation to communicate ideas, titrations, and results (215-2).

C621A.3.5.8.

Demonstrate a knowledge of WHMIS standards by selecting proper techniques for handling and disposing of lab materials (213-9).

C621A.3.5.9.

Explain how acid-base indicators function (320-7).

C621A.3.5.9.a.

Differentiate between the terms endpoint and equivalence point.

C621A.3.5.9.b.

Choose appropriate indicators for acid-base titrations.

C621A.4.1.

Oxidation and Reduction - Students will be expected to

C621A.4.1.1.

Identify questions to investigate that arise from practical problems and issues on redox (212-1).

C621A.4.1.2.

Distinguish between scientific questions and technological problems (115-1).

C621A.4.1.3.

Define oxidation and reduction experimentally and theoretically (322-1 ).

C621A.4.1.3.a.

Define the terms: oxidation-reduction, oxidizing agent, reducing agent, oxidation number, and half-reaction equations and an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction.

C621A.4.1.3.b.

Identify electron transfer in redox equations.

C621A.4.1.3.c.

Perform a lab experiment to observe a redox reaction.

C621A.4.1.3.d.

Identify the oxidizing and reducing agents, the substance oxidized and the substance reduced in a redox equation.

C621A.4.1.3.e.

Use oxidation number rules to find the oxidation numbers of the atoms in molecules or ions.

C621A.4.1.3.f.

Write half-reaction equations from their lab results.

C621A.4.2.

Redox and Half Reactions - Students will be expected to

C621A.4.2.1.

Compare oxidation-reduction reactions with other kinds of reactions (322-3).

C621A.4.2.1.a.

Differentiate between oxidation-reduction reactions and non-redox chemical reactions.

C621A.4.2.1.b.

Identify half-reactions and changes in oxidation number.

C621A.4.2.2.

Write and balance half reactions and net reactions (322-2).

C621A.4.2.2.a.

Write and balance half reactions and net reactions using the half reaction method in neutral solutions.

C621A.4.2.2.b.

Balance half and net redox reactions for complex situations involving acidic and basic solutions.

C621A.4.3.

Electrochemical and Electrolytic Cells - Students will be expected to

C621A.4.3.1.

Illustrate and label the parts of electrochemical cells and explain how they work (322-4a).

C621A.4.3.1.a.

Illustrate, define, and identify the parts of an electrochemical cell: anode, cathode, anion, cation, salt bridge/porous cup, and internal and external circuit.

C621A.4.3.1.b.

Predict and write balanced equations for reactions at the cathode and the anode of electrochemical cells.

C621A.4.3.1.c.

Use galvanic cell notation to represent a galvanic cell.

C621A.4.3.10.

Formulate operational definitions of major variables (212-7).

C621A.4.3.2.

Analyse why and how cell technology was developed and improved over time (115-5).

C621A.4.3.3.

Describe and evaluate the design of chemical cells and the way they function, including the technological and scientific principles (116-6).

C621A.4.3.4.

Define problems regarding experimental designs for cells and evaluate the processes used in problem solving and decision making (215-7, 212-2).

C621A.4.3.5.

Select and use apparatus and materials safely for electrochemistry labs (213-8).

C621A.4.3.5.a.

Deduce from their lab activities that electrochemical cells operate on the energy of spontaneous oxidation-reduction reactions.

C621A.4.3.5.b.

Define electrolytic cells as requiring electrical energy to cause non-spontaneous oxidation-reduction reactions to occur.

C621A.4.3.6.

Construct and test a prototype of a devise or system and troubleshoot problems as they arise (214-14).

C621A.4.3.7.

Evaluate a personally designed and constructed cell on the basis of criteria they have developed themselves (214-16).

C621A.4.3.8.

Design an experiment identifying and controlling major variables (212-3).

C621A.4.3.9.

Carry out procedures controlling the major variables and adapting or extending procedures where required (213-2).

C621A.4.4.

Redox Reactions with Standard Reduction Potentials - Students will be expected to

C621A.4.4.1.

Predict the voltage of various electrochemical cells (322-6).

C621A.4.4.1.a.

Use either of the following formulae to calculate cell potential: E0cell = E0cathode - E0anode OR E0cell=E0red + E0oxid.

C621A.4.4.2.

Compare theoretical and experimental reduction potential values and account for discrepancies (214-7).

C621A.4.4.3.

Evaluate the reliability of data and data collection methods involving reduction potentials (214-8).

C621A.4.4.4.

Predict whether oxidation-reduction reactions are spontaneous based on their reduction potentials (322-5).

C621A.4.4.4.b.

Write and balance oxidation-reduction reactions using half-reaction equations obtained from a standard reduction potential table.

C621A.4.5.

Electrochemical and Electrolytic Cells - Students will be expected to

C621A.4.5.1.

Illustrate and label the parts of an electrolytic cell and explain how they work (322-4b).

C621A.4.5.1.a.

Define and identify, on a diagram of an electrolytic cell, the following: anode, cathode, anion, cation, power supply and internal and external circuit.

C621A.4.5.1.b.

Predict and write balanced equations for reactions at the cathode and the anode of the electrolytic cells.

C621A.4.5.2.

Explain the processes of electrolysis and electroplating (322-8).

C621A.4.5.2.a.

Predict the voltage required for the electrolysis of a molten salt.

C621A.4.5.2.b.

Predict the voltage required and the products of the electrolysis of an aqueous solution.

C621A.4.6.

Energy Efficiency of Cells - Students will be expected to

C621A.4.6.1.

Compare electrochemical and electrolytic cells in terms of energy efficiency, electron flow/transfer, and chemical change (322-7).

C621A.4.6.1.a.

Predict and write balanced equations for reactions at the cathode and the anode of electrochemical and electrolytic cells.

C621A.4.6.2.

Evaluate the design of a technology and the way it functions on the basis of a variety of criteria that they have identified themselves (118-4).

C621A.4.6.3.

Explain how electrical energy is produced in a hydrogen fuel cell (322-9).

C621A.4.6.4.

Analyse natural and technological systems to interpret and explain their structure and dynamics (116-7).

C621A.4.6.5.

Identify and evaluate potential applications of findings (214-18).

ECO621A.I.A.1.

Determine the purpose and value of economics.

ECO621A.I.A.2.

Identify and explain the importance of economics to individuals, business, and government.

ECO621A.I.A.3.

Explain why there is a problem of economic scarcity.

ECO621A.I.A.4.

Explain the relationship of the wants and needs of society in economic resources and economic scarcity.

ECO621A.I.A.5.

Develop a definition of economics.

ECO621A.I.B.

Economic Systems - Decision Making

ECO621A.I.B.1.

Develop an awareness of how economic systems evolve from the attempts of society to satisfy its needs and wants.

ECO621A.I.B.2.

Explain how economic systems allocate resources.

ECO621A.I.B.3.

Identify and compare the different economic systems.

ECO621A.I.B.4.

Discuss the difficulty of changing from one system to another. Use Eastern Europe as a case in point.

ECO621A.I.C.

Market System - Supply and Demand

ECO621A.I.C.10.

Identify and explain factors that influence supply.

ECO621A.I.C.11.

Illustrate, by means of a graph change in quantity supplied and changes in supply.

ECO621A.I.C.2.

Develop an understanding of the concept of demand.

ECO621A.I.C.4.

Give examples of and illustrate the interaction of price and quantity demanded.

ECO621A.I.C.5.

Explain and illustrate the effect of elasticity on quantity and demand.

ECO621A.I.C.6.

Determine, from given data, how price and other factors affect quantity and demand.

ECO621A.I.C.7.

Develop an understanding of the concept of supply.

ECO621A.I.C.9.

Give examples of and illustrate the interaction of price and quantity supplied.

ECO621A.I.D.1.

Determine why trade takes place between nations.

ECO621A.I.D.10.

Discuss the terms of the Canada - USA Free Trade Agreement.

ECO621A.I.D.2.

Develop an awareness of the importance of international trade to the Canadian economy.

ECO621A.I.D.3.

Explain the terms comparative advantage and absolute advantage.

ECO621A.I.D.4.

Determine the gains from trade.

ECO621A.I.D.5.

Determine the advantages and disadvantages of free trade.

ECO621A.I.D.6.

Identify the term economic integration.

ECO621A.I.D.7.

Determine the advantage of specialization.

ECO621A.I.D.8.

Identify the costs of specialization.

ECO621A.I.D.9.

Define Division of Labour, technology.

ECO621A.I.E.1.

Define and explain various forms of business organization.

ECO621A.I.E.3.

Explain the structure of each type of business organization.

ECO621A.I.E.4.

Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each form of organization; What type of specific business is each type most suited?

ECO621A.I.F.1.

Identify and compare various types of markets created by competition.

ECO621A.I.F.2.

Show the main differences between the various forms of competition.

ECO621A.I.F.4.

Note the complexities encountered in a real market as compared to that of a theoretical model.

ECO621A.II.A.

Canadian Money and Banking

ECO621A.II.A.1.

Explain the history, nature, and role of money.

ECO621A.II.A.2.

Define inflation, deflation.

ECO621A.II.A.3.

Identify and explain the forms of our money supply.

ECO621A.II.A.4.

Explain the fractional reserve principle.

ECO621A.II.A.5.

Explain how loans create money and contracting demand deposits destroys money.

ECO621A.II.A.6.

Explain the deposit multiplier.

ECO621A.II.A.7.

Identify and explain the basics of the Canadian Banking system.

ECO621A.II.B.

Monetary Policy - The Bank of Canada

ECO621A.II.B.2.

Determine the tools of monetary policy.

ECO621A.II.B.3.

Describe how interest rates are determined.

ECO621A.II.B.4.

Explain the relationship between money supply and the interest rate.

ECO621A.II.B.5.

Define what is meant by a bond; Outline the relationship between bond prices and interest rates.

ECO621A.II.B.6.

Suggest strengths and weaknesses of monetary policy.

ECO621A.II.B.7.

Identify and explain the Role of the Bank of Canada.

ECO621A.II.B.8.

Identify and explain the techniques of monetary policy.

ECO621A.II.B.9.

Determine, from given data or case studies, how changes in money supply affect production, income and employment.

ECO621A.III.A.2.

Identify the factors of production.

ECO621A.III.A.3.

Explain the functions and the importance of the factors to production.

ECO621A.III.A.4.

Explain how scarce goods are allowed in our society.

ECO621A.III.A.5.

Explain factors influencing consumer choice.

ECO621A.III.A.6.

Explain the function of savings on both an individual and national level.

ECO621A.III.B.2.

Identify and explain the phases of the business cycle.

ECO621A.III.B.3.

Understand the role of the accelerator principle.

ECO621A.III.B.4.

Understand the role of the multiplier principle.

ECO621A.III.C.

National Income and Accounting

ECO621A.III.C.1.

Define gross domestic product.

ECO621A.III.C.2.

Identify and explain the components of gross domestic product.

ECO621A.III.C.3.

Explain the use of gross domestic product in the evaluation of economic performance nationally and internationally.

ECO621A.III.C.4.

Explain the relationship of production, income, and employment.

ECO621A.III.C.5.

Determine, from given data, gross domestic product, net national income, personal income, and disposable personal income.

ECO621A.III.C.6.

Note that in assessing national accounts allowances must be considered for population changes as well as changes in inflation rates.

ECO621A.IV.A.

The Role of Government (Fiscal Policy)

ECO621A.IV.A.1.

Determine the role and economic functions of government in Canada.

ECO621A.IV.A.2.

Outline the impact of Government on our lives.

ECO621A.IV.A.3.

Evaluate the effectiveness of the economic activities of government.

ECO621A.IV.A.4.

Examine the role of the federal deficit in the day to day operations of government.

ECO621A.IV.A.5.

Discuss future possibilities in the areas of Government Expenditures and Taxation.

ECO621A.IV.B.

Unemployment and the inflation

ECO621A.IV.B.1.

Identify and explain the causes of inflation.

ECO621A.IV.B.2.

Outline the effects of inflation on individuals, businesses, and governments.

ECO621A.IV.B.3.

Outline the effects of unemployment on individuals, businesses, and governments.

ECO621A.IV.B.4.

Identify and describe methods of combating unemployment and inflation.

ECO621A.IV.B.5.

Explain the "trade-off" between inflation and unemployment.

ECO621A.IV.B.6.

Explain the relationship of unemployment rates to the business cycle.

ECO621A.IV.B.7.

Determine the impact of changing economic conditions on inflation and unemployment.

ECO621A.IV.B.8.

Explain how the monetarists and Keynesians would try to stabilize the economy.

ECO621A.V.B.1.

Develop an understanding of the history of the trade union movement in Canada.

ECO621A.V.B.2.

Outline the structure and organization of the labour movement in Canada.

ECO621A.V.B.3.

Differentiate between a craft and industrial union.

ECO621A.V.B.5.

Explain the process of certification of a group of workers in Canada.

ECO621A.V.B.6.

Explain the grievance procedure and how it works.

ECO621A.V.B.7.

Identify the steps used in collective bargaining by workers and management.

ECO621A.V.B.8.

Evaluate through bargaining simulation, the advantages/disadvantages of the collective bargaining process.

ECO621A.V.B.9.

Address the question of strikes by workers in Canada.

ECO621A.V.C.

Poverty and Regional Disparities

ECO621A.V.C.2.

Determine who are the poor.

ECO621A.V.C.3.

Outline the basic causes of poverty.

ECO621A.V.C.5.

Define the term regional disparity.

ECO621A.V.C.6.

List the five common causes of regional disparity.

ECO621A.V.C.7.

Outline the various attempts by the federal government to solve regional disparities.

ECO621A.V.C.8.

Identify: Equalization payments, stabilization payments.

ECO621A.V.D.

Economic Growth and Development

ECO621A.V.D.1.

Define the term economic growth.

ECO621A.V.D.10.

Determine what is meant by automation.

ECO621A.V.D.2.

List the major objectives of Canada's economy requiring economic growth.

ECO621A.V.D.3.

Determine how economic growth is measured.

ECO621A.V.D.4.

Identify: Autonomous investment, induced investment, innovational investment.

ECO621A.V.D.5.

Outline the five requirements for economic growth.

ECO621A.V.D.6.

Identify the term staple export.

ECO621A.V.D.7.

Outline the development which occurred in Canada's staple exports.

ECO621A.V.D.8.

State the major purposes of the Canada Development Corporation.

ECO621A.V.D.9.

State the purpose of the Industrial Development Bank.

ECO621A.V.E.1.

Define the terms entrepreneur and entrepreneurship.

ECO621A.V.E.2.

What are the characteristics of successful entrepreneurs.

ECO621A.V.E.4.

Discuss the ways in which entrepreneurs help benefit society.

ES621A.2.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of environmental science, its history, applications, and common misconceptions.

ES621A.2.2.

Explain the environmental, social, and economic factors of sustainable development.

ES621A.2.3.

Define stewardship in relation to sustainability.

ES621A.2.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of the many different interpretations of environmental science.

ES621A.2.5.

Define the precautionary principle.

ES621A.2.6.

Demonstrate critical thinking skills through research and analysis of environmental science issues.

ES621A.3.1.

Demonstrate an understanding of the concept, characteristics, and scale of systems.

ES621A.3.10.

Analyse the role and activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in preserving and restoring ecosystems and biodiversity.

ES621A.3.2.

Explain the relationship between abiotic factors and biotic factors of an ecosystem.

ES621A.3.3.

Define the components of the Earths life support system:

ES621A.3.4.

Explain how balance is maintained in ecosystems.

ES621A.3.5.

Illustrate the cycling of matter through biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.

ES621A.3.6.

Conduct an experiment to measure abiotic factors of an ecosystem.

ES621A.3.7.

Demonstrate an understanding that humans can have a great impact on systems of living and nonliving things.

ES621A.3.8.

Define the different types of biodiversity: genetic diversity, species diversity, ecological diversity, functional diversity, and structural diversity.

ES621A.3.9.

Explain how factors that lead to loss of diversity affect the sustainability of an ecosystem.

ES621A.4.1.

Evaluate how the resource limits of an ecosystem affect its natural population.

ES621A.4.2.

Identify the relationship between human population growth, demand for resources, and increased consumerism.

ES621A.4.3.

Identify individual impacts on the environment using the concept of ecological footprint.

ES621A.4.4.

Analyse resource and land use on Prince Edward Island over time.

ES621A.4.5.

Identify local land owners responsibilities and rights regarding land use.

ES621A.4.6.

Explain how the term natural resources has evolved into the term natural capital.

ES621A.4.7.

Demonstrate an understanding of Earths carrying capacity, considering human population growth and its demands on natural capital.

ES621A.5.1.

Identify factors involved in responsibly developing Earths resources.

ES621A.5.10.

Evaluate global fishery management from a sustainability viewpoint.

ES621A.5.11.

Describe the environmental impacts of various fishing techniques.

ES621A.5.11.a.

Mobile bottom fishing gear

ES621A.5.12.

Identify the importance of ocean resources to Prince Edward Island over time.

ES621A.5.13.

Identify the major forest regions of Canada.

ES621A.5.14.

Identify the role forests have as natural capital, as well as their economic, ecological, and social value.

ES621A.5.14.d.

Domestic and commercial harvesting

ES621A.5.15.

Examine the history of old growth forests, second-growth forests, and tree farms on Prince Edward Island.

ES621A.5.16.

Explain how to manage forests more sustainably.

ES621A.5.16.a.

Role of forest certification

ES621A.5.16.d.

Natural capital degradation

ES621A.5.16.e.

National parks and reserves

ES621A.5.17.

Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources from a variety of perspectives.

ES621A.5.18.

Describe factors that might affect future energy use on Prince Edward Island.

ES621A.5.19.

Create a plan to improve energy efficiency in the home.

ES621A.5.2.

Describe the processes used for the four major types of agriculture.

ES621A.5.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of strategies that affect the state of global food production.

ES621A.5.4.

Describe the present level of agriculture in Prince Edward Island.

ES621A.5.5.

Distinguish between organic and traditional farming practices.

ES621A.5.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of soil conservation, erosion, and degradation.

ES621A.5.7.

Describe the environmental impacts from agriculture.

ES621A.5.7.b.

Pesticide and herbicide use

ES621A.5.8.

Demonstrate an understanding of sustainable water use at local, national, and global levels.

ES621A.5.9.

Evaluate the significance of water resources for international relations.

ES621A.6.1.

Describe the characteristics of the troposphere and stratosphere layers of the atmosphere.

ES621A.6.10.

Summarize the main types, sources, and effects of water pollution.

ES621A.6.11.

Explain strategies that reduce air and water pollution.

ES621A.6.11.a.

Improved energy efficiency

ES621A.6.11.c.

Cultural eutrophication prevention

ES621A.6.12.

Conduct an experiment to determine water pollutants.

ES621A.6.13.

Identify the types of solid domestic waste.

ES621A.6.14.

Evaluate pollution management strategies for solid domestic (municipal) waste on Prince Edward Island.

ES621A.6.15.

Propose a course of action on a social issue related to waste management, taking into account human, economic, and environmental need.

ES621A.6.2.

Demonstrate an understanding of how Earths climate has changed over time.

ES621A.6.3.

Demonstrate an understanding of the greenhouse gases found in the troposphere and stratosphere.

ES621A.6.3.a.

Natural sources of greenhouse gases.

ES621A.6.3.b.

Anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases.

ES621A.6.4.

Distinguish between the greenhouse effect and global warming.

ES621A.6.5.

Identify that climate change can have a catastrophic effect on Earth.

ES621A.6.6.

Identify the effects that climate change can have on Prince Edward Island.

ES621A.6.7.

Compare different schools of thought about global warming and its future projections.

ES621A.6.8.

Demonstrate an understanding of challenges and successes made to address climate change.

ES621A.6.8.e.

International agreements

ES621A.6.9.

Summarize the main types, sources, and effects of air pollution.

GEO621A.1.1.

Describe key attributes of local, national, and global issues.

GEO621A.1.2.

Explain how world perspective is shaped by social and economic factors.

GEO621A.1.3.

Use critical thinking skills to validate sources of information.

GEO621A.1.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of globalization as it relates to world issues.

GEO621A.1.5.

Demonstrate an understanding of sustainability within the global community.

GEO621A.1.6.

Demonstrate an understanding of active citizenship.

GEO621A.2.1.

Conduct research into a selected global issue using an inquiry process.

GEO621A.2.1.1.a.

Identify topic area for inquiry.

GEO621A.2.1.1.b.

Identify possible information sources.

GEO621A.2.1.1.c.

Identify audience and presentation format.

GEO621A.2.1.1.d.

Establish evaluation criteria.

GEO621A.2.1.1.e.

Outline a plan for inquiry.

GEO621A.2.1.2.a.

Develop an information retrieval plan.

GEO621A.2.1.2.b.

Locate and collect resources.

GEO621A.2.1.2.c.

Select relevant information.

GEO621A.2.1.2.e.

Review and revise the plan for inquiry.

GEO621A.2.1.3.a.

Establish a focus for inquiry.

GEO621A.2.1.3.b.

Choose pertinent information.

GEO621A.2.1.3.d.

Make connections and inferences.

GEO621A.2.1.3.e.

Review and revise the plan for inquiry.

GEO621A.2.1.4.e.

Review and revise the plan for inquiry.

GEO621A.2.1.5.a.

Communicate with the audience.

GEO621A.2.1.5.b.

Present new understandings.

GEO621A.2.1.5.c.

Demonstrate appropriate audience behaviour.

GEO621A.2.1.6.b.

Evaluate the inquiry process and inquiry plan.

GEO621A.2.1.6.c.

Review and revise personal inquiry model.

GEO621A.2.1.6.d.

Transfer learning to new situations.

GEO621A.3.1.

Develop and carry out a plan of action that demonstrates active citizenship related to a local or global issue.

GEO631A.1.1.

Explain how a global issue is similar and different to a local or national issue.

GEO631A.1.2.

Explain how an individuals world view is shaped by social and economic factors.

GEO631A.1.3.

Explain how individuals, groups, and governments play critical roles in addressing global issues.

GEO631A.1.4.

Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of globalization.

GEO631A.1.5.

Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of sustainability.

GEO631A.2.1.

Conduct research into a selected global issue using an inquiry process.

GEO631A.2.1.1.a.

Identify topic area for inquiry.

GEO631A.2.1.1.b.

Identify possible information sources.

GEO631A.2.1.1.c.

Identify audience and presentation format.

GEO631A.2.1.1.d.

Establish evaluation criteria.

GEO631A.2.1.1.e.

Outline a plan for inquiry.

GEO631A.2.1.2.a.

Develop an information retrieval plan.

GEO631A.2.1.2.b.

Locate and collect resources.

GEO631A.2.1.2.c.

Select relevant information.

GEO631A.2.1.2.e.

Review and revise the plan for inquiry.

GEO631A.2.1.3.a.

Establish a focus for inquiry.

GEO631A.2.1.3.b.

Choose pertinent information.

GEO631A.2.1.3.d.

Make connections and inferences.

GEO631A.2.1.3.e.

Review and revise the plan for inquiry.

GEO631A.2.1.4.e.

Review and revise the plan for inquiry.

GEO631A.2.1.5.a.

Communicate with the audience.

GEO631A.2.1.5.b.

Present new understandings.

GEO631A.2.1.5.c.

Demonstrate appropriate audience behaviour.

GEO631A.2.1.6.b.

Evaluate the inquiry process and inquiry plan.

GEO631A.2.1.6.c.

Review and revise personal inquiry model.

GEO631A.2.1.6.d.

Transfer learning to new situations.

HIS621A.1.1.

Identify and describe continuing/persistent questions that have deep roots in Canadas history.

HIS621A.1.2.

Identify those individuals, events, and/or symbols that they believe have contributed to the development of Canada and explain their historical significance.

HIS621A.3.GL2.

Analyze the effects of contact and subsequent colonization.

HIS621A.3.GL2.a.

Analyze the motivations for the initiation of European expansion to North America.

HIS621A.3.GL2.b.

Analyze the responses of First Nations to the European expansion (e.g., trade, alliances).

HIS621A.3.GL2.c.

Investigate the impact of contact and expansion on European and global societies.

HIS621A.3.GL2.d.

Analyze the changes in Aboriginal societies as a result of colonization.

HIS621A.3.GL2.e.

Analyze the role of African Labour in the colonization of the New World.

HIS621A.3.GL3.

Demonstrate an understanding that Canadas development was influenced by evolving relationships with France, Britain, and USA.

HIS621A.3.GL3.a.

Analyze the changing roles of New France and Acadia in Frances global empires (16041763).

HIS621A.3.GL3.b.

Demonstrate an understanding of the implications of the incorporation of Quebec into Britains global empire.

HIS621A.3.GL3.c.

Describe how Anglo-American relations affected Canadas development (17751914)..

HIS621A.3.GL3.d.

Analyze the impact of migration and settlement of Africans in Canada (16001914).

HIS621A.3.GL4.

Analyze the role played by WWI in shaping Canadas identity.

HIS621A.3.GL4.a.

Identify and describe Canadas various military roles and contributions in WWI.

HIS621A.3.GL4.b.

Analyze the impact of the war on Canadas evolution from colony to nation.

HIS621A.3.GL4.c.

Explain how the war was a catalyst for societal change (e.g., changing roles for women, minorities, children, governments, and the home front).

HIS621A.3.GL4.d.

Analyze some of the controversial decisions involving Canadians (e.g., internments, 1917 election, racist policies, conscription).

HIS621A.3.GL5.

Analyze the role played by WWII in shaping Canadas identity.

HIS621A.3.GL5.a.

Identify and describe Canadas various military roles and contributions in the war.

HIS621A.3.GL5.b.

Analyze the impact of the wars on Canadas evolution to nationhood.

HIS621A.3.GL5.c.

Explain how the war was a catalyst for societal change (e.g., changing roles for women, minorities, children, governments, and home front).

HIS621A.3.GL5.d.

Analyze some of the controversial decisions involving Canadians (e.g., internments, Hong Kong, Dieppe, bombing of cities, and the conscription crisis of 1944).

HIS621A.3.GL5.e.

Analyze Canadas role regarding Jewish immigration and the Holocaust.

HIS621A.3.GL6.

Analyze the evolution of Canadas roles in the late twentieth century.

HIS621A.3.GL6.a.

Analyze Canadas evolving relationship with the US in global issues.

HIS621A.3.GL6.b.

Explore and analyze Canadas roles in peacekeeping and peacemaking efforts around the globe.

HIS621A.3.GL6.c.

Investigate and assess Canadas humanitarian roles since 1945 (e.g., CID, NGOs, UN organizations, refugees).

HIS621A.3.GL6.d.

Compare the evolution of Canadas traditional and emerging relationships (e.g., Commonwealth, francophone, OAS, Pacrim).

HIS621A.4.D1.

Investigate the economic systems of Aboriginal societies in North America.

HIS621A.4.D1.a.

Analyze the relationship between population density and geography.

HIS621A.4.D1.b.

Research the efficiencies of technological development explain how trade promoted growth.

HIS621A.4.D1.c.

Investigate the relationship between world-view and economic decisions.

HIS621A.4.D2.

Analyze the role played by the Staple Trade in the development of (Colonial) Canada.

HIS621A.4.D2.a.

Evaluate and compare the role played by the cod and fur trades in the development of Canada.

HIS621A.4.D2.b.

Analyze the effect of the timber and wheat trade in the economic expansion of early 19th century British North America.

HIS621A.4.D2.c.

Compare the role of staple trade (primary industries) in todays economy with that of the colonial era.

HIS621A.4.D2.d.

Analyze the effects of Britains adoption of Free trade in the 1840s on BNA (e.g., Reciprocity Treaty of 1854).

HIS621A.4.D3.

Analyze the relationship between the National Policy and the industrialization of Canada.

HIS621A.4.D3.a.

Outline the components and aims of the National Policy.

HIS621A.4.D3.b.

Explain why Central Canada emerged as the heartland of the new Canadian industrial economy.

HIS621A.4.D3.c.

Analyze the effects of the National Policy on the Hinterlands (the Maritimes, the North and the West) and their peoples.

HIS621A.4.D3.d.

Analyze the impact of industrialization on Canadas working class and assess societys responses.

HIS621A.4.D4.

Analyze the role of the free trade debate/issue in Canadas development.

HIS621A.4.D4.a.

Advance and support a hypothesis as to why free trade was a major issue between Confederation and WWII.

HIS621A.4.D4.c.

Advance and support a hypothesis as to why free trade emerged again as a major issue in the 1980s.

HIS621A.5.G1.

Demonstrate an understanding of how pre-Contact and post- Contact First Nations governing structures and practices were reflective of their societies.

HIS621A.5.G1.a.

Analyze the values and perspectives of selected First Nations.

HIS621A.5.G2.

Demonstrate an understanding of how and why competing French, British, and American governing philosophies merged in BNA.

HIS621A.5.G2.a.

Explain how the governance of New France reflected the Ancien Rgime of France and the realities of colonial life.

HIS621A.5.G2.b.

Explain how the governance in Englands American colonies reflected the political struggles in England at that time.

HIS621A.5.G2.c.

Analyze the effect of British policy in BNA as a result of the conquest of Quebec and the arrival of the Loyalists.

HIS621A.5.G3.

Analyze how emerging political and economic structures led to Confederation.

HIS621A.5.G3.a.

Analyze how colonial governing structures led to a series of struggles for political reform in BNA.

HIS621A.5.G3.b.

Identify and analyze the political and economic development of the 1850s and 1860s that created a need for significant political change.

HIS621A.5.G3.c.

Analyze the process and leadership that created the Canadian Confederation (186468).

HIS621A.5.G3.d.

Identify and explain who was and was not empowered in these political processes (people, groups, provinces).

HIS621A.5.G3.e.

Analyze the new governance structure for Canada (BNA Act).

HIS621A.5.G4.

Evaluate the evolution of federalism in Canada from Confederation to Patriation.

HIS621A.5.G4.a.

Explain the origins, goals, and effects of the Indian Act on First Nations and Canada.

HIS621A.5.G4.b.

Identify selected events and people in the evolution of Canadian federalism and explain their impact.

HIS621A.5.G4.c.

Identify and explain significant socio-economic changes (e.g., roads, highways, education, health care, social safety net) and analyze the impact on federal-provincial relations.

HIS621A.5.G5.

Analyze the shift from a traditional two-party process to a multi-party process in post- Confederation Canada.

HIS621A.5.G5.a.

Analyze the roles played by regionalism, economics, class, alienation, and empowerment in the creation of third parties.

HIS621A.5.G6.

Demonstrate an understanding of the purpose of the Canadian constitution.

HIS621A.5.G6.a.

Compare the 1867 Constitution (BNA Act) with the 1982 constitution in terms of key components and purpose.

HIS621A.6.S2.

Demonstrate an understanding of how desires for sovereignty create conflict and compromise.

HIS621A.6.S2.a.

Analyze the struggle by selected provinces for increased economic sovereignty (e.g., PEIs reluctance to enter Confederation).

HIS621A.6.S2.b.

Analyze the struggle of the Acadian people for cultural sovereignty.

HIS621A.6.S2.c.

Analyze the struggles of the Mtis of Red River and Saskatchewan for political sovereignty (Louis Riel).

HIS621A.6.S3.

Analyze the struggles of First Nations to re-establish sovereignty.

HIS621A.6.S3.a.

Apply their understanding of the concept of sovereignty to pre-Contact First Nations.

HIS621A.6.S3.b.

Analyze the impact of treaties and legislation on First Nations sovereignty and peoples.

HIS621A.6.S3.c.

Assess the strategies used by various First Nations on their current (post-1960) struggle for sovereignty [activism, Constitutional Act of 1982 Aboriginal Rights, new treaties (e.g., Nisga, Nunavut), Supreme Court decisions (e.g., Marshall decision of 1999)].

HIS621A.6.S4.

Identify and explain the historical and contemporary facts that promoted the emergence of Quebec nationalism.

HIS621A.6.S4.a.

Analyze the policies developed by Quebec to maintain and expand sovereignty.

HIS621A.6.S4.b.

Identify and explain the responses of the federal government to the sovereignty movement in Quebec.

HIS621A.6.S5.

Analyze the external factors that have impacted on the struggle for Canadian sovereignty.

HIS621A.6.S5.a.

Identify and explain the economic and political factors challenging Canadian sovereignty.

HIS621A.6.S5.b.

Identify and explain factors challenging Canadas cultural sovereignty.

HIS621A.6.S5.c.

Assess Canadas responses to the challenges to her national sovereignty.

HIS621A.7.J1.

Analyze the contributions of First Nations, France, and Britain to Canadas legal system.

HIS621A.7.J1.a.

Explore the concept of rule of law, both in theory and reality.

HIS621A.7.J1.b.

Analyze selected contributions of First Nations legal principles and practices.

HIS621A.7.J1.c.

Explain the origins of common law and analyze its contributions to Canadas legal system.

HIS621A.7.J1.d.

Explain the origins of the civil code and analyze its contributions to Canadas legal system.

HIS621A.7.J2.

Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between land and culture and analyze the effects of displacement.

HIS621A.7.J2.a.

Analyze cultural relationships with place.

HIS621A.7.J2.b.

Analyze the motivating factors behind displacement.

HIS621A.7.J2.c.

Analyze the effects of displacement on the displaced and on Canada as a whole.

HIS621A.7.J2.d.

Identify and describe the causes and effects of displacement on the following selected Canadian examples: James Bay Cree, Acadians, Japanese-Canadians, Newfoundland Outports, Africville, First Nations centralization in Nova Scotia, Membertou, Red River Mtis, Maroons.

HIS621A.7.J3.

Demonstrate an understanding of Canadas immigration policies and analyze their origins and effects.

HIS621A.7.J3.a.

Analyze the origins and effects of the current immigration policies.

HIS621A.7.J3.b.

Explain how the different implementations of post- Confederation (18671960s) policies affected immigration patterns.

HIS621A.7.J3.c.

Compare the origins and effects of France and Britains immigration policies in their North American colonies.

HIS621A.7.J3.d.

Explain how these immigration policies reflected societal values of the time.

HIS621A.7.J4.

Demonstrate an understanding of how the lack of political and economic power has led to inequities and analyze the responses to these inequities.

HIS621A.7.J4.a.

Identify and describe selected historical and contemporary examples of both political and economic inequities.

HIS621A.7.J4.b.

Identify and describe selected responses to political and economic inequities.

HIS621A.7.J4.c.

Examine the concept of the poverty cycle and explain its connection to political and economic inequities.

HIS621A.7.J4.d.

Identify and analyze barriers to economic and political opportunity in todays society and develop an action plan to address these barriers.

HIS621A.7.J5.

Analyze the evolution of the struggle to achieve rights and freedoms.

HIS621A.7.J5.a.

Recognize and explain the opposing views of collective and individual rights.

HIS621A.7.J5.b.

Demonstrate an understanding of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982).

HIS621A.7.J5.c.

Analyze the new role of the Supreme Court since 1982 outline the struggles for civil rights.

HIS621A.7.J5.d.

Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of prejudice and discrimination on policies on different groups of Canadians.

MAT611B.C1.A.

Calculate the average speed of an object over a given time interval.

MAT611B.C1.B.

Determine the instantaneous speed of an object at a given time.

MAT611B.C1.C.

Explore the concept of limit, using informal methods.

MAT611B.C1.D.

Apply the properties of limits to solve limit problems.

MAT611B.C1.E.

Determine the value of the limit of a function as the variable approaches a real number by using: a table of values; a graph; algebraic manipulation; substitution.

MAT611B.C1.G.

Determine when the value of a limit of a function does not exist.

MAT611B.C1.I.

Determine the value of the limit of a piecewise function as the variable approaches a real number.

MAT611B.C1.J.

Use the Sandwich Theorem to find certain limits indirectly.

MAT611B.C1.K.

Establish the limit lim(x_) (1/x) = 0, using informal methods.

MAT611B.C1.L.

Determine the value of the limit of a function as the variable approaches positive infinity and negative infinity.

MAT611B.C10.G.

Determine the derivative of an inverse trigonometric function.

MAT611B.C10.H.

Solve a problem involving the derivative of an inverse trigonometric function.

MAT611B.C11.A.

Establish the exponential limit lim(h0), (e^h-1)/h = 1, using informal methods.

MAT611B.C12.A.

Determine the local and global extreme values of a function.

MAT611B.C12.C.

Determine the critical and stationary points of a function.

MAT611B.C12.F.

Use the First and Derivative Tests to classify the local extrema of a function.

MAT611B.C12.H.

Determine the points of inflection of a function.

MAT611B.C12.I.

Determine the key features of the graph of a function, using the techniques of differential calculus, and use these features to sketch the graph without technology.

MAT611B.C12.J.

Sketch the graph of a function, using information about its derivative.

MAT611B.C14.B.

Determine the differential of a function.

MAT611B.C14.C.

Solve an linearization problem drawn from a variety of applications.

MAT611B.C16.A.

Determine the general antiderivative of a function.

MAT611B.C16.C.

Demonstrate an understanding of the properties for indefinite integrals.

MAT611B.C17.A.

Estimate an area using a finite sum.

MAT611B.C17.B.

Convert a Riemann sum to a definite integral.

MAT611B.C17.C.

Evaluate a definite integral using an area formula.

MAT611B.C17.D.

Solve a problem using the rules for definite integrals.

MAT611B.C17.E.

Understand the relationship between the derivative and definite integral as expressed in both parts of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

MAT611B.C17.F.

Calculate the definite integral of a function over a closed interval [a,b].

MAT611B.C18.A.

Determine the area under a function, and above the x-axis, from x = a to x = b.

MAT611B.C18.B.

Determine the area between two functions.

MAT611B.C2.C.

Find and verify end behaviour models for various functions.

MAT611B.C2.D.

Sketch the graph of a function with given limits and end behaviour models.

MAT611B.C3.A.

Find the points of continuity and discontinuity of a function.

MAT611B.C3.B.

Identify examples of discontinuous functions and the types of discontinuities they illustrate, including removable, infinite, jump, and oscillating discontinuities.

MAT611B.C3.C.

Determine whether a function is continuous at a point from the definition of continuity.

MAT611B.C3.D.

Determine whether a function is continuous on an interval.

MAT611B.C3.E.

Determine whether a function is continuous at a point from its graph.

MAT611B.C3.F.

Rewrite removable discontinuities by extending or modifying a function.

MAT611B.C4.C.

Determine the slope of a curve at a given point.

MAT611B.C4.D.

Determine whether a curve has a tangent line at a given point.

MAT611B.C4.F.

Determine the equation of a normal line to a curve at a given point.

MAT611B.C4.G.

Calculate and interpret average rates of change drawn from a variety of applications.

MAT611B.C4.H.

Solve problems involving instantaneous rates of change drawn from a variety of applications.

MAT611B.C5.A.

tion of derivative, f(x) = lim(h0), (f(x+h)-f(x))/h or f(x) = lim(xa), (f(x)-f(a))/(x-a).

MAT611B.C5.B.

Given the graph of the derivative of a function, sketch a graph of the function.

MAT611B.C5.C.

Given the graph of a function, sketch a graph of its derivative.

MAT611B.C5.D.

Determine whether a function is differentiable at a given point.

MAT611B.C5.E.

Explain why a function is not differentiable at a given point, and distinguish among corners, cusps, discontinuities, and vertical tangents.

MAT611B.C6.C.

Determine second and higher-order derivatives of functions.

MAT611B.C6.D.

Solve problems involving derivatives drawn from a variety of applications.

MAT611B.C7.A.

Use the derivative to calculate the instantaneous rate of change.

MAT611B.C8.A.

Derive the derivatives of the six basic trigonometric functions.

MAT611B.C8.B.

Determine the derivative of a trigonometric function.

MAT611B.C8.C.

Solve a problem involving the derivative of a trigonometric function.

MAT611B.C9.F.

Determine the second derivative of a relation, using implicit differentiation.

MAT621A.FM1.A.

Solve problems that involve simple interest.

MAT621A.FM1.B.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of compound interest and simple interest.

MAT621A.FM1.C.

Identify situations that involve compound interest.

MAT621A.FM1.D.

Determine, given the principal, interest rate and number of compounding periods, the total interest of a loan.

MAT621A.FM1.E.

Graph and compare, in a given situation, the total interest paid or earned for different compounding periods.

MAT621A.FM1.F.

Determine the principal or present value of an investment, given the future value and compound interest rate.

MAT621A.FM1.G.

Graph and describe the effects of changing the value of one of the variables in a situation that involves compound interest.

MAT621A.FM1.H.

Determine, using technology, the total cost of a loan under a variety of conditions, e.g., different amortization periods, interest rates, compounding periods and terms.

MAT621A.FM1.I.

Compare and explain, using technology, different credit options that involve compound interest, including bank and store credit cards, and special promotions.

MAT621A.FM1.J.

Solve a contextual problem that involves compound interest.

MAT621A.FM2.B.

Compare, using examples, renting, leasing and buying.

MAT621A.FM2.C.

Justify, for a specific set of circumstances, if renting, leasing or buying would be advantageous.

MAT621A.FM2.D.

Solve a problem involving renting, leasing or buying that requires the manipulation of a formula.

MAT621A.FM2.E.

Solve, using technology, a contextual problem that involves cost-and-benefit analysis.

MAT621A.FM3.A.

Determine and compare the strengths and weaknesses of two or more portfolios.

MAT621A.FM3.B.

Determine, using technology, the total value of an investment when there are regular contributions to the principal.

MAT621A.FM3.C.

Graph and compare the total value of an investment with and without regular contributions.

MAT621A.FM3.D.

Apply the Rule of 72 to solve investment problems, and explain the limitations of the rule.

MAT621A.FM3.E.

Determine, using technology, possible investment strategies to achieve a financial goal.

MAT621A.FM3.F.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of long-term and short-term investment options.

MAT621A.FM3.G.

Explain, using examples, why smaller investments over a longer term may be better than larger investments over a shorter term.

MAT621A.FM3.H.

Solve an investment problem.

MAT621A.LR1.A.

Determine, explain and verify a strategy to solve a puzzle or to win a game; e.g.: guess and check; look for a pattern; make a systematic list; draw or model; eliminate possibilities; simplify the original problem; work backward; develop alternate approaches.

MAT621A.LR1.B.

Identify and correct errors in a solution to a puzzle or in a strategy for winning a game.

MAT621A.LR1.C.

Create a variation on a puzzle or a game, and describe a strategy for solving the puzzle or winning the game.

MAT621A.LR2.A.

Understand sets and set notation.

MAT621A.LR2.B.

Provide examples of the empty set, disjoint sets, subsets and universal sets in context, and explain the reasoning.

MAT621A.LR2.C.

Organize information such as collected data and number properties, using graphic organizers, and explain the reasoning.

MAT621A.LR2.D.

Explain what a specified region in a Venn diagram represents, using connecting words (and, or, not) or set notation.

MAT621A.LR2.E.

Determine the elements in the complement of a set, and the intersection or the union of two sets.

MAT621A.LR2.F.

Explain how set theory is used in applications such as Internet searches, database queries, data analysis, games and puzzles.

MAT621A.LR2.G.

Identify and correct errors in a given solution to a problem that involves sets.

MAT621A.LR2.H.

Solve a contextual problem that involves sets, and record the solution, using set notation.

MAT621A.LR3.A.

Analyse an if-then statement, make a conclusion, and explain the reasoning.

MAT621A.LR3.B.

Make and justify a decision, using What if? questions, in contexts such as probability, finance, sports, games or puzzles, with or without technology.

MAT621A.LR3.C.

Determine the converse, inverse and contrapositive of an if-then statement; determine its veracity; and, if it is false, provide a counterexample.

MAT621A.LR3.D.

Demonstrate, using examples, that the veracity of any statement does not imply the veracity of its converse or inverse.

MAT621A.LR3.E.

Demonstrate, using examples, that the veracity of any statement does imply the veracity of its contrapositive.

MAT621A.LR3.F.

Identify and describe contexts in which a biconditional statement can be justified.

MAT621A.LR3.G.

Analyse and summarize, using a graphic organizer such as a truth table or Venn diagram, the possible results of given logical arguments that involve biconditional, converse, inverse or contrapositive statements.

MAT621A.MRP1.A.

Collect primary or secondary data (statistical or informational) related to the topic.

MAT621A.MRP1.B.

Assess the accuracy, reliability and relevance of the primary and secondary data collected by: identifying examples of bias and points of view; identifying and describing the data collection methods; determining if the data is relevant; determining if the data is consistent with information obtained from other sources on the same topic.

MAT621A.MRP1.C.

Interpret data, using statistical methods if applicable.

MAT621A.MRP1.D.

Identify controversial issues, if any, and present multiple sides of the issues with supporting data.

MAT621A.P1.A.

Provide examples of statements of probability and odds found in fields such as media, biology, sports, medicine, sociology and psychology.

MAT621A.P1.D.

Determine the probability of, or the odds for and against, an outcome in a situation.

MAT621A.P1.E.

Explain, using examples, how decisions may be based on probability or odds, and on subjective judgments.

MAT621A.P1.F.

Solve a contextual problem that involves odds or probability.

MAT621A.P2.A.

Classify events as mutually exclusive or non-mutually exclusive, and explain the reasoning.

MAT621A.P2.B.

Determine if two events are complementary, and explain the reasoning.

MAT621A.P2.C.

Represent, using set notation or graphic organizers, mutually exclusive (including complementary) and non-mutually exclusive events.

MAT621A.P2.D.

Solve a contextual problem that involves the probability of mutually exclusive or non-mutually exclusive events.

MAT621A.P2.E.

Solve a contextual problem that involves the probability of complementary events.

MAT621A.P2.F.

Create and solve a problem that involves mutually exclusive or non-mutually exclusive events.

MAT621A.P3.A.

Compare, using examples, dependent and independent events.

MAT621A.P3.B.

Determine the probability of an event, given the occurrence of a previous event.

MAT621A.P3.C.

Determine the probability of two dependent or two independent events.

MAT621A.P3.D.

Create and solve a contextual problem that involves determining the probability of dependent or independent events.

MAT621A.P4.A.

Represent and solve counting problems, using a graphic organizer.